Historical Writings

Church and Denominational History

Writings of James Aitken Wylie

The History of Protestantism

An exhaustive look a the history of the Protestant Church from the first Century to the 1800's.

 

Book 1 — Progress From the First to the Fourteenth Century

Chapter 1 — Protestantism

Chapter 2 — Declension of the early Christian Church

Chapter 3 — Development of the Papacy from the times of Constantine to those of Hildebrand

Chapter 4 — Development of the Papacy from Gregory VII to Boniface VIII

Chapter 5 — Mediaeval Protestant Witnesses

Chapter 6 — The Waldenses - Their valleys

Chapter 7 — The Waldenses - Their missions and martyrdoms

Chapter 8 — The Paulicians

Chapter 9 — Crusades against the Albigenses

Chapter 10 — Erection of Tribunal of Inquisition

Chapter 11 — Protestants before Protestantism

Chapter 12 — Abelard, and Rise of Modern Skepticism

 

Book 2 — Wicliffe and His Times, or Advent of Protestantism

Chapter 1 — Wicliffe: his Birth and Education

Chapter 2 — Wicliffe, and the Pope's encroachments on England

Chapter 3 — Wicliffe's battle with Rome for England's independence

Chapter 4 — Wicliffe's battle with the Mendicant Friars

Chapter 5 — The Friars versus the Gospel in England

Chapter 6 — The Battle of the Parliament with the Pope

Chapter 7 — Persecution of Wicliffe by the Pope and the Hierarchy

Chapter 8 — Hierarchical persecution of Wicliffe resumed

Chapter 9 — Wicliffe's views on Church property and Church reform

Chapter 10 — The translation of the Scriptures, or the English Bible

Chapter 11 — Wicliffe and Transubstantiation

Chapter 12 — Wicliffe's appeal to Parliament

Chapter 13 — Wicliffe before convocation in person, and before the Roman Curia by letter

Chapter 14 — Wicliffe's last days

Chapter 15 — Wicliffe's theological and Church system

 

Book 3 — John Huss and the Hussite Wars

Chapter 1 — Birth, education, and first labours of Huss

Chapter 2 — Huss begins his warfare against Rome

Chapter 3 — Growing opposition of Huss to Rome

Chapter 4 — Preparations for the Council of Constance

Chapter 5 — Deposition of the rival Popes

Chapter 6 — Imprisonment and examination of Huss

Chapter 7 — Condemnation and Martyrdom of Huss

Chapter 8 — Wicliffe and Huss compared in their theology, their character, and their labours

Chapter 9 — Trial and temptation of Jerome

Chapter 10 — The trial of Jerome

Chapter 11 — Condemnation and burning of Jerome

Chapter 12 — Wicliffe, Huss, and Jerome, or the first three witnesses of modern Christendom

Chapter 13 — The Hussite Wars

Chapter 14 — Commencement of the Hussite Wars

Chapter 15 — Marvellous genius of Ziska as a general

Chapter 16 — Second crusade againSt. Bohemia

Chapter 17 — Brilliant successes of the Hussites

Chapter 18 — The Council of Basle

Chapter 19 — Last scenes of the Bohemian Reformation

 

Book 4 — Christendom at the Opening of the Sixteenth Century

Chapter 1 — Protestantism and Medievalism

Chapter 2 — The Empire

Chapter 3 — The Papacy, or Christendom under the Tiara

 

Book 5 — History of Protestantism in Germany to the Leipsic Disputation, 1519

Chapter 1 — Luther's birth, childhood, and school-days

Chapter 2 — Luther's college life

Chapter 3 — Luther's life in the convent

Chapter 4 — Luther the monk becomes Luther the reformer

Chapter 5 — Luther as priest, professor, and preacher

Chapter 6 — Luther's journey to Rome

Chapter 7 — Luther in Rome

Chapter 8 — Tetzel preaches indulgences

Chapter 9 — The "Theses"

