Historical Writings

Ussher's "The Annals of the World"

The Seventh Age: 4 AD - 24 AD

4007 AM, 4717 JP, 4 AD
  1. The Julian calender was now correct. The third intercalary day which was superfluous and added by the carelessness of the Roman priests, was omitted this year in the month of February. Later Augustus, who was the high priest, ordered that one day in the beginning of every fifth year should be intercalated according to the edict of Caesar. To ensure the perpetual keeping of this order, he ordered that it should be engraved in a brass table. (Macrobius, Saturnal. l.1. c. 14. fin.) From the institution the records of all times after this are calculated. (Solinus, c.3.) It was no marvel, for it was constantly observed after this until the change of the calender made by Pope Gregory 13th in the year 1579. Yet lest the fairs that were kept by the Romans at the beginning of every ninth day, should fall on the first of January, one day was added often at the end of the previous year and was removed again in the following year. This would keep the time in agreement with Julius Caesar's edicts. (Dio, l.48. p. 377.; Dio, l.60 p. 681.)
     
  2. After five years Augustus brought his daughter Julia from the island to the continent and gave her some more gentle conditions of exile. However, he could not bring himself to recall her altogether. When the Roman people intreated him for her and were very urgent with him, he used this curse publicly on them that they should have such daughters and such wives. (Suetonius, Octavian, c.65.)
     
  3. When Aelius Catus and Sentius [Saturninus] were consuls on June 27th [5th calends of July], Augustus adopted Tiberius Nero. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.103. 1:265) He swore before the people that he adopted him for the commonwealth's sake.(Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c. 104. 1:265; Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.21.) Marcus Agrippa, the brother of Caius and Lucius was adopted the same day whom Julia bore after the death of Agrippa. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.104. 1:265; Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.15.) Augustus feared lest Tiberius should grow proud and make a rebellion. Before he adopted him, he made Tiberius adopt Germanicus, the son of his brother Drusus, although Tiberius had a son of his own. (*Dio, l.55. 6:425; Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.15.; Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.3.)
     
  4. Immediately after his adoption, Tiberius was sent into Germany, with whom Paterculus went and served as a colonel of the cavalry. He was an eye witness of all that Tiberius did for nine years. (*Velleius Paterculus, c.104,105. 1:265-269)
     
  5. When Tiberius was sent into Germany, the ambassadors of the Parthians, came with their embassy to Rome. They were ordered to go into the province to him. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 16.) There were many contending for the Parthian kingdom and ambassadors came from the noblemen of Parthia and desired to have a king of one of the three sons of Phraates who remained as hostages at Rome. Vonones was preferred before his other brothers and was helped by Caesar. He was joyfully received by the Parthians for some time. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 21.; Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3. ; Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.2.)
     
  6. Augustus accepted the proconsular power so that he might raise a tax in Italy. (*Dio, l. 55. 6:427)
     
4008 AM, 4718 JP, 5 AD
  1. The sun was partially eclipsed (*Dio, l.55. 6:451) on March 28 about five o'clock in the afternoon according to the astronomical tables.
     
  2. Toga Virilis which was the gown that the Roman men wore at age 18, was given to Marcus Agrippa Posthumous, [e.g. born after the death of his father] who had never had those honours that his brothers [Caius and Lucius] had. (*Dio, l.55. 6:451)
     
4009 AM, 4719 JP, 6 AD
  1. The rulers of the Jews as well as of the Samaritans could no longer put up with the tyranny of Archelaus and accused him to Caesar. They knew that he had acted contrary to Caesar's command by whom he was commanded to govern his subjects with justice and equity. When Caesar heard this, he was very angry and sent for his agent who lived at Rome. He did not write anything to Archelaus but ordered his agent to go to Judea and immediately to bring his master to him. (Josephus, Wars, l.2. c.6.; Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.ult. )
     
  2. Archelaus claimed to have had a dream foretelling this misfortune. He saw nine ears of grain which were eaten up by oxen. Simon, an Essean, interpreted those ears to be nine years of his kingdom and said that now the end of his government was at hand. The fifth day after this, the agent of Archelaus is said to have come to Judea. He found Archelaus banqueting with his friends and told him Caesar's pleasure was that he must come and answer the accusations. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.ult. )
     
4010 AM, 4719 JP, 6 AD
  1. About our November, on the seventh day of the Jewish month Cisleu, began the tenth year of the reign of Archelaus. [What Augustus called an ethnarchy the Jews called a kingdom.] Joseph the priest had a son named Matthias, in the tenth year of the reign of Archelaus as it is in the public registers. Flavius Josephus, the historian, was the son of this Matthias. (Josephus, Life, 1:1) For this very reason, Josephus thought it best to change what he had written formerly in his books of the wars of the Jews about the nine years of Archelaus. In his books of antiquities he substituted in the ten years in his kingdom and ten ears in the dream. No such amendment was needed. He only reigned a few days in his tenth year of his ethnarchy or kingdom. He was sent into banishment at the end of that year when M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Aruntius were consuls. Under their consulship: "Herod of Palestine [who was indeed none other than this Archelaus] was accused by his countrymen and was banished beyond the Alps and his government was confiscated." (*Dio, l. 55. 6:465,467)
     
  2. When Caesar heard the accusations and the defence of Archelaus, he banished him to Vienna of France and confiscated his country and his treasure. (Josephus, Wars, l.2. c.6.; Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.ult. ) This is that son of Herod, whom Strabo noted to have lived in exile among the Allobroges of France. (*Strabo, l.16. 7:299)
     
  3. Augustus proscribed his only nephew Marcus Agrippa who was born after the death of his father. He was ignorant and foolishly fierce from a pride of his strength. He was found innocent but Augustus confiscated all his goods into the military treasury and banished him to Planasia, an island near Corsica. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.3.; *Dio, l.55. 6:475)
     
