Historical Writings

Ussher's "The Annals of the World"

The Sixth Age: 350 BC - 301 BC

3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC
  1. While Salamis was besieged by Phocyon and Euagoras, all the rest of the cities submitted to the Persians. Only Protagoras king of Salamis held out against them. Euagoras wanted to be restored to his father's kingdom in Salamis. Some men treated him poorly and made accusations against him to the king. Euagoras saw that the king favoured Protagoras over him and gave up in his request to be restored to the kingdom. He went and cleared himself of all charges before the king. He did this so well that the king gave him a far better dynasty in Asia. At last Protagoras voluntarily submitted to the king and held the kingdom of Salamis peacefully after that. [Diodor. year 3Olympiad 107.] This Euagoras of whom we now speak, it seems was the grandchild of another Euagoras who died 24 years before by his son Nicocles. For that Euagoras the elder, had a son Nicocles who succeeded him in the kingdom of Salamis. Another called Protagoras, appears from Isocrates. This younger Euagoras who succeeded Nicocles, seems to have been put from his kingdom by Protagoras who was his uncle. He received a better territory than Salamis from Ochus. But by his misdeeds there, he was forced to flee again into Cyprus. He was captured and executed as a malefactor according to Diodorus.
     
  2. Eusebus in Chron. shows that in this 3rd year of the 107th Olympiad, Ochus forced Nectanebus to flee into Ethiopia and took over all Egypt. He put an end to the kingdom of Egypt. This time was the period of Manetho's Commentaries concerning the history of Egypt and how Egypt was captured by Ochus. Diodorus in this year gives a long account of this.
     
  3. After Orchus destroyed Sidon, the auxiliary forces came to him from Argos, Thebes and the Greek cities in Asia. He united all his forces and he marched to the lake of Sirbonis. Most of his army perished in the bogs of Barathra because they had no guides. From there he marched to Pelusium at the first mouth of the Nile River. It was held by a garrison of 5000 men under Philophron. Here the Greeks encamped close to the city and the Persians camped 8 miles off. Ochus divided the Greeks into three brigades each of which was to have two commanders, one a Persian and the other a Greek. The first brigade, the Boeotians, were commanded by Lachertes a Theban and Rosaces a Persian, governor of Ionia and Lydia. The second one, the men of Argos, were commanded by Nicostratus a Greek and Aristazanes a Persian. The third brigade was under Mentor, who betrayed Sidon and Bagoas an eunuch of Persia. To each of these Greek brigades were added various companies and troops and sea captains with their squadrons of ships. On the other side, Nectanebus had in his army 20,000 auxiliary Greeks and as many to help him from Libya and 60,000 from his own country of Egypt who were called "Warriors". He had an exceeding large number of river boats, outfitted to fight in the river Nile if required. When he had supplied every place with reasonably sufficient garrisons, he with 30,000 Egyptians, 5000 Greeks and one half of his Libyans, defended the passages which lay most open and easiest for invasion.
     
  4. When things were thus ordered on both sides, Nicostratus who commanded the Argivians, obtained some Egyptian guides whose wives and children were kept as hostages by the Persians. With his pprtion of the ships, he crossed over one of the channels of the Nile that would be most out of sight from the Egyptians, When the closest garrisons of the Egyptians knew this, they sent to cut them off, over 7000 under Clinius who was from the Isle of Cos. In that encounter, the Greeks on the Persian side slew almost 5000 men on the other side along with their commander Clinius. When Nectanebus heard of this slaughter, he with his army he had about him retired to Memphis to secure that place. Meanwhile Lacrates, who commanded the first brigade of the Greeks, hurried to attack Pelusium. He drained away the water that ran around Pelusium by a ditch that he cut. He raised a mount on the very channel of the old river and there planted his batteries. The Greeks within courageously defended the place. However when they heard that Nectanebus had left the field and retired to Memphis, they sued for peace. Lacrates told them and bound it with an oath that when the town was surrendered, they with their belongings would be all sent to Greece. When they heard this they surrendered the town.
     
  5. Mentor who commanded the third brigade, saw that all the cities were manned with two nationalities, the Greeks and Egyptians. He spread a rumour that Artaxerxes planned to deal most graciously with those who willingly submitted to him. The rest would be treated like those in Sidon. Everywhere the Greeks and Egyptians strived to be the first to surrender their cities to the Persians. Bubastus was the first city to surrender to the Persians, followed by all the rest of the cities. They settled for the best terms they could.
     
  6. Meanwhile when Nectancbus was at Memphis, he heard how all the cities defected to the Persians. Despondent, he gathered all the treasure he could and fled to Ethiopia. [Diod. Sic. year (3). Olympiad. 107.] Others report, that he shaved his head and disguised his appearance. He went to Pelusium and from there sailed to Philip king of Macedonia at Pella. [see the Excerpta, Barbaro-Latina, published by Scaliger, p. 58. the Chronicle of Alexandria, or Fasti Siculi, published by Raderus, p. 393. Cedrenus in the Basile Edition, p. 124. and Glycas, p. 195. from Psendo-Callisthenes' fabulous history of the Deeds of Alexander.]
     
  7. When Artaxerxes Ochus had possessed all of Egypt, he dismantled all the fortifications of the main cities and destroyed their temples. He got an infinite amount of treasure. Moreover, he took away all their records from their most ancient temples. The priests bought these again by paying a great some of money to Bagoas the Eunuch. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad. 107.] Ochus also is said to have derided their ceremonies and their god, Apis. [Severus Suppicitsus in his sacred History, l.2.] The Egyptians called him an ass for his poor behaviour and spirit. Therefore, he violently took their god Apis the bull and sacrificed him to an ass. [Elian. Varia. Histor. l.4. c.8.] Then he ordered his cooks to prepare the bull for dinner. [Suidas in Ochus.]
     
  8. After this Ochus rewarded his Greeks who helped him win this victory with wealth and honour, each man according to his deeds. He sent them all away to their own country. He left Pherendates as his viceroy in Egypt. After so great a conquest, he was covered with glory and loaded with spoils. He returned to Babylon with his army, [Diod. Sic. year 3Olympiad 107.] where he also took many Jews as prisoners. He settled most of them in Hircania which bordered on the Caspian Sea. Georgius Syncellus, from Julius Africanus reports in this: "Ochus the son of Artaxerxes, made a journey into Egypt. He led away some Jews as captives. He settled some of them in Hircania near the Caspian Sea and the rest in Babylon. There they continue to this day as many Greek writers report."
     
  9. Hecataeus Abderia also, in his first book, De Judais, cited by Josephus, in his 1st book Contra Apionem, mentions many tens of thousands of Jews who were carried to Babylon. Later they were settled in Hircania. Paulus Orosins also writes: [l. 31. c.7.] "Ochus, who is also called Artaxerxes, after his great and long war in Egypt was ended, carried away many of the Jews. He commanded them to settle in Hircania near the Caspian Sea. Here they continue to this day and prosper and increase in population. It is thought that they will one day break out from there into some other quarter of the world."
     
  10. This opinion seems to have no basis except of the passage in /APC (2 Esdras 13:40-46) concerning the ten tribes who were carried away by Shalmaneser, of the Jews, of certain Hebrews shut up I know not where and of a river Sabbation. Petrus Treccensis in his scholastical history, [Esth. c.5.] and from Vincentius Bellovacensis in his Specul. Histor. [l. 30. c.89.] mentions these ten tribes. They were later closely confined in the Caspian Mountains. But these things do not agree with Josephus, whom he alleges for his author. Rather they agree with the writings of that false Gorion and Methodius and even with those fictitious accounts from the Mahometan's Koran, concerning Alexander.
     