Chapter 10 — Luther attacked by Tetzel, Prierio, and Eck

Chapter 11 — Luther's journey to Augsburg

Chapter 12 — Luther's appearance before cardinal Cajetan

Chapter 13 — Luther's return to Wittemberg and labours there

Chapter 14 — Miltitz - Carlstadt - Dr Eck

Chapter 15 — The Leipsic Disputation

 

Book 6 — From the Leipsic Disputation to the Diet at Worms, 1521

Chapter 1 — Protestantism and Imperialism; or, The Monk and the Monarch

Chapter 2 — Pope Leo's Bull

Chapter 3 — Interviews and Negotiations

Chapter 4 — Luther summoned to the Diet at Worms

Chapter 5 — Luther's journey and arrival at Worms

Chapter 6 — Luther before the Diet at Worms

Chapter 7 — Luther put under the ban of the empire

 

Book 7 — Protestantism in England, From the Times of Wicliffe to Those of Henry VIII

Chapter 1 — The first Protestant martyrs in England

Chapter 2 — The theology of the early English Protestants

Chapter 3 — Growth of English Protestantism

Chapter 4 — Efforts for the redistribution of Ecclesiastical property

Chapter 5 — Trial and condemnation of Sir John Oldcastle

Chapter 6 — Lollardism denounced as treason

Chapter 7 — Martyrdom of Lord Cobham

Chapter 8 — Lollardism under Henry V and Henry VI

Chapter 9 — Rome's attempt to regain dominancy in England

Chapter 10 — Resistance to Papal encroachments

Chapter 11 — Influence of the wars of the fifteenth century on the progress of Protestantism

 

Book 8 — History of Protestantism in Switzerland From A.D. 1516 to Its Establishment at Zurich, 1525

Chapter 1 — Switzerland - the country and the people

Chapter 2 — Condition of Switzerland prior to the reformation

Chapter 3 — Corruption of the Swiss church

Chapter 4 — Zwingli's birth and school-days

Chapter 5 — Zwingli's progress towards emancipation

Chapter 6 — Zwingli in presence of the Bible

Chapter 7 — Einsiedeln and Zurich

Chapter 8 — The Pardon-Monger and the Plague

Chapter 9 — Extension of the reformation to Bern and other Swiss towns

Chapter 10 — Spread of Protestantish in eastern Switzerland

Chapter 11 — The question of forbidden meats

Chapter 12 — Public disputation at Zurich

Chapter 13 — Dissolution of Conventual and Monastic establishments

Chapter 14 — Discussion on images and the mass

Chapter 15 — Establishment of Protestantism in Zurich

 

Book 9 — History of Protestantism From the Diet of Worms, 1521, to the Augsburg Confession, 1530

Chapter 1 — The German New Testament

Chapter 2 — The abolition of the mass

Chapter 3 — Pope Adrian and his scheme of reform

Chapter 4 — Pope Clement and the Nuremberg diet

Chapter 5 — Nuremberg (this chapter is founded on notes made on the spot by the author in 1871)

Chapter 6 — The Ratisbon League and reformation

Chapter 7 — Luther's views on the sacrament and image-worship

Chapter 8 — War of the Peasants

Chapter 9 — The Battle of Pavia and its influence on Protestantism

Chapter 10 — Dietat Spires, 1526, and League against the emperor

Chapter 11 — The sack of Rome

Chapter 12 — Organization of the Lutheran Church

Chapter 13 — Constitution of the Church of Hesse

Chapter 14 — Politics and Prodigies

Chapter 15 — The Great Protest

Chapter 16 — Conference at Marburg

Chapter 17 — The Marburg Confession

Chapter 18 — The Emperor, the Turk, and the Reformation

Chapter 19 — Meeting between the Emperor and Pope at Bologna

Chapter 20 — Preparations for the Augsburg Diet

Chapter 21 — Arrival of the emperor at Augsburg and opening of the Diet

Chapter 22 — Luther in the Coburg and Melanchthon at the Diet

Chapter 23 — Reading of the Augsburg Confession

Chapter 24 — After the Diet of Augsburg

Chapter 25 — Attempted refutation of the Confession

Chapter 26 — End of the Diet of Augsburg

Chapter 27 — A retrospect - 1517-1530 - progress

 