  4. The government of Archelaus, that is, Judea, [containing the tribe of Judah and Benjamin] Samaria and Idumea, was organised into a province and annexed to Syria. Quirinius was sent by Caesar, to be the governor of Syria so that he might tax both it and all Syria. He was sent to evaluate the wealth of the Jewish estates and to sell Archelaus' property and bring its money into his own country. (Josephus, Antiq, l.17. c.fin l.18. c.1. )
     
  5. Although the Jews could barely tolerate even the mention of a tax, however, Joazar the son of Boethus the high priest convinced them. He was either restored by Archelaus or else took the priesthood again in his absence. Without much opposition, they allowed themselves to be taxed. (Josephus, Antiq. l.18. c.1. <1:476>)
     
  6. At the time of this taxing, Judas a Galilean arose and drew away many people after him. After he died, all that followed him were dispersed according to Gamaliel. (Acts 5:37) Josephus calls him a Gaulonite. (Josephus, Antiq. l.18. c.1. <1:476>) He was born in the town of Gamala but in another place Josephus agrees with Gamaliel and he calls him a Galilean and wrote that he instigated the people to revolt from the Romans when Quirinius taxed Judea. (Josephus, Antiq. l.18. c.2. l.20 c.3. )
     
  7. Sadduc, a Pharisee was his associate and tried to stir up the people to rebel. He said that this taxing was nothing else but an obvious sign of their servitude. He exhorted all the country to stand for their liberty and gave them the hope that by this they should better enjoy their lives. They would be confirmed in the possession of their estates and would be considered valiant. They could not expect any help from God if they did not help themselves. The people readily received these speeches and were encouraged to do something. These men troubled the country for they filled all places with murders and robberies. They plundered without any respect of friend or foe and murdered many noble personages. All this was done under the pretext of defending the public liberty but indeed it was for their private profit. Judas and Sadduc were the instigators of all these calamities and the example for all who were desirous of seditions. This not only disturbed the country now but were the seeds of all the future calamities. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.1. <1:476>)
     
  8. To the three ancient sects of the Jews, [that is the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes], Judas the Galilean founded a fourth one. Its followers agreed with the Pharisees and affirmed that God only is to be accounted Lord and master of all. They would more easily endure any most horrible torture together with their friends and children than call any mortal man, Lord. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.2. )
     
  9. Quirinius sold and confiscated Archelaus' goods and went through the land with the tax. [This happened in the 37th year after the victory at Actium beginning in September of the previous year.] There was a sedition of the common people made against Joazar the high priest. Quirinius removed him from his office and substituted Ananus [or Annas] the son of Seth in his place. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3. )
     
  10. Quirinius was accompanied by Coponius, who was of the equestrian order and Coponius was sent by Augustus to be the first governor of Judea, after it was organised into a province. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.2. ; Josephus, Wars, l.2. c.7.) The term of the governors seems always to have expired after three years.
     
4011 AM, 4721 JP, 8 AD
  1. When Coponius was governor of Judea, in the passover of this or the following year, the priests [as it was the custom always at this feast] had opened the gates of the temple about midnight. Certain Samaritans secretly entered Jerusalem and scattered men's bones amidst the porch and over all the temple. After this, the priests watched the temple much more diligently than before. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3. )
     
  2. At the passover of this year, Christ in the twelfth year of his age was brought to Jerusalem by Joseph and Mary. After the seven days of unleavened bread were over, his parents returned home and he stayed behind. They did not know where he was and looked for him for three days. They found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers. He was listening to them and asking them questions. All who heard him, were astonished at his understanding and answers. (Luke 2:41-47)
     
  3. Jesus went down with his parents to Nazareth and was obedient to them. (Luke 2:51) He followed his father's trade as a carpenter and ate his bread by the sweat of his brow. From this, his fellow citizens of Nazareth stated: "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary?" (Mark 6:3)
     
4012 AM, 4722 JP, 9 AD
  1. Ovid was banished to Tomas in Pontus because, he saw some dishonest act of Augustus which he did not want to be seen. About this misfortune, we read him complaining: (*Ovid, Tristia, l.2. 1:63) Why saw I ought? Why did I guilty make My eyes? This sin why did I, wretch, partake?
     
  2. He was exiled also for his love of books he himself confirms and is recorded by Sidonius Apollinaris and others. (*Ovid, Tristia, l.2. 1:61) We have shown before, that he was born in the consulship of Hirtius and Pansa, and was at this time fifty one years old but the current year was not complete. The poet records his age: (*Ovid, Tristia, l.2. e. 10. 1:203) When twice five times with olive girt the knight. Had bore away the prize [his virtues right] When by my princes rage I had command Of the Euxine Tomitae to seek the land.
     
  3. That is, as it is more clearly expressed by him, in his book in Iben, [he wrote against his accusers when he first arrived at Tomos.] (*Ovid, Tristia, l.2. e. 8. 1:193) When to this time ten lustrals I had seen.
     
  4. For he did not confuse the Olympiads which were every four years with the lustrals of the Romans which were every five years.
     
4013 AM, 4723 JP, 10 AD
  1. Ovid signified this that he had passed the first winter in Pontus, and with that the first year of his banishment, [for he had spent the former winter on his journey.] (*Ovid, Tristia, l.3. e. (12). 1:147) Now zephyr tames the cold; the years run round, A longer winter the Maeotae found. The sign in Aries, the night did make Her equal hours with the day partake.
     
  2. He noted the second year of his banishment. (Ovid, Tristia, l.6. e. 4.) Since I my country left the barns twice filled And presses, grain and wine did to them yield.
     
  3. Marcus Ambivius was sent by Augustus, as the second governor into Judea. During his stay, Salome died who was the sister of Herod. She bequeathed to Julia [Livia, Augustus' wife] Jamnia, with its government, Phasealis which was located in the plain and Archelaus which was very well planted with date palm trees which is a most excellent fruit. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c. 3. )
     
4015 AM, 4725 JP, 12 AD
  1. Ovid recalls the beginning of his third winter that he spent in Pontus. (*Ovid, Tristia, l.5. e. 10. 1:245) Since I to Pontus came thrice Ister stood With frost, and thrice lay glazed the Euxine flood.
     