3655 AM, 4365 JP, 349 BC
  1. Ochus rewarded Mentor of Rhodes with 100 talents in money and very rich furnishings for his house. He made Mentor governor over all the Asiatic shores with full and absolute power to suppress all rebellions which happened in those parts. This great grace and favour he used well. Previously Artabazus and Memnon made war against Ochus [See notes on 3648 AM and 3651 AM] and were driven from Asia. They fled to Philip king of Macedonia and lived with him. Philip secured pardons for Artabazus and Memnon from the king who sent for them both to come to him with all their families. Artabazus had by Mentor and Memnon's sister, 11 sons and 10 daughters. With so numerous a progeny, Mentor was exceedingly delighted and as each son grew up Mentor made them officers in the Army. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 107.]
     
  2. Hermias, the archon of Atarne, was in rebellion against Ochus and had many strong cities and citadels under him. Mentor invited him to a peace conference and promised him that he would get him a pardon from the king. When Hermias came. Mentor captured him and took his signet ring. He sent letters in the name of Hermias that required the captains and garrisons everywhere in his dominion to surrender to the ones carrying these letters. This they did immediately. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 107. and Polyanus Stratag. l.6.] In like manner he did the same with all the other rebels of the king. Some he took by force and others by tricks. He brought them all under the king's subjection again. He periodically sent the king Greek mercenaries. He managed the government with great wisdom, valour and loyalty to the king. [Diod. Sic. year 3. and 4. Olymp. 107. and Demosthenes in his Oration, contra Aristocratem.]
     
  3. When Spartacus the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius was dead, his brother Parysades succeeded him in the kingdom and held it for 38 years. [Diod. Sic. year 4. of 107. Olympiad.]
     
3656 AM, 4366 JP, 348 BC
  1. In the 1st year of the 108th Olympiad, when Theophilus was archon in Athens, Plato died who was the philosopher and founder of the old academia. [Hermippus in Laertius, Dionysius Halicarnasseus, in his Epistle to Ammeus concerning Demosthenes and Atheneus l.5. c.13.] The saying of Numenius the Pythagorean as reported by Hesychius the Milesian, [in Numenius]: "Whatever Plato said concerning God and the world, he stole it all from the books of Moses."
     
  2. Hence came that famous saying of his, reported by Hesychius and his follower Suidas. Even before them Clememens Alexandrinus [Stromat. 1.] said of him: "for what is Plato, but Moses put into good Greek?"
     
  3. He says that Plato translated many things from the books of Moses and put them into his own writings. Aristobulus the Jew [See note on 3479 AM] said the same so that I shall not try to defend the authority of Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Ambrose, Theodoret, Johannes Philoponus, writing on the Hexameron and other Christians.
     
  4. After Plato died, Aristotle, who founded the sect of the Peripatetic Philosophers, travelled to Hermias the eunuch and ruler of Atarve, of whom I spoke in the previous year. He lived with him for 3 years, according to Laertius from Apollodorus' Chronicle and Dionysius in his previously cited Epistle to Ammeus. Strabo [l. 13.] tells us, that he lived at Assos, which was under the dominion of Hermias and Assos is mentioned in (Acts 20:13). Aristotle was closely related to Hermias because he married Pythiades the adopted daughter of Hermias. She was either the natural daughter of Hermias' sister or brother. I know not if Aristotle the Peripatetic [as we find in Euseb. de Preparat. Evangel. lib. 15.] from the affection he had for Hermias married her after the death of Hermias. While he remained in Asia, he met a Jew who was a man of great learning and temperance. He came from upper Asia to the seaside. There he talked in Greek with Aristotle and any others who wanted to hear him. [Clearchus of Solos a principal scholar of Aristotle, as cited by Josephus, l.1. contra Apionem., in his 1st book "de Somno." i.e."of sleep."] So that perhaps to this Jew it is that the Peripatetic sect of philosophers owe so many of their good sayings. They follow closely the words of Moses and the prophets as our Clement of Alexandria affirms from Aristobulus. [l. 5. Strom.]
     
3658 AM, 4368 JP, 346 BC
  1. Satyrus, the ruler of Heraclea in Pontus turned over the government to Timotheus, the oldest son of his brother Clearchus. Shortly after this, Satyrus was striken with a most grievous and incurable disease. A cancer grew in his groin which never stopped growing inward until he died at the age of 65 years. He ruled Heraclea for 7 years. [Meknon in Excerpt. c.3. ] Timotheus took his younger brother Dionysius into the government and appointed him to be his successor in case he should die. [Meknon in Excerpt. c.4.]
     
3659 AM, 4369 JP, 345 BC
  1. Memnon of Rhodes, a Persian commander mentioned earlier, sent for Hermias the eunuch and ruler of Atarne. He came suspecting nothing for he was invited as a friend. Memnon seized him and sent him as a prisoner to the king who hanged him. The philosophers, Aristotle and Xenocrates, a Chalcedonian who was born in Bithynia were with Hermias. They got away and escaped from the Persian territories. [Strabo. l.13.] When Aristotle had lived with Hermias 3 years he went to Mytilene when Eubulus was archon at Athens, in year 4. of the Olymp. 108. [According to Laertius from Apollodorus' Chronicles and also Dionys. Halicarnas. in his Epistle to Ammaeus mentioned previously.] There is also extant in Laertius an Epigram of Aristotles, on a statue of Hermias at Delphi: "Him did the king of Persia stay Contrary to Jove's law or reason, Not by force or bloody fray, But by a friend's detested treason."
     
  2. Therefore I thought it fit to insert this here that no man might think that Aristotle was in anyway party to his death. This they might incorrectly think based on those words of Tertullian where he says that Aristotle made his friend Hermias to leave his place in shame.
     
3660 AM, 4370 JP, 344 BC
  1. Idrieus, Prince of Caria died. His enormous wealth is noted by Isocrates [Oration to Philip of Macedonia]. His wife Ada who was his sister, succeeded him and ruled for 4 years. [Strabo, l. 14. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp.] In Asia it was common after the time of Semiramis, for wives to succeed their husband's in their kingdoms. [Aria in Exped. Ales. l.1. p. 24.]
     
3664 AM, 4374 JP, 340 BC
  1. Pexodarus the youngest son of Hecaromnus, expelled his sister Ada and ruled for 5 years. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 109.] He left her the revenues from only the town of Alinda to live on.
     
  2. Pexodarus sent for Orontobates a Persian lord, to make him his consort in the government of Caria. He gave him his daughter Ada for a wife. [Aria. l.1. Strabo l.14.]
     
  3. Philip king of Macedonia and his army of 30,000 men besieged Perinthus, a town in Thracia that was on the Propontus. They were well equipped with battering rams and other devices and they constantly tried to destroy the walls so the inhabitants had no time for rest or respite. The king of Persia was becoming alarmed by Philip's success. He ordered his commanders and governors in Asia to send to relieve Perinthus. They were to send all they could which they did. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 109.] This was the main reason Alexander gave in a letter to Darius why he invaded Asia. [Aria. l.1. p. 41.]
     