Book 10 — Rise and Establishment of Protestantism in Sweden and Denmark

Chapter 1 — Causes that influenced the reception or rejection of Protestantism in the various countries

Chapter 2 — Fortunes of Protestantism in Italy, Spain, and Britain

Chapter 3 — Introduction of Protestantism into Sweden

Chapter 4 — Conference at Upsala

Chapter 5 — Establishment of Protestantism in Sweden

Chapter 6 — Protestantism in Sweden, from Vasa (1530) to Charles IX (1604)

Chapter 7 — Introduction of Protestantism into Denmark

Chapter 8 — Church-song in Denmark

Chapter 9 — Establishment of Protestantism in Denmark

Chapter 10 — Protestantism under Christian III, and its extension to Norway and Iceland

 

Book 11 — Protestantism in Switzerland From Its Establishment in Zurich (1525) to the Death of Zwingli (1531)

Chapter 1 — Zwingli - His doctrine of the Lord's Supper

Chapter 2 — Disputation at Baden and its results

Chapter 3 — Outbreak and suppression of Anabaptism in Switzerland

Chapter 4 — Establishment of Protestantism at Bern

Chapter 5 — Reformation consummated in Basle

Chapter 6 — League of the Five Cantons with Austria - Switzerland divided

Chapter 7 — Arms - Negotiations - Peace

Chapter 8 — Proposed Christian Republic for defence of civil rights

Chapter 9 — Gathering of a Second storm

Chapter 10 — Death of Zwingli

 

Book 12 — Protestantism in Germany From the Augsburg Confession to the Peace of Passau

Chapter 1 — The Schmalkald League

Chapter 2 — The German Anabaptists, or the "Heavenly Kingdom"

Chapter 3 — Accession of Princes and states to Protestantism

Chapter 4 — Death and burial of Luther

Chapter 5 — The Schmalkald War, and Defeat of the Protestants

Chapter 6 — The "Interim" - Re-Establishment of Protestantism

 

Book 13 — From Rise of Protestantism in France (1510) to Publication of the Institutes (1536)

Chapter 1 — The doctor of Etaples, the first Protestant teacher in France

Chapter 2 — Tarel, Briconnet, and the early reformers of France

Chapter 3 — The first Protestant congregation of France

Chapter 4 — Commencement of persecution in France

Chapter 5 — The first martyrs of France

Chapter 6 — Calvin: His birth and education

Chapter 7 — Calvin's conversion

Chapter 8 — Calvin becomes a student of law

Chapter 9 — Calvin the evangelist, and Berquin the martyr

Chapter 10 — Calvin at Paris, and Francis negotiating with Germany and England

Chapter 11 — The Gospel preached in Paris - A Martyr

Chapter 12 — Calvin's flight from Paris

Chapter 13 — First Protestant administration of the Lord's Supper in France

Chapter 14 — Catherine de Medici

Chapter 15 — Marriage of Henry of France to Catherine de Medici

Chapter 16 — Melancthon's plan for uniting Wittemberg and Rome

Chapter 17 — Plan of Francis I for combining Lutheranism and Romanism

Chapter 18 — First disciples of the Gospel in Paris

Chapter 19 — The Night of the Placards

Chapter 20 — Martyrs and Exiles

Chapter 21 — Other and more dreadful Martyrdoms

Chapter 22 — Basle and the "Institutes"

Chapter 23 — The "Institutes"

Chapter 24 — Calvin on predestination and election

Chapter 25 — Calvin's appeal to Francis I

 