  2. The senate and people of Rome, at Augustus' request, made a decree that Tiberius might have the same power in all the provinces and armies as he himself had. (*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c.121. 1:307) Suetonius stated that this law was propounded by the consuls (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.21.) that Tiberius should govern the provinces in common with Augustus. Germanicus was consul all that year, whom the aged Augustus used to commend in writing to the senate just as the senate itself did also commend him to Tiberius. (*Dio, l.56. 7:59) It was no wonder that the senate should receive the commendation from Augustus: "to his son his colleague of the empire and partner in the tribuneship."
     
  3. as Tacitus stated. (Tacius, Annals, l.1. c.3.) Tiberius was also made censor and he committed the care of the city to Lucius Piso because he had continued two days and two nights in drinking with him since Tiberius was now made a prince. (*Pliny, l.14. c.38. 4:281) Tacitus confirmed that Piso was the prefect of the city for twenty years and did his job well. He died when Domitius Aenobarbus and Aulus Vitellius were consuls in 32 A. D. and was honoured with a public funeral. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.11.) From this it is gathered that Tiberius was now prince or viceroy in 12 A. D. two whole years before Augustus' death. Therefore there must be a distinction noted between the beginning of Tiberius' first being a prince or viceroy and his later becoming emperor.
     
4016 AM, 4726 JP, 13 AD
  1. Ovid noted his fourth winter which he lived in exile. (*Ovid, Pontus, l.1. e. 2. ad Maximus 1:291?) Here the fourth winter wearied me doth hold, Resisting adverse fate, weapons, sharp cold.
     
  2. Annius Rufus was sent as the third governor to Judea by Augustus. (*Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c.3. )]
     
4017 AM, 4726 JP, 13 AD
  1. When Lucius Munacius and Caius Silius were consuls, the fourth ten year term of Augustus' empire was about to expire. Against his will, he accepted the government of the state for another ten years and continued Tiberius' tribuneship. (*Dio, l.56. 6:63)
     
  2. When Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius were consuls, Augustus wrote in a breviary of his acts which was engraved in marble of Ancira that he with his colleague Tiberius, numbered the people of Rome for the third time. In this census, the Roman citizens totalled 4,137,000. (Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 230) Eusebius (Eusebius, Chronicle) is incorrect where he said that there were numbered 9,370,000. Jornandes followed Eusebius in this error in his book (Jornandes, Succession of Kingdoms and Times) and gave and even larger number. He added that Augustus had: "commanded all the world to be numbered since there was peace at the birth of Jesus Christ."
     
  3. Both he and Eusebius in that place conjecture that the birth of the Lord happened in the 42nd year of Augustus' empire.
     
  4. When Augustus made this great muster in Mars field, there were a number of people there. An eagle often fluttered about Augustus and then went and sat on a nearby temple on the first letter of Agrippa's name. When Augustus saw this, he commanded his colleague Tiberius to make those vows that were usually made for the next year. For although all things were ready for the solemnities of those vows, yet he refused to make those vows which he should not live to perform. [??] (Suetonius, Octavian, c.97.)
     
  5. About the same time the first letter of his name, that was on the inscription of his statue which was set in the capitol, fell down after it was struck with a flash of lightning. The soothsayers said that he would live only an hundred days after that because the letter "C" denoted 100 in Roman numerals. Also he should be canonized as a god, because "AESAR", which was the rest of his name, in the Etruscan language, meant "a god". (*Dio. l.56. 7:67; Suetonius, Octavian, c.97.)
     
  6. In the meanwhile, Augustus wrote a summary of his doings which he wanted to have engraved in tables of brass and placed over his tomb. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.ult.; *Dio, l. 56. 7:73) An example of this which was written in the marble of Ancyra, so often mentioned by us, in which that former census that he took so recently was described.
     
  7. So Augustus ended his days at Nola in Campania, when those two Sexti were consuls and were named on his tomb. (*Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.123. 1:311; Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 100.; Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.5. & 7.; *Dio. l.56. 7:71) He died in the same house and chamber, where his father Octavian had died, (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.100.; Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.9.) on August 19th, which was the same day he was first made consul. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.100.; *Dio, l.56. 7:69)
     
  8. Tiberius did not announce the death of Augustus before he had killed Agrippa Posthumous. He replied to the captain who killed him and brought back word that he had done as Tiberius had ordered that he had not ordered it and that he should give an account of it to the senate. He was willing at the present to avoid its reproach. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.22.; Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.6.; *Dio, l.57. 7:119,121) After preparing all things according to the time, the same news came together that Augustus was dead and that Tiberius Nero was emperor. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.5.)
     
  9. Although he had every intention of taking over the empire, yet he for a long time most imprudently refused it and held the senate in suspense. They begged him and fell on their knees to him. He replied with doubtful and delaying answers so that some upbraided him to his face for his indecision. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.24.; *Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.124. 1:311,313; Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.7.; *Dio, l.57. 7:117)
     
  10. Between this new principality, as Tacitus calls it, (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.6,7.) and the former which he had 2 years before Augustus' death, was this difference. The former extended only to armies and provinces of the Roman Empire but this to the head city itself in which Tiberius only had the authority of censorship and tribuneship. He had the Augustal Principality, that is, of governing after his own will and being freed from all bonds of laws. For Tiberius had not equal power with Augustus as Lucius Varus had with Antony the philosopher who governed the state with equal authority according to Spartianus. (Spartianus, in Hadrian, Aelio Vero, & M. Aurelio.) His power was like Antoninus Pius had with Hadrian who was adopted by him and made colleague with his father in the proconsular power [in respect of the other provinces] and in the tribuneship [at home] as Julius Capitolinus stated. Thereupon Tiberius did not issue the edict by which he called the senators into the senate by the authority of his new principality but by the power of the tribuneship which he had under Augustus. However, he controlled the Praetorian cohorts as emperor. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.7.)
     
