Bible Lexicons

Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary

Strong's #6440 - פָּנֶה

Transliteration
pânı̂ym
Phonetics
paw-neem'
Origin
from (06437)
Parts of Speech
Noun Masculine
TWOT
1782a
Definition
Brown-Driver-Briggs'

1) face

1a) face, faces

1b) presence, person

1c) face (of seraphim or cherubim)

1d) face (of animals)

1e) face, surface (of ground)

1f) as adverb of loc/temp

1f1) before and behind, toward, in front of, forward, formerly, from beforetime, before

1g) with preposition

1g1) in front of, before, to the front of, in the presence of, in the face of, at the face or front of, from the presence of, from before, from before the face of

Greek Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 3788 ‑ ὀφθαλμός (of‑thal‑mos');  4286 ‑ πρόθεσις (proth'‑es‑is);  4295 ‑ πρόκειμαι (prok'‑i‑mahee);  4376 ‑ προσφορά (pros‑for‑ah');  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  5222 ‑ ὑπάντησις (hoop‑an'‑tay‑sis);  5288 ‑ ὑποστέλλω (hoop‑os‑tel'‑lo);  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  1715 ‑ ἔμπροσθεν (em'‑pros‑then);  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  4386 ‑ πρότερον (prot'‑er‑on);  2082 ‑ ἐσώτερος (es‑o'‑ter‑os);  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  746 ‑ ἀρχή (ar‑khay');  991 ‑ βλέπω (blep'‑o);  1799 ‑ ἐνώπιον (en‑o'‑pee‑on);  
Frequency Lists  
  1. Book
  2. Word
KJV (2076)
Genesis
140
Exodus
123
Leviticus
105
Numbers
117
Deuteronomy
130
Joshua
90
Judges
45
Ruth
2
1 Samuel
97
2 Samuel
71
1 Kings
95
2 Kings
72
1 Chronicles
61
2 Chronicles
116
Ezra
10
Nehemiah
30
Esther
36
Job
69
Psalms
133
Proverbs
39
Ecclesiastes
21
Song of Solomon
2
Isaiah
87
Jeremiah
120
Lamentations
11
Ezekiel
152
Daniel
32
Hosea
9
Joel
8
Amos
7
Jonah
4
Micah
5
Nahum
5
Habakkuk
3
Zephaniah
3
Haggai
2
Zechariah
16
Malachi
8
NAS (1627)
Genesis
111
Exodus
103
Leviticus
94
Numbers
105
Deuteronomy
98
Joshua
65
Judges
30
Ruth
3
1 Samuel
77
2 Samuel
60
1 Kings
68
2 Kings
50
1 Chronicles
48
2 Chronicles
84
Ezra
9
Nehemiah
26
Esther
26
Job
48
Psalms
108
Proverbs
34
Ecclesiastes
13
Song of Solomon
3
Isaiah
57
Jeremiah
79
Lamentations
7
Ezekiel
139
Daniel
28
Hosea
7
Joel
7
Amos
5
Jonah
4
Micah
4
Nahum
4
Habakkuk
2
Zephaniah
2
Haggai
1
Zechariah
11
Malachi
7
HCS (1990)
Genesis
125
Exodus
122
Leviticus
104
Numbers
104
Deuteronomy
125
Joshua
89
Judges
44
Ruth
2
1 Samuel
94
2 Samuel
61
1 Kings
98
2 Kings
71
1 Chronicles
60
2 Chronicles
112
Ezra
10
Nehemiah
29
Esther
31
Job
65
Psalms
122
Proverbs
39
Ecclesiastes
21
Song of Solomon
1
Isaiah
84
Jeremiah
117
Lamentations
11
Ezekiel
147
Daniel
31
Hosea
9
Joel
8
Amos
7
Jonah
4
Micah
5
Nahum
5
Habakkuk
3
Zephaniah
3
Haggai
1
Zechariah
16
Malachi
10
BSB (2177)
Genesis
190
Exodus
128
Leviticus
107
Numbers
119
Deuteronomy
132
Joshua
91
Judges
46
Ruth
2
1 Samuel
98
2 Samuel
73
1 Kings
101
2 Kings
73
1 Chronicles
63
2 Chronicles
119
Ezra
10
Nehemiah
31
Esther
37
Job
70
Psalms
133
Proverbs
43
Ecclesiastes
21
Song of Solomon
2
Isaiah
89
Jeremiah
128
Lamentations
11
Ezekiel
155
Daniel
33
Hosea
9
Joel
8
Amos
7
Jonah
4
Micah
5
Nahum
5
Habakkuk
3
Zephaniah
3
Haggai
2
Zechariah
16
Malachi
10
ESV (1950)
Genesis
137
Exodus
160
Leviticus
103
Numbers
114
Deuteronomy
117
Joshua
83
Judges
45
Ruth
2
1 Samuel
94
2 Samuel
68
1 Kings
87
2 Kings
66
1 Chronicles
60
2 Chronicles
106
Ezra
9
Nehemiah
28
Esther
35
Job
60
Psalms
109
Proverbs
38
Ecclesiastes
15
Song of Solomon
32
Isaiah
58
Jeremiah
85
Lamentations
9
Ezekiel
136
Daniel
32
Hosea
9
Joel
1
Amos
7
Jonah
4
Micah
5
Nahum
3
Habakkuk
3
Zephaniah
3
Haggai
2
Zechariah
16
Malachi
9
WEB (2085)
Genesis
149
Exodus
121
Leviticus
103
Numbers
117
Deuteronomy
131
Joshua
91
Judges
46
Ruth
2
1 Samuel
96
2 Samuel
73
1 Kings
93
2 Kings
71
1 Chronicles
62
2 Chronicles
114
Ezra
10
Nehemiah
30
Esther
36
Job
68
Psalms
130
Proverbs
41
Ecclesiastes
20
Song of Solomon
2
Isaiah
89
Jeremiah
122
Lamentations
11
Ezekiel
154
Daniel
33
Hosea
9
Joel
8
Amos
7
Jonah
4
Micah
5
Nahum
5
Habakkuk
3
Zephaniah
3
Haggai
2
Zechariah
16
Malachi
8
Verse Results
Ancient Hebrew Lexicon Definitions

1382) np (פנ PN) AC: Turn CO: Face AB: ?: The turning of the face. (eng: fan; spin)

A) np (פנ PN) AC: ? CO: Corner AB: ?