3666 AM, 4376 JP, 338 BC
  1. When Artaxerxes Ochus had reigned for 23 years, he became sick. Bagoas was the eunuch and chief man under him as chiliarch of the kingdom. Bagoas gave him poison to kill him. Artaxerxes' physician helped Bagoas do this. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104. and year 2. Olymp. 111., Severin Sulpitiscs. Histor. Sacra l.2.] Bagoas was an Egyptian and so hated Ochus for killing their god Apis that he revenged that sacrilege [as Sulpitius speaks] done to his nation by killing the king. He cut his flesh into gibbets and threw it to the cats to eat. I do no know what he put into the coffin in place of his flesh. From his thigh bones he made belts and handles for swords and by this represented his propensity to blood and slaughter. [Elian. Varia. Histor. l. 6. c.8.] When Artaxerxes was dead, Bagoas was the most powerful man in the kingdom. He made Artaxerxes' youngest son Arsen the king and executed all his brothers. The young king would have no one left to help him and would be forced to depend on Bagoas all the more. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 107. and year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
  2. Timotheus the tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus, died 15 years after his father Clearchus. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 110.] For his great kindness, he was not called any more a tyrant, but a gracious lord and saviour. His body was honourably interred by his brother and successor Dionysius. All sorts of justs, tiltings and wrestlings were done. Some were performed then as time permitted and some later which were done with greater pomp and magnificence than the former ones. [Memnon in Excerpt. c.4.]
     
3667 AM, 4377 JP, 337 BC
  1. At the general assembly of all Greece at Corinth, Philip king of Macedonia, was made general of all the Greek forces. He had absolute power over them to make war against the king of Persia. Presently, he started to make many preparations for the war. He assessed the number of soldiers to be levied from every city and then returned into Macedonia. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 110.]
     
3668 AM, 4378 JP, 336 BC
  1. The next spring, Philip sent three of his captains into Asia, Parmenio, Amyntas and Attalus, with part of his army. They were to plunder the king's countries and to liberate the Greek cities. [Justin. l.9. c.5. Diod. year 1. Olymp. 111.]
     
  2. When Bagoas the eunuch knew that Arsen plotted revenge against him, he killed Arsen and all his children in the 3rd year of his reign. When the king's family was utterly destroyed, he set up Darius, a his friend and the son of Arsamis who was a brother to Artaxerxes. Darius claimed the crown as next of kin. [Diod. Sic. l.17. year 2. Olympiad 111.] However Justin [l. (10). c.3.] speaks of him in this manner: "Codomannus, in regard for his outstanding virtue, was made king by the people and the name of Darius was given him for majesty's sake."
     
  3. Alexander the Great, in Q. Curtius, [l. 6. c.4.] uses these words: "For Darius did not come to the crown by succession but by the mere procurement and favour of Bagoas the Eunuch.",
     
  4. Again in a letter Alexander sent to Darius, [Arianus [l. 2. p. 41.] he charges him: "As a murderer Bagoas had Darius made king. Darius got that kingdom wrongfully and not according to the laws of the Persians but by great injustice.":
     
  5. Strabo says: [l. 15.] "When Bagoas had murdered Arsen, he set up Darius who was not of the king's blood in his place."
     
  6. Lastly, Plutarch in his first book, "of the fortune of Alexander", introduces him as speaking to Fortune in this manner: [for so it should be, in his printed copies] "Darius who was a slave and a courier of the kings, thou [Bagoas] madest king of the Persians:"
     
  7. Also Hesychius tells us in his Lexicon: "Astandes", means "carrier" Suidas states: ""Astandae" and "Angati", in the Persian language, are those who carry letters from post-house to post-house until they come to the place of their destination."
     
  8. So Darius was one of them who in (Esther 8:14) are called ~ykrtfta and as ajatdud. In Elian it is written for augaidud so for dulhd. We are there to read dild, from the same place in Plutarch.
     
  9. Bagoas planned to poison Darius also. When the plot was discovered, Darius sent for him. When he came, he was ordered to drink of it. When he refused, Darius had it poured down his throat. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 111.] He told the people that he had killed him in selfdefence. [Q. Curtius l.6. c.6.]
     
  10. When Philip was yet living, Darius planned to attack him in Macedonia. [Diod. Sic. l.17.]
     
  11. Sanballat, a Cuthaean, from whom the Samaritans had their beginning, was made governor of Samaria by Darius. He gave his daughter in marriage to Nicasus the son of Manasses brother to Jaddus the high priest at Jerusalem. He hoped by this marriage to be held in better esteem with the Jews. [Joseph. Antiq. l.11. c.7.]
     
  12. Philip, king of Macedonia was celebrating the marriage of his daughter Cleopatra with Alexander the king of Epeirus at Egaeas. He was murdered by Pausanias, the son of Cerastes, of Orestis, a place in Macedonia. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 111. Justin l.9. c.6. Joseph. l.11. c. 8.] Alexander in his letter to Darius stated that his father was murdered by assassins hired by Darius and paid with a huge sum of money. [Q. Curtius l.4. c.1., in Arria. l.2. p. 41.]
     
  13. A little before Philip was killed, Neoptolemus a tragedian is reported by Diod. [l. 6.] to have sung an ominous song before him. This very song was later sung before Caligula the emperor on the very day when he was murdered, according to Suetonins in his life reports. "Muester, the actor sung and acted that very song which before Neoptolemus the actor did in a play when Philip, the king of Macedonia, was killed:"
     
  14. Josephus did not understand this part of the Roman history too well. [l. 19. Antiq. c.1.] Later he had spoken of Muester and the song which he sang. Rusinus translates it thus in Latin and I to this effect in English saying: "The actor danced the fable of Cynuras in which both Cinyras and his daughter Marrha were killed."
     
  15. Josephus draws from this that they were both killed on the same day. "It is known that the murder of Caligula happened on the same day as Philip, the son of Amyuntas king of Macedonia was slain by one of his friends called Pausanias as he was going into the theatre."
     
  16. So some men place both these murders on January 24th. However the time of Philip's death is best known by the time when Alexander succeeded him in his kingdom.
     
  17. After the death of Philip, Pythodemus, as Arrian or Pythodorus, [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 111,] calls him, was archon in Athens. Alexander succeeded his father at age 20. [Plutarch and from Trogus, Justin] Although Arianus, in the beginning of his History of Alexander says that he was about 20 years old when, after his father's death, he journeyed into Peloponesus. This may lend some doubt to him being 20 years old. Nothing is said of how long the interval was between his father's death and his journey there. The exact age is determined from the time of his death as mentioned at the end of the same history. It is said that he lived 32 years, 8 months. Of that time, he reigned 12 years and 8 months. Subtracting 12 years and 8 months from of the total age gives a result of exactly 20 years to the month. It appears that Philip died at the end of the Macedonian month Daesis. [I shall in due time publish these.] I therefore gather that Alexander began his reign about the 8th month before the 1st of the month Dii. Hence Philip was murdered about the 24th of September in which month of ours the month Dii begins. This I have documented in my discourse on the solar year of the Macedonians and Afiaticks. It was not the 24th of December.
     
3669 AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC
  1. Alexander came to Peloponese and followed his father's example. He summoned all the cities of Greece to Corinth. He was by the general vote of all the Greeks there except the Lacedemonians, made general in his father's place to go against the Persians. [Justin l.11. c.2. Diodorus l.17. Arrian l.1. p. 1.]
     
  2. He returned from there into Macedonia, in the very beginning of the next spring. He went through Thrace and attacked the Illyrians and the Thribulli. [Arrian. l.1.] In a battle on the bank of the Danow, he defeated Syrmus, the king of the Triballi. [Plut. in Alex.] Meanwhile, he had news that the Athenians, Lacedemonians and Thebans, were defecting to the king of Persia. The instigator of this was Demosthenes the orator who had been bribed with a vast sum of money from the Persians. He made a speech and assured them that Alexander with all his forces were defeated by the king of the Triballi. [Justin. l.11. c.2. with Eschines in his Oration cont. Ctesiphontem.] Further, the Athenians by certain of their officials sent Demosthenes' letter to the Athenian captains in Alexander's army. They asked Attalus, one of the 3 captains sent by Philip into Asia to revolt from Alexander. Like the other Greeks, they revoked their order making Alexander the general of the Greek forces. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111. with Demosth. his Oration for Ctesiphon.]
     