4018 AM, 4727 JP, 14 AD
  1. The legions of Pannonia rebelled and were frightened by a sudden eclipse of the moon and so submitted themselves to Tiberius. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.28.; *Dio, l.57. p. 7:123) This total eclipse happened on September 27th at five hours after midnight so that the moon set even in the very eclipse.
     
  2. Ovid (*Ovid, Pontus, l.4. e. 5. 1:439) wrote about Sextus Pompeius who was consul this year and (*Ovid, Pontus, l.4. e. 6. 1:441) the next poem about Brutus, in which he mentions the death both of Augustus and Fabius Maximus. [It is obvious from Tacitus, (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.5.) that Maximus died this year under Tiberius.] Ovid showed in these verses that he was more than five years into his banishment and that then he was entering the sixth, [of the beginning of which we are certain.] Now one quinquennial Olympiad's run, In Scythia I, and the second Lustral gun.
     
  3. In this sixth year he remembered also: (*Ovid, Pontus, l.4. e. 10. 1:463) This is the sixth summer on the Cymmerian shores That I must spend amongst these Getic boors.
     
  4. Ovid mentioned in his eulogy to Caras of the sixth winter, [from which he counts the beginning of the seventh year of his banishment.] (*Ovid, Pontus, l.4. e. 13. 1:477) This the sixth winter [my dear friend] Must I in this cold climate spend.
     
  5. Where also he tells of a poem at this time written by him in the language of the Getes of the canonization of Augustus. (*Ovid, Pontus, l.4. e. 13. 1:477) Ah shame, in Getic language then did I Compile a book, fancy my Posey; Yea gloried in it, and estsoon began Amongst these barbars to be the only man.
     
  6. An Hebrew woman that had been bound by Satan eighteen years from this date, was restored by Christ to health. (Luke 13:1-16)
     
  7. Valerius Gratus is sent by Tiberius as governor to Judea to replace Annius Rufus. Gratus held the government for eleven years. (Josephus, Antiq. l.18. c.3. )
     
  8. When the governor of Crete died, for the rest of his term the island was committed to the charge of the quaestor and his assessor. (Dio, l.57. 7:147)
     
4019 AM, 4729 JP, 16 AD
  1. The Armenians had received Vonones into their kingdom who was expelled from his own by the threats of Artabanus the king of the Parthians and Medes. Vonones solicited in vain for help from Tiberius through his ambassadors whom he sent to Rome. Since the most powerful of the Armenians followed the faction of Artabanus, Vonones gave up all hope of recovering the kingdom. He retired with an huge amount of treasure to Antioch and submited himself to Creticus Silanus, the governor of Syria. Because Vonones was educated at Rome, the governor kept him with him in Syria and set a guard over him but allowed him to maintain the pomp and name of a king. Artabanus set Orodes, one of his sons, to be king over the Armenians. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3. ; Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.4.; Suetonius, Tiberius, c. 49.)
     
4020 AM, 4730 JP, 17 AD
  1. Ovid the poet died in banishment and was buried near the city Tomos. (Jerome, Chronicles)
     
  2. Tiberius had Archelaus, the king of Cappadocia tricked into coming to Rome through the letters of Livia. Tiberius hated him because he had not offered him any help all the while he lived at Rhodes. She did not hide her son's displeasure with him but offered him mercy if he would come and ask for it. Archelaus did not know of the treachery or possible hostility and hurried to Rome. He was churlishly entertained and not long after he was accused of feigned crimes in the senate. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.42.) He was accused as though he planned a sedition. The old king was worn out with extreme old age and gout and was believed to dote on the people. He defended himself in his letter in the senate and pretended that he was not well at that time in his mind and escaped danger for the time being. (*Dio, l.57. 7:157) However, not long after this he died from other causes because he was tired with grief and with old age. Then Cappadocia was organised into a province and committed to the government of an equestrian. (*Dio, l.57. 7:159; Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.42.; Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.37.)
     
  3. Tiberius stated that by the profits of that kingdom of Cappadocia, the tribute of one in the hundred might be stopped and appointed the tribute of one in two hundred to be raised. [??] (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.42.) He ordered that its chief city called Mazaca, a most noble city, should be called Caesarea. (Jerome, Chronicles)
     
  4. At the same time after Antiochus, the king of the Commangenes had died, there arose a contention between the nobility and the common people. The nobility desired that the kingdom should be made into a province and the common people wanted another king. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.42.; Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3. ) In similar manner also the country of the Cilicians was in a turmoil when their King Philopator died. Many wanted it to become a Roman province and many wanted a kingdom. The provinces of Syria and Judea were oppressed with taxes and made a petition that their tribute might be lessened. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.42.)
     
  5. Tiberius discussed these things with the senate and persuaded them that these problems in the east could only be settled by the wisdom of Germanicus. Thereupon by the decree of the senate, Germanicus was given the charge of all the provinces east of Italy. This was a greater command than anyone before him had. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.43.) Under the pretence of problems in the east, Tiberius intended to take him from the legions that he usually commanded and gave him charge over new provinces which exposed him more to treachery and hazards. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.45.??)
     
  6. Because the governor of Syria, Creticus Silanus was related [??] to Germanicus, Tiberius appointed Cn. Piso as his successor. He was a head strong and rebellious man and was well aware that he was made governor of Syria to thwart Germanicus. Some believed that he had secret orders from Tiberius to do so. Without a doubt, his wife Plancina was advised by Augusta through female jealousy to quarrel with Agrippina [the daughter of M. Agrippa] and Julia, the wife of Germanicus (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.43.)
     