Nm ) np (פנ PN) - I. Corner: II. Or:As a turning toward another direction. KJV (6): corner, lest, not, peradventure - Strongs: H6434 (פֵּן), H6435 (פֶּן)

B) nnp (פננ PNN) AC: Turn CO: ? AB: ?

bm ) ninp (פנינ PNYN) - Ruby: A gem that glistens when turned. [df: ynp] KJV (6): ruby - Strongs: H6443 (פָּנִי)

C) npa (אפנ APN) AC: Turn CO: Wheel AB: ?: A turning object.

Nm) npa (אפנ APN) - Turning: KJV (1): fitly - Strongs: H655 (אֹפֶן)

gm) npfa (אופנ AWPN) - Wheel: KJV (36): wheel - Strongs: H212 (אֹפָן)

H) enp (פנה PNH) AC: Turn CO: Face AB: ?: What turns back and forth.

V) enp (פנה PNH) - Turn: To turn the face or to turn directions. Also to turn something back or away. KJV (135): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hophal, Piel) turn, look, prepare, regard, respect, look - Strongs: H6437 (פָּנָה)

Nm) enp (פנה PNH) - Face: The face, also the presence of one through the sense of being in the face of. [Always written in the plural form, minp; Frequently used with the prefix "l ", meaning "to" or "for", meaning "to the face of" or "before"] KJV (2110): face, presence, because, sight, countenance, from, person, upon, of, against, open, for, toward - Strongs: H3942 (לִפְנַי), H6440 (פָּנֶה)

J) nfp (פונ PWN) AC: Turn CO: ? AB: ?

V) nfp (פונ PWN) - Turn: KJV (1): (vf: Paal) distracted - Strongs: H6323 (פּוּן)

M) nip (פינ PYN) AC: ? CO: Corner AB: ?: A point which makes a turn.

Nf1) enip (פינה PYNH) - Corner: KJV (28): corner, chief, tower, bulwark, stay - Strongs: H6438 (פִּנָּה)

AHL Definitions Copyright: ©1999-2021
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Definition

פָּנֶה not used in sing. (though another form of it, פְּנִי, פְּנוּ appears in the pr.n. פְּנִיאֵל, פְּנוּאֵל), pl. פָּנִים constr. פְּנֵי m. (but f. Ezekiel 21:21).

(1) the face (prop. the part turned towards any one, see Ezekiel 21:3, from the root פָּנָה, compare Arab. وَجْةُ face, from وجه V. to turn oneself in any direction; for the use of the pl. compare Gr. τὰ πρόσωπα in Homer), Genesis 38:15, 50:1 Exodus 3:6, and frequently. Constr. with a pl. verb and adj. Job 38:30; Daniel 1:10 in the fem. Ezekiel 21:21 more rarely sing. Lamentations 4:16; Proverbs 15:14. Also used for the pl., as אַרְבָּעָה פָּנִים Ezekiel 1:6, 10:21 41:18 לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים bread of the face (see לֶחֶם ), and שֻׁלְחַן הַפָּנִים the table on which these loaves were set, Numbers 4:7.

Specially these phrases are to be noticed

(a) פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים Genesis 32:31; Deuteronomy 34:10, and פָּנִים בְּפָנִים Deuteronomy 5:4, used of the face.

(b) to say and do any thing עַל פְּנֵי פ׳ to any one’s face, i.e. freely, frankly, and even often impudently and insolently, in contempt of him, ihm zum Troß und Hohn (compare the French dire dans la barbe, as in Latin, laudare in os, Ter.), Job 1:11, עַל פָּנֶיךָ יְבָֽרְכֶךָ “he will curse thee to thy face;” Job 21:31; Isaiah 65:3, “who provoke me עַל פָּנַי to my face,” i.e. in contempt and scorn of me. In the same sense there is said אֶל פָּנִים Job 2:5, 13:15 Deuteronomy 7:10. אֶל פָּנָיו יְשַׁלֶּם לוֹ “(God) will recompense to him to his face” (to an enemy), i.e. firmly and without delay. (Vulg. statim. In the other member לֹא יְאַחֵר.) Here belongs the expression עָנָה בְּפָנָיו to answer in his face, i.e to refute him firmly, freely, openly; Job 16:8, כַּחְשִׁי בְּפָנַי יַעֲנֶה “my leanness answers in my face,” i.e. testifies strongly against me; Hosea 5:5, 7:10.

(c) שׂוּם פָּנִים אֶל to direct one’s face or looks towards any one, Ezekiel 6:2 followed by עַל 1 Kings 2:15. But

(d) שׂוּם פָּנָיו followed by an acc. to turn one’s face in any direction, i.e. to direct one’s course thither, to go, Genesis 31:21 followed by a gerund, to intend, to propose to oneself to do any thing; but, however, used specially of going, Jeremiah 42:15, 17 Jeremiah 42:17, 44:12 2 Kings 12:18; Daniel 11:17. The same is נָתַן פָּנָיו לְ 2 Chronicles 20:3; Daniel 9:3; 2 Chronicles 32:2, וּפָנָיו לַמִּלְחָמָה “and (set) his face upon war.” In the New Test. see Luke 9:53. (In Syriac in the same sense ܙܰܦܰܘ̈ܗܝ ܣܳܡ to set one’s face, ܣܡܳ ܚܝܳܪܶܗ to set one’s sight; Pers. روى آوردن rui awerden; see my observations on Luke loc. cit., in Rosenmüller, Repert. i. p. 135.)-In two other phrases פָּנִים is used of an angry countenance (compare Psalms 21:10, 34:17 80:17 of a sad countenance, 1 Samuel 1:18; Job 9:27).