  3. Memnon the commander from Rhodes, was sent into Phrygia with 5000 soldiers. After passing by the hill Ida, he suddenly attacked the city of Cyzycum. He was unable to defeat it but wasted their territories and returned loaded with a vast amount of spoil from there. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
  4. When Pexodarus was dead, his son-in-law, Orontobates succeeded him in the kingdom of Caria by the authority of the Persian king. [Strabo. l.14Arrian. l.1. p. 24.]
     
  5. When Alexander had conquered those barbarous people he returned to Greece. The country was all in a turmoil. On his way, he befriended the Thessalonians and journeyed through the pass of Thermopylae. He won the Ambracia to him by his kindness. He and his army went into Boeotia and camped before Cadmaea, which was held by a garrison of Macedonians. The Atheninas sent their officials to ask his pardon which he gave them. However, Thebes refused his pardon when he offered it. Therefore he besieged the city. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111., Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  6. He sent Hecateus with an army into Asia to capture Attalus. Attalus sent the letter which he had received from Demosthenes to Alexander, with a very detailed excuse and justification for his actions. Nevertheless Hecataeus followed his commission and captured him. He sent him packing into another world. So the Asian Macedonian army had peace and the rebellions ceased. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
  7. Parmenio, who was always loyal to Alexander, took Grinium by force and sold all its townsmen for slaves. From there he went and besieged Pitane. When Memnon approached, he so frightened the Macedonians that they lifted their siege. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
  8. Callas, with a Macedonian army and other mercenaries, fought with the Persians in the country of Troas. His small forces defeated the Persians and forced them to retire to Rheteum. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
3670 AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC
  1. Alexander laid Thebes in Boeotia level with the ground, [Diod. year 2. Olymp. 111.] in October which was the time when the "Mysteries" were kept in Athens. They did not observe that holy solemnity that year because of what happened. [Plut. in Alexan. and Arrian. l.1.] 90,000 men in Thebes were killed and 30,000 were sold for slaves. All went to ruin except only the houses of the priests, his father Philip's friends and Pindarus the poet. [Elian. Varia. Histor. l. 13. c.7.]
     
  2. Alexander at a common council of Greece was chosen general a second time to go against the Persians. Alexander went to visit Diogenes the philosopher. [Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  3. When he returned to Dios a town in Macedonia, [Arrian. l.1. p. 11.] all his thoughts were upon the conquest of Asia. In his sleep the likeness of the High Priest of Jerusalem appeared to him, who bade him be courageous and bold. He was to quickly enter Asia with his army and that he would conduct his armies in the conquest of the Persian Empire. [Josephus, Antiquit. l.11. c. 8. s. 5.]
     
  4. Therefore in the very beginning of the spring, Alexander left his own home and after a 20 day march, he came to Sestus. From there his army crossed over into Asia. [Arrian. l.1.] [Euaenetus was then the archon at Athens.] This was 11 years before he died according to Clement of Alexandria as he notes from the most ancient chronologies. [l 1Strom.] That is, this was the 3rd month before Ctesicles came to be archon in Athens. In which time, Diod. Sic. places his trip into Asia in the 3rd year of his reign. Zosimus follows Diod. Sic. without noting his error. [l. 1. Histor.] It was in the second year of his reign, year 2, Olymp. 111.
     
  5. He left Antipater behind in Europe with 12,000 foot soldiers and 11,500 cavalry to tend to matters there. Alexander with 60 ships sailed to Troas, [Diod. year 2. Olymp. 111.] but ordered Patmenion to transport the largest part of his foot soldiers and cavalry from Sestus to Abidus. This he did with the help of 160 ships and a number of cargo ships. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  6. Even those who were present do not agree on how many men Alexander took into Asia. In [Polybius l.12. c.663. in fi.] Calisthenes states he had 4500 cavalry and 30,000 foot soldiers. In Plutarch, in his discourse of Alexander's fortune, Aristobulus is alleged to say that he had 30,000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry. Ptolemy the son of Lagus and later king of Egypt says there were 30,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. Anaximenos of Lampsacus says there were 40,000 foot soldiers and 5500 cavalry. Livi [l. 9.] agrees with Aristobulus and says there were 4000 cavalry. Diodorus, [l. 17.] Justin [l. 11 c.6.] and Orosius, [l. 3. c.16.] agree with Calisthenes that there were 4500 cavalry. Although [Arrian. l.1.] says, that he had more than 5000 cavalry. Diodorus has a total of 5100 when you sum his numbers. In the number of foot soldiers he says there were 30,000 and agrees with Calisthenes, Aristobulus and Ptolemy. Livi says there were more than 30,000 foot soldiers. Arrian says that there were not many more than 30,000 soldiers. Justinus and Oronus make it to be 32,000. Concerning the number of 40,000 foot soldiers which Calisthenes and Anaximenes mention, Julius Frontinus assigns to his whole army in this way. "Alexander of Macedonia, with 40,000 men, all veteran soldiers, trained under his father Philip attacked the whole world and slew an infinite number of his enemies." [Frontin. Stratag. l.4. c. 2.]
     
  7. To pay his army, Aristobulus says Alexander took only 70 talents of money. Duris says he had only 30 days' of provisions. Sicritus adds, that he went in debt 200 talents to pay for his army. [Plutarch in his life and in his book of the fortune of Alexander.]
     
  8. As soon as he landed on the Continent, Alexander was the first of all of them to throw a spear on shore. This signified his taking possession of all Asia. He leaped on shore and danced about in his armour. He offered sacrifice and besought the gods: "that those lands might willingly receive him for their king:"
     
  9. Then he went and sacrificed to the ghost of Achilles, from whom he was descended on his mother's side and to Ajax and other Greek heros who died in the war of Troy. [Diodor. Justin, Arrian] He commended the very good fortune of Achilles in two points. First he had so true a friend about him as Patroclus. Secondly, he had a man like Homer to sing his praises. [Plut. in Alex. Cic. pro. Archia Poeta. and Arrian. l.1.]
     
  10. When he came into Ilium, he sacrificed to Pallas of Troy. He hung his own arms in her temple and took from there in place of them, some other arms from the chancel. They were there from the time of the of the Trojan war. [Diodor. Arrian.] Among the other relics they showed the lute of Paris. Alexander said, he would have thanked them if they could have showed him the lute of Achilles by which he had sung the praises of famous men. [Plut. in Alex. Elia. Variar. Hist. l.9. c.38.]
     
  11. From Ilium he went to Arisbe to join his whole army that had crossed over by sea. The next day he passed by Percota and Lampsacus. He camped at the Prosactium River. [Arrian. l. 1.] He planned to utterly destroy Lampsacus and its inhabitants for he thought they had or were planning to defect to the Persians. He saw Anaximines the historian, a man very well known to him and to his father, coming to meet him. He guessed his errand and swore first saying: "whatever he desired of him, that he would not do."
     
  12. Then Anaximines replied: "Sir, I beseech you to destroy Lampsacus."
     
  13. Alexander was caught in his own net by the wit of the man. Though much against his will, he went his way and spared the place. [Valer. Max. l.7. c.3. Pausan. in his Eliaca. l.2. Snidas, in the word, Anaximenes.]
     