  7. In the same year twelve famous cities of Asia were destroyed in one night by an earthquake. These were Ephesus, Magnesia, Sardis, Mosthene, Aegae, Hiero-Caesarea, Philadelphia, Temnus, Cyme, Myrina, Apollonia, and Hyrcania. They stated also that huge mountains were laid flat and plains raised up into hills and fire flashed out of those ruins. The disaster was most serious among the Sardians and created much sympathy for them. Tiberius promised them 1,000,000 Sesterces and to release them for five year's time of all that they were to pay to the common treasury. The Magnetes near the mountain Sypilus were the next worst damaged. They were given relief from taxes for five years also as well as the Temnians, Philadelphians, Aegetians, Apollonienses, and such as are called Mosthenians, or Macedonians of Hyreania, and those who lived at Heiro-Caesarea, Myrina and Cyme. Tiberius sent some of the senators to them to see the situation and help them. This charge was committed to M. Aletus who was once a praetor. If one who had been consul over Asia had been sent, there might have been some envy between equals [e.g. the governor of Asia] and the business would have been hindered. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.43.; *Strabo, l.12. 5:515,517 l.13. 6:179; *Pliny. l.2. c. 84. 1:329; *Dio. l.57. 7:159; Eusebius, Chronicles; Orosius, l.7. c.4.)
     
  8. For this magnificent generosity to the public, a large statue of Tiberius was erected in the forum at Rome by the temple of Venus. Each of the cities which was rebuilt, also erected a statue of Tiberius according to Phlegon Trellianus in his book of wonders stated from Apollonius the Grammarian. Scaliger also adds that there were silver medals coined to commemorate these things. On one side of the coin was the face of Tiberius and on the reverse side was the picture of Asia in a woman's clothing sitting with these words CIVITATIBUS ASIAE RESTITUTIS meaning, "for the cities of Asia restored."
     
4021 AM, 4731 JP, 18 AD
  1. Germanicus was sent out to settle the affairs of the east. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.1.) He sailed into the isle Lesbos where his wife Agrippina had previously given birth to Julia. He desired to see the places of antiquity and fame, he went to the confines of Asia, Perinthus and Byzantium, cities of Thrace. Then he entered the straits of Propontis and the mouth of the Pontic Sea. Likewise he relieved the provinces which were oppressed with civildiscord or oppressive magistrates. He sailed to Colophon and consulted the oracle of Clarius Apollo. The oracle told him in dark speeches [as the manner of oracles was] that his death was near. (Tacitus, Annals, l, 2. c.54.)
     
  2. Cn. Piso sailed as quickly as possible by the Cyclades and using the shortest routes by sea, he overtook Germanicus at Rhodes. Piso was saved from danger of shipwreck by Germanicus but yet was not placated. He left Germanicus and went ahead of him to Syria. When he came to the legions with gifts and bribes, he tried to win them over to him. He reached such an height of corruption that among the common people, he was called the father of the legions. Both he and his wife Plancina as well by herself were involved in this. She instigated some of the soldiers to obey her base commands and spoke disrespectfully against Agrippina and Germanicus. It was all the easier because it was secretly whispered that this was done with the emperor's consent. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.55.)
     
  3. Although Germanicus knew about those things, the affairs of Armenia required his attention first. At that time, the Armenians had expelled Vonones and had no king. [This is if we can believe Tacitus for Suetonius (Suetonius, Caligula, c.1.) stated that the king of Armenia was conquered by Germanicus. This was Orodes, the son of Artabanus, king of the Parthians, as it was stated from Josephus.] The good will of the country was inclined more towards Zeno, the son of Polemon, the king of Pontus. From his childhood, he had imitated the customs and clothing of the Armenians in hunting and feasting and other exercises which were greatly esteemed by the barbarians. He had won to him the good will of the nobles and common people. Germanicus intended to make him king in the city of Artaxatis. The noble men approved of this and the multitudes flocked around him. The rest reverenced him as their king and greeted him by the name of Artaxias after the name of their city. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.56.)
     
  4. Then the Cappadocians were organised into a province and Q. Veranius was made its governor. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.56.) To encourage them that the Roman government would be mild, some of the tributes that they used to pay to their kings, were reduced. Q. Servaeus was made governor over the Commagenians. This province was ruled by a praetor. [??] (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.56.)
     
4022 AM, 4731 JP, 18 AD
  1. After all the affairs of the allies were successfully settled, Germanicus was still uneasy about Piso's arrogance. Germanicus had ordered that either he himself or his son, should lead some of the legions into Armenia and neither did anything. Finally, they both met at Cyrrhum, a city of Syria, where the tenth legion wintered. In the presence of a few families, Caesar had a heated discussion with Piso and and Piso answered with a proud submission. Hence they departed with grudges against each other. After that Piso was seldom at Caesar's tribunal, and if at any time he assisted, he showed himself froward and obviously dissented from him. This speech of his was told at a banquet made by the king of the Nabateans, where large crowns of gold were given to Germanicus and Agrippina and small ones to Piso and the rest. This feast was made for the son of a Roman prince and not for the son of the Parthian king. The son threw away his crown, and spoke many things against the generosity of the host. [??] Although Germanicus could hardly digest this, yet endured it all patiently. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.57.)
     
  2. Ambassadors came from Artabanus, the king of the Parthians, to Germanicus to renew the friendship and league between them. The king said that he would give so much to the honour of Germanicus that he would come to the banks of the Euphrates River. He desired in the meantime that Vonones might not stay in Syria, lest by secret messengers he might make a rebellion among the noble men of the country around there. Germanicus answered agreeably to the alliance between the Romans and the Parthians. Concerning the king's coming and the honour done to himself, he answered politely and with modesty. Vonones was moved to Pompeipolis, a sea town of Cilicia. This was not done so much at Artabanus' request, as to spite Piso to whom Vonones was most acceptable for many services and gifts which he had given to Plancina, Piso's wife. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.58.)
     
  3. When M. Silanus and L. Norbanus were consuls, Germanicus went into Egypt to learn its history but pretended a concern for the province. He opened the granaries and brought down the price of grain and did other things to win the favour of the people. He went about without soldiers, wore open shoes and dressed like a Greek. Tiberius lightly blamed him for his behaviour and apparel and sharply rebuked him that contrary to Augustus' order he had entered Alexandria without the permission of the prince. However, Germanicus did not yet know that his journey was frowned on and sailed up the Nile River starting at the town Conopus. Later he visited the great ruins of Thebes where the Egyptians' letters could still be seen in the old buildings which contained their ancient wealth. He intended to see other marvels of which the main attraction was the stone image of Memnon. When it is illuminated by the sun, it makes a sound like a man's voice. He also saw the pyramids as high as mountains built by the former kings to show their riches. He saw the impassable sands and the hand made ditches to hold the flooding of the Nile River. They were so narrow in same places and so deep in other places that the bottom could not be determined. Then he came to Elephantine and Syene. So that summer was spent by Germanicus in seeing various provinces. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.59-62.)
     