(e) שׂוּם פָּנִים בְּ to look on any one with an angry countenance, Levit. 20:5 with the addition of the words לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה Jeremiah 21:10 compare לְרָעָה Jeremiah 44:11 (opp. to שׂוּם עַיִן עַלּ under the word עַיִן No. 1, letter e).

(f) נָתַן פָּנִים בְּ to pour out one’s anger against any one, Leviticus 20:3, Leviticus 20:6, 26:17 Ezekiel 14:8.-Other phrases, as חִלָּה פָנִים, הֵשִׁיב פָּנִים see under those words.

(2) person, personal presence, presence, Gr. πρόσωπον. Exodus 33:14, פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ “my person shall go,” i.e. I myself, I in person (ich in Herfon) will go. 2 Samuel 17:11; Lamentations 4:16. As to the phrase נָשָׂא פָנִים and הִכִּיר פָּנִים see under those words.-Sometimes without any emphasis פָּנַי my person is I. Ps. 42:12 43:5 compare טָחַן פְּנֵי עֲנִיִּים to oppress the persons of the afflicted; i.e. the afflicted, Isaiah 3:15.-Figuratively applied to inanimate things it is

(3) the face, the surface of a thing, e.g. of the earth, Genesis 2:6; Isaiah 14:21 of a field, Isaiah 28:25 of the water, Job 38:30, etc. Less clear is the passage, Job 41:5, מִי גִלָּה פְּנֵי לְבוּשׁוֹ “who shall uncover the face of his garment” (the crocodile’s), i.e. his garment itself, that is, his surface or upper part which covers the rest (compare עַל No. 1, a). So also פְּנֵי לוֹט of a veil itself as a covering, Isai. 25:7.-Comp. אֶלּ פְּנֵי No. 2, עַל פְּנֵי Nos. 1, 2. Hence it is

(a) the external appearance, state, condition, of a thing. Proverbs 27:23, “look well to the condition of thy flock,” bekümmere dich darum, wie deine Heerde ausfieht.

(b) way and manner, as in the Rabbinic. Compare وَجْهُ face, manner. See below לִפְנֵי No. 3.

(4) the forepart, front of a thing (Arab. وَجْهُ id.). Jeremiah 1:13, וּפָנָיו מִפְּנֵי צָפוֹנָה “and the front thereof (of the pot) looked towards the north;” used of the front of an army (Gr. πρόσωπον), Joel 2:20. Adv. פָּנִים in front (opp. to אָחוֹר) Ezekiel 2:10 לְפָנִים forwards (vorwärts), Jeremiah 7:24 used of time, before, of old; Deuteronomy 2:10, 12 Joshua 11:10, 14:15 מִלְּפָנִים anciently, Isai. 41:26 מִפָּנִים in front, 2 Samuel 10:9. Compare לִפְנֵי No. 2.-The front part of a sword is its edge. Ezekiel 21:21, אָנָה פָּנַיִךְ מֻעָדוֹת “whither is thy edge (that of a sword) directed?” Ecclesiastes 10:10.-Also פָּנִים is used for the wall of a house opposite the door, Hom. τὰ ἐνώπια, whence with ה parag. פְּנִימָה which see.

With prepositions it often becomes in nature a particle:

(A) אֶל פְּנֵי

(1) (a) into the presence of any one, 2 Chronicles 19:2 before, Leviticus 9:5; Numbers 17:8, after a verb of motion.

(b) in the presence of, Exodus 23:17.

(2) upon the surface of a thing, e.g. אֶל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה Leviticus 14:53; Ezekiel 16:5.-See another meaning of this, above, No. 1, letter b.

(B) אֶת פְּנֵי pr. by the face, i.e. in the presence of any one, before any one, e.g. אֶת־פְּנֵי הַפֶּלֶךְ Esther 1:10 אֶת פֶּנֵי יְיָ before God, Genesis 19:13 sometimes for, at the holy tabernacle, in the phrase, נִרְאָה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְיָ [to appear before Jehovah], to appear in the sanctuary, Exodus 34:23, 24 Exodus 34:24; Deuteronomy 31:11; 1 Samuel 1:22 (for which there is also used נ׳ אֶל פְּנֵי יְיָ Exodus 23:17 and poet. נ׳ פְּנֵי יְיָ Isaiah 1:12; Psalms 42:3 in which latter phrase פְּנֵי should be taken for an acc. of place); before, e.g. אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר before the city, Genesis 33:18, אֶת־פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת before the vail, Leviticus 4:6. After verbs of motion, into the presence of any one, 1 Samuel 22:4.-מֵאֵת פְּנֵי from before (the presence of) any one, Genesis 27:30 from before, from the front, 2 Kings 16:14.

(C) בִּפְנֵי i.q. לִפְנֵי before, in front of, but chiefly in the writers of later age, Ezekiel 42:12 mostly in the phrase עָמַד בִּפְנֵי to stand before any one, to resist him, Deuteron. 7:24 11:25 Joshua 10:8, 21:44 23:9 Esther 9:2.-The proper force of a substantive is to be retained in the words, Ezekiel 6:9, נָקֹטּוּ בִּפְנֵיהֶם they manifest loathing in their countenances; compare Ezekiel 20:43, 36:31.

(D) לִפְנֵי with suff. לְפָנַי, לְפָנֶיךָ, לְפָנָיו, לִפְנֵיכֶם, לִפְנֵיהֶם

(1) in the presence of any one, under his eyes, he being present and looking on; before any one. Numbers 8:22, “the Levites went in to minister … לִפִנֵי אַהֲרוֹן וְלִפְנֵי בָנָיו before Aaron and his sons;” i.e. under their oversight; 2 Kings 4:38; Zechariah 3:8. לִפְנֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ in the presence of the sun, i.e. so long as the sun (which poets compare to the eye, see עַפְעַפַּיִם, שָׁזַף ) shall shine on and illuminate the earth, Psalms 72:17 comp. לִפְנֵי יָרֵחַ verse Psalms 72:5(but Job 8:16 לִפְנֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ is while the sun is shining). Often figuratively, i.q. בְּעֵינֵי in the eyes of any one; i.q. in his judgment. חֶסֶד וְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי favour and tender love with any one, Daniel 1:9; 1 Kings 8:50; Psalms 106:46 יָטַב לִפְנֵי i.q. יָטַב בְּעֵינֵי see יָטַב. גָּדוֹל לִפְנֵי אֲדֹנָיו having great influence with his lord, 2 Kings 5:1 comp. Proverbs 4:3, 14:12 specially is the phrase to be noticed לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה

(a) prop. in the presence of Jehovah, under his eyes, Genesis 27:7 before the holy tabernacle, Exodus 34:34; Leviticus 9:5, 23:40 Judges 21:2 in the temple and its porches, Isaiah 23:18.