  14. After much difficulty and danger, Alexander crossed the Granion River in Phrygia and planned a battle with the Persians in the plain of Adrastia. Justinus and Orosius say the Persians had 600,000 foot soldiers and 20,000 cavalry. Arrian some what improbably adds that besides the mercenaries there were less than 20,000 foot soldiers. Diodorus is more cautious and says, that the Persian cavalry was more than 10,000 and the army was under 100,000 men. 20,000 Persian foot soldiers and 2500 cavalry died in the battle according to Plutarch. Diodorus reports that they lost 10,000 foot soldiers and no less than 2000 cavalry and had more than 20,000 taken prisoner. Arrian' account states that the Persian cavalry lost 1000 men and their foreign mercenaries were almost all killed. 2000 were taken prisoner. Orosius' account is quite fantastic when he says there were 400,000 slain. [l. 4. c.1.]
     
  15. In this fight Alexander who wore that armour which he had taken from the temple of Palas at Ilium, had his head piece cut in pieces to his very hair. Plutarch from Aristobulus states he lost 25 cavalry and 9 foot soldiers. However, Justin and Orosius say that 120 cavalry and 9 foot soldiers died. According to Arrian, Alexander lost about 25 men in total who were all Macedonians. Lysippus made brass statues of them. Others say that he lost 60 cavalry and 30 foot soldiers. The next day, Alexander had these men buried with all funeral rights. This great and memorable victory opened the way to the empire of all Asia. It happened in the month Daesius with the Macedonians and on the 6th of Thargehon with the Athenians or Sunday, May 20th 334 BC in year 2 of the Olympiad 111. This we have discussed in detail in our discourse on the Macedonian and Asiatic Solar year. [c. 1. pg. 4,5, 11.]
     
  16. When Alexander had rested his army, he marched forward through Lydia and came to Sardis. The city with all it provisions and treasures, was voluntarily surrendered to him by Mithrinnes, or Mithrenes, its governor. [Diodorus, Arrian.]
     
  17. He went to Ephesus and replaced the oligarchy with a democratic government. He assigned all the tributes which were formerly paid to Darius, to Diana. The Ephesians cried out for justice against those who had robbed the temple of Diana. They demolished the statue of Philip which was set up there. They took Syrphaces, his son, Pelagon his son and the children of the brother of Syrphaces and stoned them to death. [Arrian. l.1.] Moreover they enlarged and beautified the temple itself which was burned down by Erostratus on the night when Alexander was born. They appointed Dimocrates the architect to oversee the work. Alexander later used him to build Alexandria in Egypt. [Julius Solinus, c.40] Artemidorus mentions [Strabo l.14.] that Alexander promised to pay for the construction of the temple if the Ephesians would allow him to take the credit as the builder of the work, but they refused.
     
  18. While Alexander stayed at Ephesus, ambassadors came to him from Magnesia and Tralles and surrendered their cities to him. He sent to meet them, Parmenion with 2500 foreign foot solders and 2500 of his Macedonian troops, with 200 cavalry from his auxiliaries. He sent also Alcimalus the son of Agathocles, to the cities of Eolia and Ionia, which were held before by the Persians with about the same number of troops as he had sent with Parmenion. Everywhere, he abolished the oligarchies in their cities and set up democratic governments. He gave them permission to live according to their own laws and abolished the tribute they paid to the Persians. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  19. He stayed at Ephesus and sacrificed to Diana. With his whole army in battle array, he went in a procession to her. The next day he went to Miletus with the rest of his foot soldiers, archers, agrians, the cavalry from Thrace and aides of his confederates and his own troops. [Arrian. l.1.] There the Persians who escaped from the fight at Granicum had fled with their general Memnon. [Diodor.] 3 days before they arrived, Alexander had sent Nicanor with 160 ships to capture of the isle of Lada, opposite Miletus. He held it with 4000 men from Thrace and other nations so that when the Persian fleet of 400 ships came there, they could not get to the mount of Micale. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  20. Alexander besieged Miletus by land and sea and battered their walls. They finally surrendered to him. The 300 Greek mercenaries had fled from there to a nearby little island. Alexander took and enlisted them among his own troops. He gave the Milesians their freedom and all the non-Greeks there he either killed or sold for slaves. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. Arrian. l.1.]
     
3671 AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC
  1. Alexander dismissed his fleet of 160 ships [182 ships according to Justin. l.11. c.6. s]. He retained 20 Athenian ships to carry his battering rams with. [Justin. l.11. c.6. s]
     
  2. Memnon of Rhodes, sent his wife and children to Darius, as a pledge of his loyalty and was made general of all his army. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.]
     
  3. Alexander marched with his army into Caria. Everywhere he went, he proclaimed liberty to all the Greek cities. He said they could live by their own laws and be free from Persian tribute. He made it clear that this war was to liberate of the Greeks from Persian rule. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.]
     
  4. While he was on his way, Ada met him. She had been expelled by her brother Pexodarus from the kingdom of Caria. She surrendered her city Abinda which was the strongest place in all Caria. She desired to be restored to her grandfather's kingdom and promised further to help him take the rest of the forts and cities of that country. These she said were in the power of her close friends. She adopted Alexander for her son. In return he gave her the town of Abinda and he proclaimed her queen of Caria. He bid her claim Caria and did not refuse to be called her son. Whereupon all the cities of Caria sent their officials to him. They gave him crowns of gold and offered him their service in whatever he would ask them to do. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. Strabo, l.14. Arrian. l.1. Plut. in Alexander.]
     
  5. Orontobates a Persian, held Halicarnassus a city of Caria, ever since the days of his father-in-law, Pexodarus. Memnon of Rhodes the Persian general, had joined him with all his forces. Alexander encamped before its walls and began to assault and batter it very intensely. Ephialtes an Athenian, behaved valiantly in the defence of the city. When he and others were slain at the breaches in the wall, then Memnon and the Persian princes and captains placed a strong garrison of their best soldiers in the citadel. They then sailed with the rest of the people and all their belongings to the Isle of Cos near to Rhodes. When they were gone, Alexander cast a trench and built a strong wall on it around the citadel. He razed the city to the ground. He left garrisons there and in other parts of Caria. He placed Ptolemy over 3000 foreign soldiers and 200 cavalry. He left the government of that whole country of Caria to his adopted mother, Ada. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 111. Arrian. l.1.]
     
  6. Alexander gave his Macedonians who had married wives shortly before they started on this journey, leave to go and spend their winter months with them. They could leave Caria to rejoin their wives. He appointed Ptolemy the son of Seleucus who was one of his captains, to be their commander. He sent with him Caenus the son of Polemocrates and Meleager the son of Neoptolemus who were recently married. He ordered them that when they returned they should bring all the newly married troops to him and with them as many cavalry and foot soldiers as possible from the country where they wintered. [Arrian. l.1. and Q. Curtius in the beginning of his 3rd book.]
     
  7. Alexander sent Parmenion to Sardis and made him commander over all the cavalry of his confederates. He ordered him to take with him all the Thessalian cavalry and auxiliaries and all carts that he could make. They were to go ahead of him as far as Sardis, while he went to Lycia and Pamphylia. He took all the sea towns so that the navy of the enemy would be useless to them. On his way, he captured a very strong town called Hyparna on his first attack. He allowed the mercenary soldiers to depart in safety. From there he marched into Lycia. The city Telmessus conditionally surrendered to him. When he crossed the Xanthus River, the cities of Pinara, Xanthus, Patara and 30 smaller towns surrendered to him. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  8. In the middle of winter, Alexander went to Myliada in Greater Phrygia and made a league with the ambassador who came to him from Phaselis and the lower Lycia. They surrendered all their cities into his hands. A short time later, Alexander went to Phaselis and razed a strong fort which the Pisidians had built to harass the inhabitants of Phaselis with. [Arran. l.1.]
     