Book 14 — Rise and Establishment of Protestantism at Geneva

Chapter 1 — Geneva: the city and its history

Chapter 2 — Genevese martyrs of liberty

Chapter 3 — The reform commenced in Lausanne and established in Morat and Neuchatel

Chapter 4 — Tumults - Successes - Toleration

Chapter 5 — Fabel enters Geneva

Chapter 6 — Geneva on the brink of civil war

Chapter 7 — Heroism of Geneva

Chapter 8 — Rome falls and Geneva rises

Chapter 9 — Establishment of Protestantism in Geneva

Chapter 10 — Calvin enters Geneva - Its civil and ecclesiastical constitution

Chapter 11 — Sumptuary Laws - Calvin and Farel banished

Chapter 12 — Calvin at strasburg - Rome draws near to Geneva

Chapter 13 — Abortive conferences at Hagenau and Ratisbon

Chapter 14 — Calvin returns to Geneva

Chapter 15 — The Ecclesiastical Ordinances

Chapter 16 — The new Geneva

Chapter 17 — Calvin's battles with the Libertines

Chapter 18 — Calvin's labors for union

Chapter 19 — Servetus comes to Geneva and is arrested

Chapter 20 — Calvin's victory over the Libertines

Chapter 21 — Apprehension and trial of Servetus

Chapter 22 — Condemnation and death of Servetus

Chapter 23 — Calvin's correspondence with martyrs, reformers, and monarchs

Chapter 24 — Calvin's manifold labors

Chapter 25 — Final victory and glory of Geneva

Chapter 26 — Geneva and its influence in Europe

Chapter 27 — The Academy of Geneva

Chapter 28 — The soclal and family life of Geneva

Chapter 29 — Calvin's last illness and death

Chapter 30 — Calvin's work

 

Book 15 — The Jesuits

Chapter 1 — Ignatius Loyola

Chapter 2 — Loyola's first disciples

Chapter 3 — Organization and training of the Jesuits

Chapter 4 — Moral code of the Jesuits - Probabilism, etc

Chapter 5 — The Jesuit teaching on regicide, murder, lying, theft, etc

Chapter 6 — The "secret instructions" of the Jesuits

Chapter 7 — Jesuit management of rich widows and the heirs of great families

Chapter 8 — Diffusion of the Jesuits throughout christendom

Chapter 9 — Commercial enterprises and banishments

Chapter 10 — Restoration of the Inquisition

Chapter 11 — The tortures of the Inquisition

 

Book 16 — Protestantism in the Waldensian Valleys

Chapter 1 — Antiquity and first persecutions of the Waldenses

Chapter 2 — Cataneo's Expedition (1488) against the Dauphinese and Piedmontese confessors

Chapter 3 — Failure of Cataneo's Expedition

Chapter 4 — Synod in the Waldensian Valleys

Chapter 5 — Persecutions and martyrdoms

Chapter 6 — Preparations for a War of Extermination

Chapter 7 — The Great Campaign of 1561

Chapter 8 — Waldensian colonies in Calabria and Apulia

Chapter 9 — Extinction of Waldenses in Calabria

Chapter 10 — The year of the plague

Chapter 11 — The Great Massacre

Chapter 12 — Exploits of Gianavello - Massacre and pillage of Rora

Chapter 13 — The exile

Chapter 14 — Return to the valleys

Chapter 15 — Final re-establishment in their valleys

Chapter 16 — Condition of the Waldenses from 1690

 

Book 17 — Protestantism in France From Death of Francis I (1547) to Edict of Nantes (1598)

Chapter 1 — Henry II and parties in France

Chapter 2 — Henry II and his persecutions

Chapter 3 — First national Synod of the French Protestant Church

Chapter 4 — A gallery of portraits

Chapter 5 — The guises, and the insurrection of Amboise

Chapter 6 — Charles IX - The Triumvirate - Colloquy at Poissy

Chapter 7 — Massacre at Vassy and commencement of the civil wars

Chapter 8 — Commencehent of the Huguenot Wars

Chapter 9 — The first Huguenot War, and death of the Duke of Guise

Chapter 10 — Catherine de Medici and her son, Charles IX - conference at Bayonne - The St. Bartholomew assacre Plotted