  4. At the same time Vonones bribed his guards and tried by all means to escape to the Armenians and from there to the Albanians and Heniochians and to his relative, the king of Scythia. Under the pretence of going hunting, he left the seacoasts and took the byways. His fast horse brought him quickly to the Pyrimus River, whose bridges the inhabitants had broken down when they heard of the king's escape. The river was too deep to ford across. Therefore on the bank of the river, he was captured and bound by Vibius Fronto, captain of the cavalry. Then as it were through anger, he was run through by Remmius Evocatus, to whose keeping he was first committed. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.68.)
     
  5. The daughter to Jairus, the ruler of the synagogue, was born. She was his only child and died when she was twelve years old. Christ restored her to life. During this year also, the woman became sick of the flux of blood. Twelve years later she was healed by touching the garment of Jesus. (Luke 8:42,43; Mark 5:42)
     
  6. There were many vain oracles that went about as though they had been the Sibyls concerning the destruction of Rome which was to happen in the year 900 from its founding. Tiberius reproved them and saw all the books which contained any prophesies. He rejected some as of no importance and he received others into the number of those which were to be approved. (*Dio, l.57. 7:161,163)
     
  7. The senate debated about elimination of the Egyptian and Jewish religion. An act was made that those who observed them must depart from Italy if within a certain day they did not stop those practices. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.85.) They were compelled to burn all their religious garments with all things belonging to them. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.36.) This may also be what Seneca refers to. (Seneca, (Ephesians 108).) "When I was a young man in the government of Tiberius, the foreign rites of the countries were removed. It was thought superstitious to abstain from some kinds of food."
     
  8. An horrible crime was committed against Paulina, a noble woman by the Egyptian religion. When it was known, Tiberius commanded the temple of Isis to be thrown down and Isis' statue to be drowned in the Tiber River. (Josephus, Annals, l.18. c.4. ) A certain imposter was the reason for the expulsion of the Jews. He fled his country for fear of being punished, according to their laws. He then lived at Rome and made himself as though he were an interpreter of Moses' law. He had also three associates like himself. A noble woman, Fulvia, embraced the Jewish religion and became their scholar. They persuaded her that she should send purple and gold to the temple of Jerusalem. When they had received this, they used it for themselves. Tiberius was informed of this by his friend Saturninus, the husband of Fulvia who complained of the wrong to his wife. Tiberius ordered all the Jews to get out of the city. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.5. )
     
  9. The consuls enlisted 4000 of the youth for soldiers from the Jews who were the sons of free men. They were sent into Sardinia to suppress the robbers. They thought it no great loss if they should perish through the intemperance of the air. Many who refused to be enlisted because of the religion of their country, were grievously punished. The rest of that nationality or any that followed their religion, were turned out of the city under the penalty of perpetual slavery if they did not obey. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.5. ; Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.36.; Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.85.)
     
  10. Rhascupolis or Rhascoporis, the king of Thracia, killed Cotys his brother's son, who also was his partner in the kingdom. He was betrayed by Pomponius Flaccus. [Ovid mentions Flaccus (*Ovid, Pontus, l.4. . e. 9.) as governor of Moesia.] He was brought to Rome and there condemned and taken to Alexandria. He was killed as though he had made an attempt to flee from there. (Tacitus, Annals l.2. c.67.; *Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.126. 1:311; Suetonius, Tiberius, c.37.)
     
4023 AM, 4732 JP, 19 AD
  1. When Germanicus returned from Egypt, he found that everything he had ordered about the legions or cities was not done or done exactly opposite to what he ordered. Thereupon, he had very harsh words with Piso as if Piso had disobeyed the emperor directly. Hence Piso decided to leave Syria, but was then detained by reason of Germanicus' sickness. When he heard he was getting better and that the vows were to be made for his health, he thought his sergeants, drove away the beasts brought to the altar and disturbed the preparation for the sacrifices and the solemn meeting of the people of Antioch where Germanicus was. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.69.) When Germanicus was sick, he used him most harshly in words and deeds without any moderation. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.2.)
     
  2. Then Piso went to Seleucia and expected Germanicus to become sick again. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.69.) In the house where Germanicus lived, they found pieces of human bodies dug out, verses and charms, his name engraved on lead sheets, ashes half burned and mingled with corrupt blood and other sorceries. It was believed that by this the souls are dedicated to the infernal powers. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.69.; *Dio, l.57. 7:163)
     
  3. Germanicus was very angry and renounced by letters Piso's friendship according to the ancient custom. Some add that he ordered him to leave the province. Piso did not stay but weighed anchor. However he sailed slowly so that he might return the sooner if news of Germanicus' death should open a way for him into Syria. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.70.; Suetonius, Caligula, c.3.)
     
  4. Germanicus was greatly weakened by his sickness and knew his end was near. He accused Piso and his wife Plancina and desired his friends to revenge it. He died to the great regret of the province and the neighbouring people. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.71,72.) He died at Antioch from a disease that had no respite when he was 34 years old. He was suspected to have been poisoned that was given to him through the treachery of Tiberius and Piso. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.1,2.)
     
  5. The day that Germanicus died, the temples were battered with a storm of stones, altars were overturned, the household gods by some were thrown into the streets and children laid out to die. They report also that the barbarians consented to a truce for public mourning with whom there was civilwar or war against the Romans. Some governors among them cut off their beards and shaved their wives' heads, as a sign of their greatest mourning. The king of kings did no hunting or feasting with the nobles, which is a kind of holiday among the Parthians. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.5.)
     