(b) figuratively, in the judgment of Jehovah (comp. עִם No. 2, c); e.g. אָרוּר לִפְנֵי יְיָ Joshua 6:26 but commonly in a good sense with the approbation of Jehovah (since we only put those things which please us before our eyes; comp. רָאָה בְ); hence רָצוֹן לִפְנֵי יְיָ favour with Jehovah, Exodus 28:38 הִתְהַלֵּךְ לִפְנֵי יְיָ to lead a life approved of Jehovah (see הִתְהַלֵּךְ ). Genesis 10:9, “a mighty hunter לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה such as was pleasing to the Lord” [?]. Ps. 19:15, “let the meditation of my heart לְפָנֶיךָ be pleasing to thee.” The things in which Jehovah is pleased are decreed by him. Hence, Genesis 6:13, “an end of the whole earth בָּא לְפָנַי is decreed by me.” Farther, its use is to be noticed in these expressions

(aa) עָמַד לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ to stand before the king, waiting his commands; i.e. to minister to him (see עָמַד ); compare עָבַד לִפְנֵי 2 Samuel 16:19.

(bb) to worship before a deity (see הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה ). 1 Kings 12:30, “to worship one (of the calves).”

(cc) to be put to flight before an enemy (see נָגַף Niph.); hence used after verbs of dispersing, disturbing, Judges 4:15; 1 Samuel 14:13, 20:1 2 Samuel 5:20; Jeremiah 1:17, 49:37 (comp. below מִפְּנֵי).

(dd) נָתַן לִפְנֵי פְ׳ to put before another, e.g. food, 2 Kings 4:43 hence to propose to any one for choice, Deuteronomy 11:26 to impose a law to be observed, Deuteronomy 4:8; 1 Kings 9:6 Jerem. 26:4 44:10 Ezekiel 23:24 also to give into any one’s power (i.q. בְּיַד פּ׳), Joshua 10:12; Deuteronomy 2:33, 36 Judges 11:9; 1 Kings 8:46; Isaiah 41:2. So also without a verb of giving, Genesis 24:51, “behold, let Rebecca לְפָנֶיךָ be given to thee;” Genesis 34:10, “the land is before you,” let it be free for you and your flocks; 2 Chronicles 14:6.

(2) before, in front of (compare פָּנִים No. 4).

(a) used of place; לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מִוֹעֵד before the tabernacle of the congregation, 1 Chronicles 6:17 hence eastward, Genesis 23:17, 25:18 Deuteronomy 32:49 also before, as taking the lead; chiefly used of a general or leader, who goes at the head of his army (see לִפְנֵי הָעָם יָצָא וּבָא under the word בּוֹא No. 1, let. ); used of a king it is before, at the head of his people (Ecclesiastes 4:16, “there was no end to all the people לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיהֶם to all over (before) whom he was”); also used of captives or booty which the conqueror, like a shepherd driving his sheep (Genesis 32:18), drives before him (Isaiah 8:4; Amos 9:4; Lamentations 1:5, ).

(b) used of time, e.g. לִפְנֵי הָרַעַשׁ before the earthquake, Amos 1:1; Genesis 13:10, 29:26 Proverbs 8:25; Zechariah 8:10. Genesis 30:30, לְפָנַי “before me,” i.e. before I had come to thee; Jerem. 28:8. לִפְנֵי מִוֶּה before now, Nehemiah 13:4. Followed by an inf. before that, Genesis 13:10; Deuteronomy 33:1; 1 Samuel 9:15.

(c) used of worth, superiority (like the Lat. ante, prœ). Job 34:19, “he does not regard the rich לִפְנֵי דָל before (more than) the poor.” After verbs of motion.

(d) to one’s front, with the idea of meeting; as קָרָה לִפְנֵי פ׳ to meet any one, Genesis 24:12 and more frequently with a hostile sense, against (ἀντί); prop. into the face, front part; as קוּם לִפְנֵי to rise against any one, Numbers 16:2 יָצָא לִפְנֵי to go out against, 1 Chronicles 14:8; 2 Chronicles 14:9 also לִפְנֵי עָמַד (see עָמַד ); קוּם לִפְנֵי Joshua 7:12, 13 Joshua 7:13הִתְיַצֵּכ לִפְנֵי to stand against any one, to resist.

(3) in the manner of, like (compare פָּנִים No. 3, letter b); Job 4:19, “they fall לִפְנֵי עָשׁ as before the moth;” Vulg. sicut a tinea; LXX. σητὸς τρόπον; compare Latin ad faciem, Plaut. Cist. i. 1, 73. So נָתַן לִפְנֵי to regard as for any one (compare נָתַן כְּ), 1 Samuel 1:16. From לִפְנֵי has arisen the adj. לִפְּנַי anterior, which see.

Note. Of doubtful authority are the significations

(α) for (compare נֶגֶד, and Germ. vor and für), in the phrase עָרַב לִפְנֵי to be surety for any one, Proverbs 17:18 (for the surety used to give his pledge before his friend).

(β) on account of (as מִלְּפְנֵי מִפְּנֵי), in סָפַד לִפְנֵי to lament on account of any one, 2 Samuel 3:31 (for mourners used in funerals to go foremost; see Geier, De Luctu Hebræorum, cap. v. § 15-19).

(E) מִלִּפְנֵי (from before).