  9. While Alexander was near Phaselis, he received a rumour that Alexander Aeropus whom he had made commander of the Thessalian cavalry intended to kill him. However he and his two brothers Heromenes and Arrobaeus were suspected to be involved in Alexander's father, Philip's death. For Darius received letters from Alexander Aeropus by Amyntas who fled to him. Darius sent Asisines, a Persian, to the sea side under the pretence of having a message for Atysies the governor of Phrygia. The real purpose was to assure Alexander Aeropus that if he killed Alexander, the kingdom of Macedon would be his and Darius would give him 1000 talents of money besides. However Asisnes was intercepted by Pharmenion and put to the rack. He confessed all and he was sent away heavily guarded to Alexander. Alexander looked carefully into the matter and sent Amphoterus to Pharmenion with secret instructions to seize Aeropus and put him in prison. [Arran. l.1.] It was to this matter that Alexander wrote in his letter to Darius. According to Q. Curtis, [l. 4. c.1.] he said: "When you have forces of your own, yet you go to sell your enemies' heads since you who were recently the king of so great an army would hire a man to take away my life with 1000 talents," [Just. l.11. c.7.]
     
  10. Alexander left Phaselis with his army and travelled along the coast to Pergae. From there he came to Aspendus and besieged it. Although the city was situated on a high and rugged mountain, it surrendered to him. He next went into Pindia and tried unsuccessfully to take the city of Telmislus. Instead he made a league with the Selgians who were enemies to the Telmissians. He took Salagassa by force and killed about 500 Pisidians. He lost his captain Cleander with about 20 of his own men. From there he went to capture the other cities of Pisidia. Some of their stronger places he took in by force and others surrendered conditionally. After this he came into Phrygia to the marsh lands of Ascania. After his 5th camp, he arrived at Celenae. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  11. The citadel of Celenae was held by the Persian commander with a garrison of 1000 Carians and 100 Greek mercenaries. After a 60 day's truce, [in which the commander expected relief from Darius], he surrendered to Alexander. [Arrian. l.1. and Curtius, l.3. c.1.]
     
  12. Alexander left a garrison of 1500 in Celenae. After he had stayed there 10 days, he made Antigonus the son of Philippus, governor of Phrygia. He made Balacrus the son of Amyntas the commander of the auxiliaries in his place. Alexander marched to Gordium. He sent a letter to Parmenion that he should not sail to meet him at Gordium. [Arrian., l.1.]
     
  13. Parmenion with his army and the Macedonians which had leave to be with their new wives, came to Gordium. The army he had recently raised was under the command of Ptolemy, Caenus and Meleager. That army consisted of 1000 Macedonians foot soldiers and 300 cavalry. 200 Thessalian cavalry and 150 cavalry from Elis led by Alcias who was from the same country. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  14. Darius made Memnon admiral of his fleet and chief commander of all the seacoast. Memnon planned to carry the war from Asia into Macedonia and Greece. He outfitted a navy of 300 ships and captured the isle of Chios and the rest of the cities and places in Lesbos except Mitylene. [Diod. year 4. Olymp. 111. with Arrian. l.2. in prim.]
     
  15. The elders of Jerusalem were offended that Manasseh the brother of Jaddua, the high priest, had married a foreign wife contrary to the law. They demanded that he either divorce her or give up his priestly office. Hereupon Jaddua was forced to forbid him to serve at the altar. Manasseh went to tell Sanballat his father-in-law that he loved his daughter very much but did not want to loose his priesthood for her sake. This was an honour belonging to him by his birthright and it was very highly esteemed by the Jews. Sanballat replied that if Manasseh would not divorce his wife, he would help him stay in the priesthood and make him a high priest and prince of all his own province and build a temple on the hill overlooking Samaria for him. The temple would be at least as good as the one in Jerusalem. Sanballat would do all this by the authority of Darius the king. Manasseh was encouraged by these promises and stayed with his father-in-law. He hoped to get the priesthood as a gift and by the authority of Darius. Hereupon all the priests and other Israelites who had married foreign wives resorted to him. Sanballat furnished them with money and lands to farm. He promoted the ambition of his son-in-law as much as possible. [Josephus l.11. Antiq. c.8. s. 2.]
     
  16. Alexander undid the Gordian knot. He either pulled out the peg or pin in the beam according to Arrian or he cut it in pieces with his sword, as others state. [Plutarch in Alexander. Arrian, l.2. Curtius, l.3. Justin, l.11. c.7.]
     
  17. Alexander departed from Gordium in Phrygia and went to Ancyra, a city in Galatia. Ambassadors from Paphlagonia came to him and made a league with him and surrendered their country to him. He appointed Calas, a prince of Phrygia to be their new governor. When he had received the new troops from Macedonia, he marched into Cappadocia. He subdued all the country on this side the river Halys and some part of the other side. [Arrian. l.1. with Curtius l. 3. c.3.]
     
  18. Memnon died at the siege of Mitylene. Before he died, he appointed Autophradates and Pharnabazus the son of Artabazus to take over the forces until Darius would direct otherwise. They took command subject to certain conditions. Autophradates took over the main body of the ships. Pharnabazus with some ships sailed into Lycia and took with him some mercenaries. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  19. After the death of Memnon, Darius conscripted soldiers and ordered them from all countries to come to him at Babylon. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.] When he had set up his standard there, he pitched camp and mustered his army. He put a huge trench around the camp that was capable of containing 1,000,000 armed men. Like Xerxes had done with his troops, he went and counted all his forces. The sum came to 100,000 Persians of which 30,000 were cavalry. The Medians sent 10,000 cavalry and 50,000 foot soldiers. From the Barcans, [who were a people bordering upon Hircania, according to Stephanus] there were 2000 cavalry and 10,000 foot soldiers. From Armenia there came 40,000 foot soldiers and 7000 cavalry. Hircania sent 6000 cavalry and the Derbices sent him 40,000 foot soldiers and 2000 cavalry. From the Caspian Sea came 8000 foot soldiers and 200 cavalry. Those that were from smaller nations amounted to 2000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry. He also had 30,000 Greek mercenaries. Curtius says this army [l. 3. c.4.] had only 311200 men. However, Diodorus says they were 400,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. This number is in the newer editions of Justin, as amended from the manuscripts. Although the older editions, together with Orosius, who follows him in every point, have only 300,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. Both historians [Arrian. l.2. and Plutarch in Alexan.] say the total number of men was 600,000.
     
  20. Charidemus from Athens was a man well skilled in military matters. After Alexander had expelled him from Athens, he defected to Darius. He advised Darius not to manage the army personally but leave it to some general who had proven himself in previous battles. He further stated that an army of 100,000 men of which one third would be Greeks would be enough for this battle. By his sage and good counsel, he so incensed the princes with envy and angered the king that he was executed for it. [Diod. year 4. Olymp. 111. Curtius, l.3. c.5.]
     
  21. Darius sent Thymondas or Thymodes, Mentor's son, a bold young man, to Pharnabazus to get from him all the mercenaries whom Memnon had under his command. He was to bring them to Darius and Pharnabazus was to replace Memnon as head of the forces there. [Curtius, l.3. c. 6. Arrian., l.2. in prin.]
     
  22. Alexander committed the charge of Cappadocia to Abistenes [according to Curtius] or, to Sabictas [as Arrian has it]. He marched with his whole army to the passes in Cilicia and came to a place called Cyrus' Camp. [It was either named after the older Cyrus, as Curtius states or from the younger Cyrus as Arrian thinks] About 7 1/4 miles from there, he found that those passes were controlled by a strong garrison of the enemy that Parmenion had left there. In the first watch of the night, Alexander with his company of foot soldiers troops with shields, archers and his band of Agrians secretly went to attack that garrison. When the garrison heard a rumour about his coming, they threw away their weapons and fled. Arsames the governor of Cilicia had wasted all the country with fire and sword so that Alexander could not get provisions from the place. Then he left Tarsus and went to Darius. [Arrian., l.2. Curtius, l.3. c.8.]
     