Chapter 11 — Second and third Huguenot Wars

Chapter 12 — Synod of la Rochelle

Chapter 13 — The promoters of the St. Bartholomew Massacre

Chapter 14 — Negotiations of the court with the Huguenots

Chapter 15 — The marriage, and preparations for the massacre

Chapter 16 — The massacre of St. Bartholomew

Chapter 17 — Resurrection of Huguenotism - Death of Charles IX

Chapter 18 — New persecutions - Reign and death of Henry III

Chapter 19 — Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes

 

Book 18 — History of Protestantism in the Netherlands

Chapter 1 — The Netherlands and their inhabitants

Chapter 2 — Introduction of Protestantism into the Netherlands

Chapter 3 — Antwerp: its confessors and martyrs

Chapter 4 — Abdication of Charles V and accession of Philip II

Chapter 5 — Philip arranges the government of the Netherlands, and departs for Spain

Chapter 6 — Storms in the council, and martyrs at the stake

Chapter 7 — Retirement of Granvelle - Belgic confession of faith

Chapter 8 — The rising storm

Chapter 9 — The confederates or "beggars"

Chapter 10 — The field-preachings

Chapter 11 — The image-breakings

Chapter 12 — Reaction - Submission of the southern Netherlands

Chapter 13 — The Council of Blood

Chapter 14 — William unfurls his standard - Execution of Egmont and Horn

Chapter 15 — Failure of William's first campaign

Chapter 16 — The "beggars of the sea," and second campaign of Orange

Chapter 17 — William's second campaign, and submission of Brabant and Flanders

Chapter 18 — The siege of Haarlem

Chapter 19 — Siege of Alkmaar, and recall of Alva

Chapter 20 — Third campaign of William, and death of Count Louis of Nassau

Chapter 21 — The siege of Leyden

Chapter 22 — March of the Spanish army through the sea - Sack of Antwerp

Chapter 23 — The "pacification of Ghent," and toleration

Chapter 24 — Administration of Don John, and first Synod of Dort

Chapter 25 — Abjuration of Philip, and rise of the Seven United Provinces

Chapter 26 — Assassination of William the silent

Chapter 27 — Order and government of the Netherland church

Chapter 28 — Disorganisation of the provinces

Chapter 29 — The Synod of Dort

 

Book 19 — Protestantism in Poland and Bohemia

Chapter 1 — Rise and spread of Protestantism in Poland

Chapter 2 — John Alasco, and reformation of east Friesland

Chapter 3 — Acme of Protestantism in Poland

Chapter 4 — Organisation of the Protestant church of Poland

Chapter 5 — Turning of the tide of Protestantism in Poland

Chapter 6 — The Jesuits enter Poland - Destruction of its Protestantism

Chapter 7 — Bohemia - Entrance of reformation

Chapter 8 — Overthrow of Protestantism in Bohemia

Chapter 9 — An army of martyrs

Chapter 10 — Suppression of Protestantish in Bohemia

 

Book 20 — Protestantism in Hungary and Transylvania

Chapter 1 — Planting of Protestantism

Chapter 2 — Protestantism flourishes in hungary and Transylvania

Chapter 3 — Ferdinand II and the era of persecution

Chapter 4 — Leopold I and the Jesuits

Chapter 5 — Banishment of pastors and desolation of the church of Hungary

 

Book 21 — The Thirty Years' War

Chapter 1 — Great periods of the Thirty Years' War

Chapter 2 — The army and the camp

Chapter 3 — The march and its devastations

Chapter 4 — Conquest of north Germany by Ferdinand II and the "Catholic League"