(1) from the presence of any one, used of those who were before any thing, and who go away from that place, e.g. to go out מִלִּפְנֵי יְיָ Leviticus 9:24 מִלִּפְנֵי פַרְעֹה Genesis 41:46. Hence after verbs of fleeing (compare מִן No. 3, letter a), and of putting to flight, 1 Chronicles 19:18; 2 Chronicles 20:7 of fearing and of putting in fear, 1 Samuel 18:12; Psalms 97:5, 114:7 Ecclesiastes 8:13; Esther 7:6 and also those of asking aid (an idea connected with that of fleeing), 1 Samuel 8:18 of humbling oneself, 1 Kings 21:29; 2 Chronicles 33:12, 36:12.

(2) Used figuratively of the cause, on account of, i.q. מִפְּנֵי, מִן e.g. to rejoice on account of, 1 Chronicles 16:33.

(F) מִפְּנֵי.

(1) from the face, presence, front, of a pers. or thing, vor (etwas) weg; Exodus 14:19, “and the column went away מִפְּנֵהֶם from before them (vor ihnen weg), and stood behind them.” Hence it is frequently used after verbs of going away, Hosea 11:2 of fleeing (compare מִן No. 3, letter a, from which it differs in that מִפְּנֵי is mostly put before persons, מִן before things, see חָתַת Niphal), Genesis 7:7, 16:8 Isaiah 20:6 compare Psalms 61:4 of asking aid, Isaiah 19:20, 26:17 of fearing (see יָרֵא, חָתַת Niphal); of reverencing, humbling oneself, 2 Kings 22:19; Leviticus 19:32 of hiding oneself, Job 23:17, and other verbs which resemble these in meaning. So the sense of fleeing and fearing is involved in the following, Judges 9:21, “he dwelt there after he had fled מִפְּנֵי אֲבִימֶלֶךְ אָחִיו from the presence of Abimelech his brother.” Well rendered in the Vulg. ob metum A. fratris sui, 1 Chronicles 12:1 (on which passage, see עָצַר in Kal). Isaiah 17:9, “desolate houses (see עֲזוּבָה ) אֲשֶׁרעָֽזְבוּ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל which those deserted (who fled) from the Israelites,” i.e. the aborigines of Palestine (see note on this passage in Germ. Trans., ed. 2).

(2) Used of the author and efficient cause from which anything proceeds, i.q. מִן No. 2, letter c. Genesis 6:13, “the earth is full of violence מִפְּנֵיהֶם (which proceeds) from them.” (LXX. well render it ἀπʼ αὐτῶν.) Exodus 8:20; Judges 6:6; Jeremiah 15:17; Ezekiel 14:15. Used of a more remote cause, on account of. Isaiah 10:27, “the yoke shall be broken מִפְּנֵי שָׁמֶ֑ן on account of the fatness (of the bull)”[?]. Deuteronomy 28:20; Hosea 10:15; Jeremiah 9:6. Where the reason is given on account of which anything is not done, Lat. prœ, Job 37:19; 1 Kings 8:11. Followed by אֲשֶׁר it becomes a conj. because that, because, Exodus 19:18; Jeremiah 44:23.

I wonder that Winer (page 779) should also have added the following significations, before, in the presence of, citing Levit. 19:32 (where קוּם מִפְּנֵי to rise up to any one, is used as a mark of modesty and reverence to old age (see above, No. 1); and even towards (as though it were אֶל פְּנֵי), Jeremiah 1:13 (as to which passage see under the word פָּנִים No. 4 ).

(G) עַל פְּנֵי has various significations, according to the different senses of the noun and of the particle.

(1) From the signification of face and front (No. 1, 4), it is

(a) to the face, before the face of any one, in the presence of, i.q. לִפְנֵי No. 1 (see עַל No. 3, ), Genesis 32:22; Leviticus 10:3; Psalms 9:20; 2 Kings 13:14 having any one present and looking on, Numbers 3:4.- Job 6:28, עַל פְּנֵיכֶם אִם אֲכַזֵּב “before your eyes (it will be) (i.e. it will be manifest), whether I lie?” מֵעַלּ פְּנֵי=מִלִּפְנֵי Genesis 23:3.

(b) in front of a thing, before, 2 Chronicles 3:17. Psalms 18:43, “as dust before the wind,” driven by the wind. Here also belong the following: 1 Kings 6:3, “the length of it (the vestibule) עַל פְּנֵי רֹחַב הַבַּיִת before the breadth of the temple” (vor der Breite des Tempels hin). 2 Chronicles 3:8 and Genesis 1:20, “and let fowl fly … עַל פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם in front of (or before) the firmament of heaven.” Also, eastward, Genesis 16:12, 23:19 25:18 Joshua 18:14; 1 Kings 17:3, 1 Kings 17:5; Zechariah 14:4 before, used of time, Genesis 11:28 of worth (prœ), Deuteronomy 21:16.

(c) to or towards the face or front of anything (compare עַל No. 4); hence towards, Genesis 18:16, 19:28 and against, Psalms 21:13; Nahum 2:2.

(2) From the signification of surface, עַל פְּנֵי is

(a) on the surface, e.g. of the earth, Genesis 1:29, 6:1 the waters, Genesis 1:2 of a valley, Ezekiel 37:2 whence מֵעַל פְּנֵי used of those who are removed from the surface, 1 Samuel 20:15; Amos 9:8.

(b) upon, along upon the surface, e.g. of the earth, Amos 5:8 of a field, Leviticus 14:7; Ezekiel 32:4.

(c) out upon, or over the surface (über die Oberfläche hin), Genesis 11:8; Leviticus 16:14, 15 Leviticus 16:15; Isaiah 18:2.-Used figuratively

(d) in the sense of superadding, like עַל (No. 1, letter b, a), above, besides, ἐπί. Exodus 20:3, “thou shalt have no other gods עַל פָּנַי upon me,” i.e. besides me. Well given by the LXX. πλὴν ἐμοῦ. Chald. בַּר מִנִּי. Job 16:14.