  23. Alexander went very quickly to Tarsus. Since he was so hot from the journey he took off his armour and leaped into the cold water of the Cydnus River which ran through the city. This so shocked his system that he lost his voice and despaired of recovery and waited to die. [Justin. l.11. c.8.] Curtius adds that this was in the summer season and that the heat of the day was increased by the intensity of the sun in the climate of Cilicia. [l. 3. c.10.] Aristobulus says, that he fell sick by over exerting himself [Arrian. l.2.] Philip a physician gave him a portion which he took and it cured him immediately. Parmenion had warned him that Philip was set to poison him. [Justin. Czardas. Arrow. Pleiad. and Valer. Max. l.3. c.8.]
     
  24. Orontobates the Persian, held out in the citadel at Halicarnassus, with Myundus, and Caunus and Thera and Callipolis against Alexander. They were defeated in a battle by Ptolemy and Asander. The enemy lost about 700 foot soldiers and 50 cavalry and had at least 1000 men taken prisoner. After this the Myndians, Caunians and most of the places in the region surrendered to Alexander. [Arrian. l.2. Curtius l.3. c.11.]
     
  25. Darius had a bridge built over the Euphrates and crossed over with his army in five days. [Curt. l.3. c.11.]
     
  26. Alexander sent Parmenion to possess the pass which divides Cilicia from Assyria or Syria. This pass is much like the former pass in Cilicia. Alexander followed after him from Tarsus and came to Anchislos on the first day. [Arria. l.2.] From there he marched to Soli and placed his own garrison in the fort there. He levied 200,000 talents of silver from the inhabitants for they seemed to favour Darius more than him. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.3. c.11.] From there he went with 3000 Macedonians, all his archers and Agrians and went into the hill country of Cilicia. Within 7 days time, by diplomacy he won them over to him and he returned to Soli. He had sacrificed to Eseulapius and his whole army had gone in procession with burning tapers in their hands. They passed the time with wrestling matches, music and other games. He allowed the city to become a democracy. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  27. The Greek soldiers whom Thymodes received by the arrangement with Pharnabazus, were almost Darius' only hope of victory. When they came to him, they were very earnest with him to retire and stay in the plain country of Mesopotamia. Failing that, he should break this vast army of his into parts and not hazard everything on the chance of one battle. Darius did not like their advice for he wanted to finish things quickly. The winter [beginning with autumn] was now drawing on and he sent away all his money, jewels and precious belongings with a reasonable guard to Damascus in Syria. The guard was under the command of Cophenes, the son of Artabazus. [Arrian. l.2.] Darius with the rest of his army marched on to Cilicia. His wife and mother and daughter and little son, according to the custom of Persia, followed after the camp. [Curt. l.3. c.13.] He left his baggage and such people as were unfit for the war at Damascus. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.]
     
  28. When Sanballat heard that Darius was coming into those parts, he told Manasseh that he would quickly do what he had promised him concerning the high priesthood. This he would do when Darius returned in victory over his enemies. All those inhabitants of Asia were absolutely certain Darius would win. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 3.]
     
3672 AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC
  1. Alexander wanted Philotas to bring the cavalry through the Aleian plains in Lycia to the Pyramus River. Philotas came with the foot soldiers and Alexander's troops to Magarsus. Alexander sacrificed to Minerva at a place called Minerva Magoris. [??] [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  2. After he built a bridge over the Pyramus River, he came to the city Mallos in Cilicia. [Curt. l.3. c.11.] He offered to the ghost of Amphilochus the founder of that place, as to a demigod. When he found the inhabitants in turmoil and unrest, he befriended them and freed them from paying tribute to Darius. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  3. While he stayed at Mallos, he received news that Darius with all his army were encamped at a place called Sochos. This was two day's journey from those passes which I mentioned earlier that parted Cilicia from Assyria or Syria [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  4. From Mallos Alexaxander came to Castabala which was another town in Cilicia. There Parmenion met him. Alexander had sent him to find the way through a forest which he had to go through to come to the town of Issos. Parmenion had seized the way in that forest and left a small company to hold it. He went forward and took the town of Issos also. It was abandoned by the inhabitants when they heard he was coming. He went further and he cleared out all those who were set to guard the inner parts of those mountains and put garrisons everywhere of his own in those places. When he had cleared all those parts of the enemy, he returned to Alexander and told him what he had done. [Curt., l.3. c.11.]
     
  5. Alexander came with his army to Issos. He held a council of war to determine whether he should march on or stay there and expect the supplies which he knew were coming to him from Macedon. Parmenion advised that he could not find a better place to fight than that place. No more could come to fight on the one side than on the other because of the narrowness of the pass. [Curt., l.3. c.11.] Callisthenes, as he is said in Polybius, says, that when Alexander first came into Cilicia, he received from Macedon, 5000 foot soldiers and 800 cavalry. [Polyb. l.12. p. 664.]
     
  6. When Darius had gone through the pass of the hill Amanus, he marched toward Issus. He did not know that he had left Alexander behind him. When Darius had taken the town, he cruelly tortured and put to death a poor company of Macedonians whom Alexander had left there. They were not able because of sickness or other infirmity to follow the camp. The next day Darius marched to the Pinatus River. [Arrian l.2.]
     
  7. When Darius heard that Alexander was approaching in battle array, he immediately crossed over the Pinarus River with 20,000 cavalry and some 20,000 lightly armed foot soldiers so that he might have more time to organise his army for the battle. First, he placed those 30,000 heavily armed Greek mercenaries. Opposite the Macedonian squadron on both sides he placed the 60,000 Cardaeans who were also heavily armed foot soldiers. He could not possibly arrange them into one squadron and do battle because the place was too narrow. As for the rest of the troops whether heavily armed foot soldiers or those from other countries, he put them together in no particular order behind the main battle line of the Greeks and Cardaeans. [Arrian. l.2.] However Curtius [l. 3. c.17] states: "Nabarzanes who was general of Darius' army, was on the right wing with the cavalry. Next to him were almost 20,000 slingers and archers. Thymodes also was in the same wing, commanding some 30,000 Greek mercenaries. This was, no doubt, the very cream of the whole army. They were a match for the Macedonian phalanx. On the left wing, was Aristomedes a Thessalian with 20,000 foot soldiers from various countries. In the rear, he placed his reserves from the most warlike nations, that he had in all his army. In that wing was the king protected by a guard of 3000 choice cavalry and 40,000 foot soldiers. The Hircanian and Median cavalry followed them. Next to them were arranged the cavalry and foot soldiers of the other nations. Some were on the right hand and some on the left. Before this battalion were arranged like this went 6000 slingers and javeliners. All the ground that was there in that pass was filled up entirely with men. The wings reached from the one mountain and the other to the very sea. The queen and the king's mother and the rest of the women were placed in the midst of the army."
     
  8. Callisthenes, who himself was in this battle, says, that there were 30,000 cavalry and as many auxiliaries all set to encounter the Macedonian phalanx. However, Polibius [l. 12.] says that Alexander's army consisted wholly of 42,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. He shows the many inaccuracies of Callisthenes. He points out that for inexperience in the marshalling of an army, Callisthenes had written many absurdities and impertinencies in the description of this battle.
     
  9. In the morning when Hephaestion came to Alexander to encourage him to start the battle, he forgot himself and greeted him: "God help you sir,"
     
  10. instead of, "God save you sir."
     