  6. His funeral was without any images or pomp and was solemnized with the praises and memory of his virtues. Before his body was burnt, it lay naked in the forum of Antioch where it was to be buried. It was uncertain, if he showed any signs of poison for there was a difference of opinion. Those who favoured Germanicus thought he was and those who favoured Piso did not think so. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.73.) In addition to the marks which were all over his body and the froth which came from his mouth, the heart did not burn with the rest of his body. It was thought that it would not be consumed with fire if the man died from poison. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.1.) In a speech Vitellius later made, he tried to prove Piso guilty of this villainy and used this argument and publicly testified that the heart of Germanicus could not be burned because of the poison. Piso used the defence that the hearts of those who die of the disease called Cardiaca Passio cannot be burned. (*Pliny, l.11. c.71. 3:549)
     
  7. Cneus Sentius was chosen as the governor for Syria, by the lieutenants and senators who were there. They sent Martina to Rome, a woman infamous in that province for poisoning but very much liked by of Piso's wife, Plancina. This was done at the request of Vitellius and Veranius who alleged crimes and accusations against them as if they were already found guilty. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.74.) Although Agrippina was worn out with grief and sickness, she was impatient of anything which might hinder her revenge. She sailed with Germanicus' ashes and her children. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.75.)
     
  8. Piso received the news of Germanicus' death at the isle of Cos and expressed his joy most intemperately. Plancina was more insolent, who then first of all stopped her mourning for the death of her sister. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.75.) The centurions came flocking about him and told him that the legions were already at his command and he should return to the province which was wrongfully taken from him and now had no governor. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.76.) He sent letters to Tiberius and accused Germanicus of riotousness and pride and that himself was driven out to make way for a revolt Germanicus was planning. Piso said that he had taken the charge of the army again with the same fidelity he had governed it before. He had ordered Domitius Celer with a galley to sail to Syria as quickly as possible by the open sea and avoid the longer coastal route. Piso then marshalled and armed renegades and his rascal companions. He sailed over to the continent and intercepted an ensign of new soldiers who were going to Syria. He wrote to the leaders of Cilicia to send him help. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.78.)
     
  9. Piso and his companions sailed by the coast of Lycia and Pamphilia and met with the ships which conveyed Agrippina. They each hated one another and prepared to fight. They were equally afraid of each other and only exchanged harsh words. Marsus Vibius told Piso that he should come to Rome and answer for himself. He scoffingly replied that he would come when the praetor who was to inquire into the poisonings would appoint a day for the plaintiff and defendant. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.79.)
     
  10. In the meanwhile, Domitius went to Laodicea, a city of Syria, and came to the winter quarters of the sixth legion. It was the best one to corrupt but he was prevented from this by the lieutenant Pucureius. Sentius warned Piso by letters that he should not go about to corrupt the army nor raise any war in the province. He immediately marched with a strong force and was ready to fight. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.79.)
     
  11. Piso seized the strong citadel of Celenderis in Cilicia. He had intermixed the renegades and the new soldiers that he had intercepted, with his own troops, Plancina's slaves [??] and the forces which the leaders of the Cilicians had sent him. He marshalled them into the form of a legion and then he drew out his companies before the citadel walls on a steep and craggy hill. All the other sides were surrounded by the sea. When the Roman cohorts came, the Cilicians fled and the Romans occupied the citadel. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.80.)
     
  12. In the meantime, Piso tried in vain to attack the navy that was not far off. He then returned to the citadel again. He tormented himself on the walls and called every soldier by name. He offered bribes and tried to raise a rebellion. He succeeded so well that the standard bearer of the sixth legion defected to him with his ensign. Then Sentius commanded the cornets and trumpets to sound and made an assault on the rampart. He raised the ladders and ordered the ablest men to follow him and others to shoot from engines, arrows, stones and firebrands. In the end, Piso was overcome and entreated that since he had laid down his arms he wanted to stay in the citadel until Caesar was consulted as to who should be the governor of Syria. These conditions were rejected and nothing was granted to him except naval escort and safe conduct to Rome. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.81.)
     
  13. When the rumour of Germanicus spread, it was exaggerated by the distance it travelled to Rome. The people were deeply grieved by his death (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.82.) as much as it pleased Tiberius and Livia. (*Dio, l.57. p. 615.) No consolations or edicts could restrain the public mourning which lasted all the festival days of the month of December. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.6.)
     
  14. Germanicus was decreed every honour which love or imagination could conceive. Arches were erected at Rome and on the bank of the Rhine River. On the Amanus mountain in Syria, an inscription was placed of what he had done and that he died for the country. A sepulchre at Antioch was made for his burial. A funeral monument was made at Epidaphne where he died. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.83.)
     
  15. Although it was winter, Agrippina still continued her voyage by sea and arrived at the island Corcyra opposite the coast of Calabria. She rested a few days to settle her mind and then sailed to Brundusium. After she landed with her two children and held the funeral urn in her hand, there was a general mourning among them all. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.1.)
     
  16. Drusius, the son of Tiberius, went as far as Tarracina to meet her with Germanicus' brother Claudius and the children of Germanicus who had remained in the city. The new consuls M. Valerius and M. Aurelius, the senate, and a large number of the people lined the way. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.2.)
     
  17. The day that the remains of Germanicus were placed in Augustus' tomb in Campus Martius, there was a desolate silence that was sometimes broken by their weeping. Everyone honoured Germanicus and had great sympathy for his widow, Agrippina and railed against Tiberius. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.4,5.)
     
  18. When Piso came to Rome, he landed at Caesar's tomb. That day, the shore was full of people. Piso with a large company of followers after him and Plancina with a number of women in her train went ashore. They both looked very cheerfully and solemnizing their happy return in an house that overlooked into the forum which was decked out for feasts and banquets. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.9.) The next day Fulcinius Tiro accused Piso before the consuls. Tiberius referred the whole case to the senate. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.10.) The day the senate met Drusius, Tiberius made a prepared speech and tried to accommodate and moderate the defendant's offence. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.12.) The accusers were given two days to bring in their accusations and after six day's time, the defendant had three days to answer for himself. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.13.)
     
  19. As the case was pleaded, the outcry of the people could be heard before the court. They said they would tear him in pieces if the senate found him innocent. They had dragged his images into the Gemonian Steps and began to break them in pieces. [These steps descended from the capitol to the forum and were used to expose the bodies of executed criminals.] However, by Tiberius' orders they were restrained from their actions. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c. 14.) They showed the same hatred against Plancina but she was protected by Tiberius [through the influence of his wife.] Piso knew he was finished when his wife separated her defence from her husband's. Thereupon he killed himself with his own sword. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.15.)
     
  20. Suetonius writes that he was almost torn in pieces by the people and was condemned to death by the senate. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.2.) Dio related this account. For the death of Germanicus, Piso was brought into the senate by Tiberius himself. Piso desired that he might have time to defend himself and he committed suicide. (*Dio, l.57. 7:165) Cornelius Tactius says that he had often heard from the old men, (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.16.) that there was often seen a little book in Piso's hand which he kept to himself. His friends said it contained Tiberius' letters and commission against Germanicus. Piso planned to disclose it to the senators and to accuse Tiberius, had he not been deluded by Tiberius' vain promises. Piso did not kill himself but someone was sent to murder him. Tacitus said: "I will not confirm either of these things although I ought not to conceal it to have been said by those who lived until I came to a man's age." (Suetonius, Tiberius, c.52.)
     
4025 AM, 4735 JP, 22 AD
  1. Licences for ordaining sanctuaries increased greatly throughout the cities of Greece. These places became havens for debtors against their creditors and those that were suspected of capital crimes. Hence the wickedness of men was protected by the ceremonies of the gods. Tiberius ordered that the cities should sent their charters and ambassadors to the senate to Rome for confirmation. The Ephesians were first heard concerning this business. Then came the Magnetians, Aphrodisians, Stratonicenses, Hiero-Caesarians, Cypriots, Pergamenians, Smyrnians, Tenians, Sardians, Milesians, Cretians, and others. An honourable standard was prescribed. They were commanded to erect altars in the very temples for a sacred memory yet so that under pretence of religion, they should not fall into rivalries. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.60-63.)
     
  2. Caius Silvanus was accused of bribery by his companions and banished into the Isle Cythera. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.66-69) Caesius Cordus was also accused of bribery by the Cyrenenses, by the suit of Ancharius Priscus and was condemned. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.70.)
     
4026 AM, 4736 JP, 23 AD
  1. Aelius Sajenus killed Drusius [the son of Tiberius and his partner in the tribuneship after Sajenus committed adultery with Drusius' wife, Livia] by poison given him by Lygdus, an eunuch. (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.8. 10.) Sajenus also accused the Jews who lived at Rome to Tiberius of pretended crimes so that he might wholly destroy that nationality. He knew they were the main ones who opposed his wicked practices and he said they conspired against the life of the emperor. (Philo, de legat. ad Caium; Flaccus, in initio.)
     
  2. After Drusius' funeral was over Tiberius returned to his accustomed business and took no extra time off. He jeered the ambassadors of the Illenses that came too late to comfort him, as though the memory of grief had been blotted out. He replied that he also was forty when they had lost so gallant a citizen as Hector was. (Suetonius, Tiberius, c.52.)
     
  3. The senate passed the decrees of Tiberius that the city Cibyra in Asia and Aeginum in Achaia that were badly damaged by an earthquake should not have to pay tribute for the next three years. (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.13.)
     
  4. The Samians and the men of Cos sent their ambassadors to Rome and desired the confirmation of their ancient right of sanctuaries. One temple was for Juno and the other for Aesculapius. (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.13.)
     
  5. Lucilius Longus died who was the companion of the fortunes of Tiberius whether good or bad and who only of all the senators, was Tiberius' companion when he exiled himself to Rhodes. (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.15.)
     
  6. Lucilius Capito, the governor of Asia, was condemned by the accusation of the province. In the previous year, they had brought C. Silanus to justice and the cities of Asia decreed a temple dedicated to Tiberius, his mother, and the senate. They received permission to build it. (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.15.)
     
  7. Valerius Gratus the governor of Judea, removed Ananus or Annas from the high priesthood and made Ismael, the son of Fabus, the high priest. He soon removed him also. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3. )
     
4027 AM, 4737 JP, 24 AD
  1. Ismael was removed from the high priesthood and Eleazar, the son of Annas, [or Ananus who was previously removed,] was made high priest by Valerius. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3. )
     
  2. Cassius Severus the orator, seventeen years earlier, was banished into Crete for his vicious tongue by the decree of the senate. He behaved just as poorly there and had all his estate taken from him. He was forbidden both water and fire and was banished into the stony island of Seriphos. Eight years later, he died in extreme poverty. (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.21.; Jerome, Chronicles)
     
  3. P. Dolabella, the proconsul of Africa, summoned to help him and his country men, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, King of Mauritania. He killed Tacfarinas and put an end to the Numidian war. The king of the Garamantes had helped Tacfarinas with light cavalry whom he sent from a long way off. When Tacfarinas was killed, Garamantes sent ambassadors to give satisfaction to the people of Rome. (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.23-26.)
     
  4. Vibius Serenus a banished man, was falsely accused by his son of treason and was condemned for an old grudge that Tiberius had against him. Gallus Asinius was of the opinion that he should be confined, either to Gyaros or Donusa. Tiberius set aside his grudge and said that he disagreed with that sentence. He said that both those islands lacked water and that to whom life was granted, things necessary for life were also to be granted. Thereupon, Serenus was banished to Amorgos, [one of the islands of the Sporades.] (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.28-30.)
     
  5. The ten year term of Tiberius' empire had expired and he made no plans of resuming it by any decree for another ten years longer neither did he want to have it divided by ten year periods as Augustus had done. He just continued on by his own authority. However, the decennial plays were held. (*Dio, l.57. 7:181)