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List of Word Forms
בְּפָנִ֗ים בְּפָנֶ֔יהָ בְּפָנֶ֔יךָ בְּפָנֶֽיךָ׃ בְּפָנַ֥י בְּפָנָ֑יו בְּפָנָ֛יו בִּפְנֵי֙ בִּפְנֵיהֶ֔ם בִּפְנֵיהֶם֙ בִּפְנֵיכֶ֑ם בִּפְנֵיכֶ֔ם בפני בפניה בפניהם בפניו בפניך בפניך׃ בפניכם בפנים הֲפָנָ֥יו הַפָּנִ֔ים הַפָּנִ֖ים הַפָּנִ֗ים הַפָּנִ֣ים הַפָּנִֽים׃ הַפָּנִים֙ הפניו הפנים הפנים׃ וְלִפְנֵ֖י וְלִפְנֵ֣י וְלִפְנֵ֣י ׀ וְלִפְנֵ֤י וְלִפְנֵ֥י וְלִפְנֵ֨י וְלִפְנֵי֙ וְלִפְנֵי־ וְלִפְנֵיהֶ֞ם וְלִפְנֵיהֶ֥ם וּ֝לְפָנָ֗יו וּ֝מִפָּנַ֗י וּ֝פְנֵיהֶ֗ם וּלְפָנֶ֔יךָ וּלְפָנֶ֖יךָ וּמִלְּפָנִ֖ים וּמִלִּפְנֵ֖י וּמִפְּנֵ֖י וּמִפְּנֵ֥י וּמִפְּנֵי֙ וּמִפְּנֵיהֶ֣ם וּמִפָּנֶ֖יךָ וּפְנֵ֣י וּפְנֵ֤י וּפְנֵ֥י וּפְנֵ֨י וּפְנֵֽי־ וּפְנֵי־ וּפְנֵיהֶ֕ם וּפְנֵיהֶ֖ם וּפְנֵיהֶ֣ם וּפְנֵיהֶ֥ם וּפְנֵיהֶם֙ וּפִ֥י וּפָנִ֥ים וּפָנֶ֥יהָ וּפָנֶ֥יךָ וּפָנַ֖י וּפָנַ֥י וּפָנָ֕יו וּפָנָ֖יו וּפָנָ֞יו ולפני ולפני־ ולפניהם ולפניו ולפניך ומלפני ומלפנים ומפני ומפניהם ומפניך ופי ופני ופני־ ופניה ופניהם ופניו ופניך ופנים כְּמִפְּנֵי־ כמפני־ לְ֝פָנֶ֗יךָ לְ֝פָנַ֗י לְ֝פָנָ֗יו לְ֠פָנָיו לְ֭פָנִים לְ֭פָנֶיךָ לְ֭פָנָיו לְפָנִ֔ים לְפָנִ֖ים לְפָנִ֗ים לְפָנִ֟ים לְפָנִ֣ים לְפָנִ֣ים ׀ לְפָנִ֨ים לְפָנִֽים׃ לְפָנִים֒ לְפָנִים֙ לְפָנֵ֑ינוּ לְפָנֵ֔ינוּ לְפָנֵ֖ינוּ לְפָנֵ֗ינוּ לְפָנֵֽינוּ׃ לְפָנֶ֑יהָ לְפָנֶ֑יךָ לְפָנֶ֔יהָ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ לְפָנֶ֖יךָ לְפָנֶ֗יךָ לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ לְפָנֶ֛יךָ לְפָנֶ֜יךָ לְפָנֶ֡יךָ לְפָנֶ֣יךָ לְפָנֶ֤יךָ לְפָנֶ֥יךָ לְפָנֶ֨יךָ לְפָנֶֽיךָ׃ לְפָנֶיךָ֒ לְפָנֶיךָ֮ לְפָנַ֔י לְפָנַ֖י לְפָנַ֗י לְפָנַ֛י לְפָנַ֜י לְפָנַ֣י לְפָנַ֥י לְפָנַ֨י ׀ לְפָנַי֒ לְפָנַי֙ לְפָנַי֮ לְפָנָ֑י לְפָנָ֑יו לְפָנָ֔י לְפָנָ֔יו לְפָנָ֖יו לְפָנָ֗יו לְפָנָ֛יו לְפָנָ֜יו לְפָנָ֣יו לְפָנָ֤יו לְפָנָ֤יו ׀ לְפָנָ֥יו לְפָנָֽי׃ לְפָנָֽיו׃ לְפָנָיו֒ לְפָנָיו֙ לִ֝פְנֵ֛י לִ֠פְנֵי לִֽפְֽנֵי־ לִֽפְנֵֽי־ לִֽפְנֵי־ לִפְנֵ֕י לִפְנֵ֖י לִפְנֵ֗י לִפְנֵ֛י לִפְנֵ֣י לִפְנֵ֣י ׀ לִפְנֵ֤י לִפְנֵ֤י ׀ לִפְנֵ֥י לִפְנֵ֧י לִפְנֵ֨י לִפְנֵֽי־ לִפְנֵי֙ לִפְנֵי֩ לִפְנֵי֮ לִפְנֵי־ לִפְנֵיהֶ֑ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֔ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֖ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֗ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֛ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֜ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֣ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֨ם לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃ לִפְנֵיהֶם֒ לִפְנֵיהֶם֙ לִפְנֵיכֶ֑ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֗ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֜ם לִפְנֵיכֶֽם׃ לִפְנֵיכֶם֙ לִפְנָֽי׃ לַפָּנִ֑ים לפני לפני־ לפני׃ לפניה לפניהם לפניהם׃ לפניו לפניו׃ לפניך לפניך׃ לפניכם לפניכם׃ לפנים לפנים׃ לפנינו לפנינו׃ מִ֝לִּפְנֵ֗י מִ֝פְּנֵ֗י מִ֝פָּנֶ֗יךָ מִ֝פָּנָ֗יו מִ֠פְּנֵי מִ֠פְּנֵיכֶם מִ֭לְּפָנֶיךָ מִלְּפָנֵֽנוּ׃ מִלְּפָנֶ֑יךָ מִלְּפָנֶ֔יךָ מִלְּפָנֶ֖יךָ מִלְּפָנֶ֣יךָ מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ׃ מִלְּפָנֶיךָ֮ מִלְּפָנַ֔י מִלְּפָנַ֖י מִלְּפָנַ֣י מִלְּפָנַי֙ מִלְּפָנָ֑י מִלְּפָנָ֔יו מִלְּפָנָ֖יו מִלְּפָנָ֗יו מִלְּפָנָֽי׃ מִלְּפָנָֽיו׃ מִלְּפָנָיו֙ מִלִּפְנִ֖ים מִלִּפְנֵ֖י מִלִּפְנֵ֛י מִלִּפְנֵ֣י מִלִּפְנֵ֤י מִלִּפְנֵ֥י מִלִּפְנֵ֨י מִלִּפְנֵי֙ מִלִּפְנֵי֩ מִלִּפְנֵיכֶ֑ם מִפְּנֵ֕י מִפְּנֵ֖י מִפְּנֵ֗י מִפְּנֵ֛י מִפְּנֵ֞י מִפְּנֵ֣י מִפְּנֵ֣י ׀ מִפְּנֵ֤י מִפְּנֵ֤י ׀ מִפְּנֵ֥י מִפְּנֵ֧י מִפְּנֵ֨י מִפְּנֵ֪י מִפְּנֵֽי־ מִפְּנֵי֙ מִפְּנֵי֩ מִפְּנֵי־ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם מִפְּנֵיהֶ֨ם ׀ מִפְּנֵיהֶֽם׃ מִפְּנֵיהֶם֒ מִפְּנֵיכֶ֑ם מִפְּנֵיכֶ֔ם מִפְּנֵיכֶ֖ם מִפְּנֵיכֶֽם׃ מִפְּנֵיכֶם֒ מִפָּנִ֖ים מִפָּנֵ֑ינוּ מִפָּנֵ֖ינוּ מִפָּנֵֽינוּ׃ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ מִפָּנֶ֔יה מִפָּנֶ֔יךָ מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ מִפָּנֶ֗יךָ מִפָּנֶ֛יךָ מִפָּנֶ֡יךָ מִפָּנֶ֥יךָ מִפָּנֶֽיהָ׃ מִפָּנֶֽיךָ׃ מִפָּנַ֔י מִפָּנַ֖י מִפָּנַ֗י מִפָּנַ֡י מִפָּנַ֥י מִפָּנַי֙ מִפָּנָ֑י מִפָּנָ֑יו מִפָּנָ֔יו מִפָּנָ֖יו מִפָּנָ֛יו מִפָּנָ֣יו מִפָּנָֽיו׃ מִפָּנָיו֙ מלפני מלפני׃ מלפניו מלפניו׃ מלפניך מלפניך׃ מלפניכם מלפנים מלפננו׃ מפני מפני־ מפניה מפניה׃ מפניהם מפניהם׃ מפניו מפניו׃ מפניך מפניך׃ מפניכם מפניכם׃ מפנים מפנינו מפנינו׃ פְּ֝נֵיהֶ֗ם פְּ֝נֵיכֶ֗ם פְּ֠נֵי פְּנֵ֖י פְּנֵ֛י פְּנֵ֣י פְּנֵ֣י ׀ פְּנֵ֤י פְּנֵ֥י פְּנֵ֧י פְּנֵ֨י פְּנֵֽי־ פְּנֵי֙ פְּנֵי־ פְּנֵיהֶ֑ם פְּנֵיהֶ֔ם פְּנֵיהֶ֖ם פְּנֵיהֶ֜ם פְּנֵיהֶֽם׃ פְּנֵיהֶם֙ פְּנֵיהֶם֮ פְּנֵיכֶ֔ם פְּנֵיכֶ֖ם פְּנֵיכֶ֜ם פְּנֵיכֶ֥ם פְּנֵיכֶֽם׃ פְּנֵיכֶם֙ פְנֵ֥י פְנֵֽי־ פְנֵי־ פְנֵיהֶ֑ם פְנֵיהֶ֛ם פְנֵיהֶ֜ם פְנֵיהֶ֣ם פְנֵיהֶם֙ פְנֵיכֶֽם׃ פָ֝נִ֗ים פָ֝נֶ֗יהָ פָ֝נָ֗יו פָ֠נַי פָ֭נֶיךָ פָ֭נָיו פָּ֝נֶ֗יךָ פָּ֝נַ֗י פָּ֝נָ֗יו פָּ֠נָיו פָּ֫נֶ֥יךָ פָּ֭נִים פָּ֭נֶיךָ פָּ֭נָיו פָּנִ֑ים פָּנִ֔ים פָּנִ֖ים פָּנִ֜ים פָּנִ֣ים פָּנִ֣ים ׀ פָּנִ֥ים פָּנִֽים׃ פָּנִים֙ פָּנֵ֑ינוּ פָּנֶ֑יךָ פָּנֶ֔יהָ פָּנֶ֔יךָ פָּנֶ֖יךָ פָּנֶ֗יךָ פָּנֶ֙יהָ֙ פָּנֶ֙יךָ֙ פָּנֶ֛יךָ פָּנֶ֣יךָ פָּנֶ֥יךָ פָּנֶ֨יךָ פָּנֶ֨יךָ ׀ פָּנֶ֬יךָ פָּנֶֽיהָ׃ פָּנֶֽיךָ׃ פָּנֶיךָ֮ פָּנַ֔י פָּנַ֖י פָּנַ֖יִךְ פָּנַ֗י פָּנַ֛י פָּנַ֜י פָּנַ֣י פָּנַ֥י פָּנַ֥יִךְ פָּנַי֙ פָּנָ֑י פָּנָ֑יִךְ פָּנָ֑יו פָּנָ֔יו פָּנָ֖יו פָּנָ֗יו פָּנָ֛יו פָּנָ֣יו פָּנָ֤יו פָּנָ֥יו פָּנָ֨יו פָּנָֽ֗יַ פָּנָֽ֗יַ׃ פָּנָֽיִךְ׃ פָּנָֽי׃ פָּנָֽיו׃ פָּנָיו֙ פָּנָיו֮ פָנִ֑ים פָנִ֔ים פָנִ֖ים פָנִ֛ים פָנִ֜ים פָנִ֣ים פָנִֽים׃ פָנִים֙ פָנֵֽימוֹ׃ פָנֶ֑יךָ פָנֶ֔יהָ פָנֶ֔יךָ פָנֶ֖יךָ פָנֶ֗יךָ פָנֶ֙יךָ֙ פָנֶ֣יךָ פָנֶ֥יךָ פָנֶֽיךָ׃ פָנַ֔י פָנַ֖י פָנַ֗י פָנַ֛י פָנַ֜י פָנַ֣י פָנַ֤י פָנַ֥י פָנַי֙ פָנָ֑י פָנָ֔יו פָנָ֖יו פָנָ֗יו פָנָ֜יו פָנָ֣יו פָנָֽי׃ פָנָיו֙ פני פני־ פני׃ פניה פניה׃ פניהם פניהם׃ פניו פניו׃ פניך פניך׃ פניכם פניכם׃ פנים פנים׃ פנימו׃ פנינו bə·p̄ā·nāw bə·p̄ā·nay bə·p̄ā·ne·hā bə·p̄ā·ne·ḵā bə·p̄ā·nîm befaNai befaNav befaNeicha befaNeiha befaNim bəp̄ānāw bəp̄ānay bəp̄ānehā bəp̄āneḵā bəp̄ānîm bifNei bifneiChem bifneiHem bip̄·nê bip̄·nê·hem bip̄·nê·ḵem bip̄nê bip̄nêhem bip̄nêḵem faNai faNav faNeicha faNeiha faNeimov faNim fenei feneiChem feneiHem hă·p̄ā·nāw hafaNav hap·pā·nîm hăp̄ānāw happaNim happānîm kə·mip·pə·nê- kəmippənê- kemippenei lap·pā·nîm lappaNim lappānîm lə·p̄ā·nāw lə·p̄ā·nay lə·p̄ā·nāy lə·p̄ā·ne·hā lə·p̄ā·ne·ḵā lə·p̄ā·nê·nū lə·p̄ā·nîm lefaNai lefaNav lefaNeicha lefaNeiha lefaNeinu lefaNim ləp̄ānāw ləp̄ānay ləp̄ānāy ləp̄ānehā ləp̄āneḵā ləp̄ānênū ləp̄ānîm lifaNeicha lifNai lifNei lifneiChem lifneiHem lifneiShe lip̄·nāy lip̄·nê lip̄·nê- lip̄·nê·hem lip̄·nê·ḵem lip̄nāy lip̄nê lip̄nê- lip̄nêhem lip̄nêḵem mil·lə·p̄ā·nāw mil·lə·p̄ā·nay mil·lə·p̄ā·nāy mil·lə·p̄ā·ne·ḵā mil·lə·p̄ā·nê·nū mil·lip̄·nê mil·lip̄·nê·ḵem mil·lip̄·nîm millefaNai millefaNav millefaNeicha millefaNenu milləp̄ānāw milləp̄ānay milləp̄ānāy milləp̄āneḵā milləp̄ānênū millifNei millifneiChem millifNim millip̄nê millip̄nêḵem millip̄nîm mip·pā·nāw mip·pā·nay mip·pā·nāy mip·pā·ne·hā mip·pā·ne·ḵā mip·pā·nê·nū mip·pā·neh mip·pā·nîm mip·pə·nê mip·pə·nê- mip·pə·nê·hem mip·pə·nê·ḵem mippaNai mippaNav mippānāw mippānay mippānāy mippāneh mippānehā mippaNeicha mippaNeih mippaNeiha mippaNeinu mippāneḵā mippānênū mippaNim mippānîm mippənê mippənê- mippənêhem mippeNei mippeneiChem mippeneiHem mippeneiSha mippənêḵem pā·nā·ya pā·na·yiḵ pā·nā·yiḵ pā·nāw p̄ā·nāw pā·nay pā·nāy p̄ā·nay p̄ā·nāy pā·ne·hā p̄ā·ne·hā pā·ne·ḵā p̄ā·ne·ḵā p̄ā·nê·mōw pā·nê·nū pā·nîm p̄ā·nîm paNai paNav pānāw p̄ānāw pānay pānāy p̄ānay p̄ānāy paNaya pānāya paNayich pānayiḵ pānāyiḵ pānehā p̄ānehā paNeicha paNeiha paNeinu pāneḵā p̄āneḵā p̄ānêmōw pānênū paNim pānîm p̄ānîm pə·nê p̄ə·nê pə·nê- p̄ə·nê- pə·nê·hem p̄ə·nê·hem pə·nê·ḵem p̄ə·nê·ḵem pənê p̄ənê pənê- p̄ənê- pənêhem p̄ənêhem peNei peneiChem peneiHem pənêḵem p̄ənêḵem ū·lə·p̄ā·nāw ū·lə·p̄ā·ne·ḵā ū·mil·lə·p̄ā·nîm ū·mil·lip̄·nê ū·mip·pā·nay ū·mip·pā·ne·ḵā ū·mip·pə·nê ū·mip·pə·nê·hem ū·p̄ā·nāw ū·p̄ā·nay ū·p̄ā·ne·hā ū·p̄ā·ne·ḵā ū·p̄ā·nîm ū·p̄ə·nê ū·p̄ə·nê- ū·p̄ə·nê·hem ū·p̄î ufaNai ufaNav ufaNeicha ufaNeiha ufaNim ufeNei ufeneiHem uFi ulefaNav ulefaNeicha ūləp̄ānāw ūləp̄āneḵā umillefaNim ūmilləp̄ānîm umillifNei ūmillip̄nê umippaNai ūmippānay umippaNeicha ūmippāneḵā ūmippənê ūmippənêhem umippeNei umippeneiHem ūp̄ānāw ūp̄ānay ūp̄ānehā ūp̄āneḵā ūp̄ānîm ūp̄ənê ūp̄ənê- ūp̄ənêhem ūp̄î velifNei velifneiHem wə·lip̄·nê wə·lip̄·nê- wə·lip̄·nê·hem wəlip̄nê wəlip̄nê- wəlip̄nêhem
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org. Copyright 1999-2021. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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