Chapter 5 — Edict of Restitution

Chapter 6 — Arrival of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany

Chapter 7 — Fall of Magdeburg and victory of Leipsic

Chapter 8 — Conquest of the Rhine and Bavaria - Battle of Lutzen

Chapter 9 — Death of Gustavus Adolphus

Chapter 10 — The pacification of Westphalia

Chapter 11 — The Fatherland after the war

 

Book 22 — Protestantism in France From Death of Henry IV (1610) to the Revolution (1789)

Chapter 1 — Louis XIII and the Wars of Religion

Chapter 2 — Fall of la Rochelle, and end of the Wars of Religion

Chapter 3 — Industrial and literary eminence of the French Protestants

Chapter 4 — The Dragonnades

Chapter 5 — Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

Chapter 6 — The prisons and the galleys

Chapter 7 — The "Church of the Desert"

 

Book 23 — Protestantism in England From the Times of Henry VIII

Chapter 1 — The King and the Scholars

Chapter 2 — Cardinal Wolsey and the New Testament of Erasmus

Chapter 3 — William Tyndale and the English New Testament

Chapter 4 — Tyndale's New Testament arrives in England

Chapter 5 — The Bible and the Cellar at Oxford - Anne Boleyn

Chapter 6 — The Divorce - Thomas Bilney, the Martyr

Chapter 7 — The Divorce, and Wolsey's fall

Chapter 8 — Cranmer - Cromwell - the Papal Supremacy abolished

Chapter 9 — The King declared head of the Church of England

Chapter 10 — Scaffolds - Death of Henry VIII

Chapter 11 — The Church of England as reformed by Cranmer

Chapter 12 — Deaths of Protector Somerset and Edward VI

Chapter 13 — Restoration of the Pope's authority in england

Chapter 14 — The burnings under mary

Chapter 15 — Elizabeth - restoration of the Protestant church

Chapter 16 — Excommunication of elizabeth, and plots of the jesuits

Chapter 17 — The armada - its building

Chapter 18 — The armada arrives off england

Chapter 19 — Destruction of the armada

Chapter 20 — Greatness of Protestant england

 

Book 24 — Protestantism in Scotland

Chapter 1 — The darkness and the daybreak

Chapter 2 — Scotland's first preacher and martyr, Patrick Hamilton

Chapter 3 — Wishart is burned, and Knox comes forward

Chapter 4 — Knox's call to the ministry and first sermon

Chapter 5 — Knox's final return to Scotland

Chapter 6 — Establishment of the reformation in Scotland

Chapter 7 — Constitution of the "Kirk" - arrival of Mary Stuart

Chapter 8 — Knox's interview with Queen Mary

Chapter 9 — Trial of Knox for treason

Chapter 10 — The last days of Queen Mary and John Knox

Chapter 11 — Andrew Melville - the Tulchan Bishops

Chapter 12 — Battles for Presbyterianism and Liberty

Chapter 13 — James in England - the gunpowder plot

Chapter 14 — Death of James VI, and spiritual awakening in Scotland

Chapter 15 — Charles I and archbishop Laud - Religious innovations

Chapter 16 — The national covenant and assembly of 1638

Chapter 17 — Civil war - solemn league - Westminster assembly

Chapter 18 — Parliament triumphs, and the king is betrayed

Chapter 19 — Restoration of Charles II, and St. Bartholomew day, 1662

Chapter 20 — Scotland - Middleton's tyranny - act recissory

Chapter 21 — Establishment of prelacy in Scotland

Chapter 22 — Four hundred ministers ejected

Chapter 23 — Breach of the "Triple League" and war with Holland

Chapter 24 — The Popish Plot, and death of Charles II

Chapter 25 — The first rising of the Scottish Presbyterians

Chapter 26 — The field-preaching or "Conventicle"

Chapter 27 — Drumclog - Bothwell Bridge - the "killing times"

Chapter 28 — James II - Projects to restore Popery

Chapter 29 — A great crisis in England and Christendom

Chapter 30 — Protestantism mounts the throne of Great Britain