  11. All the troops who were there, were disturbed by what this meant. They thought he had meant that the king had not been well in his wits. Hephaestion himself grew amazed by his own mistake. When Alexander knew this, he took it up and said that I thank him for his good omen. For this tells me, that we shall all by God's help come safely out of this battle today. This is related by Eumenes Cardianus in his Epistle to Antipater. He was present when the words were spoken and stumbled himself into a similar error, as it is in Lucian's discourse, "Of Men's Misunderstandings in their speech."
     
  12. Arrian says, that this battle was fought, when Nicostratus, [or as Diodorus Siculus has it, when Micocrates] was archon of Athens, in year 4 of the 111th Olympiad. This was in the month Maemacterion, whose new moon fell on the Wednesday, October 28th. In it the Persians lost 10,000 cavalry and 90,000 foot soldiers. A number of other writers agree with him concerning the losses in the cavalry. Concerning the foot soldiers, they all vary extremely not only from him but from each other. Justin says, there were 60,000, Orosius, 80,000, Curtius, 100,000, Diodorus, 120,000. Plutarch says that in all, they lost 110,000 men. Justinus and Orosius add, that there were 40,000 captured. On Alexander's side, there were 504 wounded men. They lost 32 foot soldiers and 150 cavalry according to Curtius. Concerning the number of the cavalry, Plutarch, Justin and Orosius agree with this. Diodorus says he lost 300 foot soldiers, the other writers say he lost 330.
     
  13. Ptolemy the son of Lagus, who was a servant of Alexander, states that in the pursuit of Darius, the squadron marched over the slaughtered bodies of the enemy. [Arrian. lib. 2.] Although less than 1000 cavalry followed Alexander in the pursuit of Darius yet they slew a huge multitude of the enemy. [Curt. l.3. c.22.] When Darius was thrown from his coach he climbed onto a mare. She remembered her foal at home and ran so fast that Alexander could not catch up to him. [Elianum Historia Animali, l.65. c.48.]
     
  14. Alexander grew weary of the pursuit of Darius. Since the night was drawing on, he gave up all hope of catching Darius. When he had travelled 45 miles, he returned to Darius' camp about midnight. His men had captured it shortly before this. [Diodor. and Curt.] They found Darius' mother whom Diodorus calls Sisygnambis, but Curtius, calls Sysigambis. His wife was there also whom Justin says was his sister as well. Darius' son Ochus who was almost 6 year's old and Darius' two daughters of marriageable age were also found. Also they found a few other noble men's daughters. Most of them had sent their wives and daughters to Damascus with their baggage. Even Darius had sent most of his treasure there as we said before. They found whatever luxurious furniture was the the king's custom to take with him to war. In Darius' camp, Alexander found about 3000 talents of silver. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  15. Early the next morning, Alexander took Hephestion with him and went to see the two queens. When Sisygambis mistakenly fell down at Hephestion's feet, she asked Alexander's pardon for it. He replied smiling: "No harm, for this is Alexander too."
     
  16. [Diodor. Curtius. Arrian.] In so few words, he gave half of himself away to his friend. [Valer. Max. l.4. c.7.] As for the two queens and to the women about them, Alexander restored to them all their attire, dressing and ornaments. He added much more of his own belongings to this as well. He did not permit any man to be uncivil with the women. [Arran. l.2. with Plut. l. 2. de fort. Alex.]
     
  17. In his flight, Darius came to a place called Sochos about two day's journey from the passes of Amanus as we noted before. From Arrian we learn that he collected any Persians and others who survived the battle. He took 4000 of them with him to Thupsacus so that he might have the great Euphrates River between him and Alexander. [Curt. l.4. c.1. Arrian. l.2.]
     
  18. Amyntus the son of Antiochus, Thymodes the son of Mentor, Aristomedes Phercus and Bianor of Acarnania had previously defected to the Persians from the Greeks. They fled with 8000 men in their company to Tripoli in Phoenicia. They found ships which had just arrived from Lesbos. They captured them and sailed to Cyprus and then to Egypt. They burned the ships they did not need so they could not be followed. [Arrian. l.2. with Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. (112). and Curt. l.4. c.3.]
     
  19. Alexander made Balacrus, the son of Nicanor, one of the leaders of his bodyguard, governor of Cilicia. Alexander replaced Nicanor by Menetes, the son of Dionysius. He put Olyperchon the son of Simeus, in charge of the brigade to replace Ptolemy, the son of Seleucus, who was slain in the recent battle. He gave 50 talents to the men of Solos in Cilicia. These were not paid their wages that he had enlisted them for. He restored to them their hostages that he had taken from them. [Arrian. l.2.] He built 3 altars, one to Jupiter, another to Hercules and a third to Minerva on the banks of the Pinarus River. Then he marched into Syria and sent Parmenion with the Thessalian cavalry to Damascus before him. Darius had all his treasure here. The cavalry had behaved very courageously in the recent battle. If they captured the city, they would be rich from the spoil. [Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  20. As Parmemion was on his way to Damascus, he intercepted a message sent to Alexander from the governor of Damascus who offerred to betray the city to Alexander. The 4th day he came to Damascus. The governor pretended that he could not hold the city. The next morning before sunrise, he took all the king's treasure [which the Persians call his "Gaza"] and pretended that he would flee away and save it for Darius. Instead he gave it to Parmenion. As soon as he had done that there was a heavy snow storm and the ground was frozen solid.
     
  21. Among the women that fled from there and were captured, there were 3 virgins, daughters of Ochus, the last king before Darius. Also in the group were Ochus' queen, the daughter of Oxatris the brother of Darius, the wife of Artabanus a principal man at court and his son Iloneus. There was also taken the wife of Pharnabazus whom Darius had made commander of all the towns and cities lying on the sea with 3 daughters of Mentor. The wife and son of that most noble Memnon was taken. There was hardly any noble man's house of the court of Persia, which had not his share in this calamity. [Plut. in Alexan.] Parmenion's report to Alexander indicated that among the rest he had taken 329 of the king's women who were skilful in music, 46 weavers or knitters of crowns, 277 cooks and 29 cooks' maids, 13 white meat-makers, 17 makers of drinking cups, 70 wine cellar men, 40 apothecaries and confectioners.
     
  22. Also taken were 2600 talents in coins, bars of silver, 500 weight, 30,000 men, 7000 camels which were beasts of burden. [Curt. l.3. c.25.]
     
  23. The one that betrayed the place [who, as it seems was Cophenes by whom Darius sent his treasure to Damascus,] one of his countrymen cut off his head and carried it to Darius. [Curt. l. 3. c.25.]
     
  24. Alexander made Parmenion, [according to Curtius] or Memnon, [according to Arrian], the governor of Coelosyria. He gave him his auxiliary cavalry for the defence of that province. The Syrians were not totally subdued and did not submit to this new governor. However, they were quickly suppressed and then they submitted to all the commands. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.4. c.1.]
     
  25. Alexander sent Parmenion to seize the Persian fleet. Others that were with him, he sent to hold the cities of Asia which had surrendered to him. After the battle of Issos, Darius' own commanders surrendered with all their gold and treasure to Alexander. He marched into Syria and many kings of the east came and submitted to him. These he treated accordingly. Some he made a league with, while others he replaced with new kings. [Justin. l.11. c.10.]
     
  26. Gerostratus was at that time king of the Isle of Aradus with the adjoining sea coast and of some places also lying further inland. Like the other kings of Cyprus and Phoenicia, they had consolidated their fleets under Darius' Persian commander, Antophradates. Gerostratus' son Strato who was viceroy of Aradus in his father's absence, met Alexander as he was on his way into Phoenicia. He placed a crown of gold on Alexander's head and surrendered the isle of Aradus with Marathus, a large rich town opposite Aradus on the continent, the city Mariamme and whatever else belonged to his father. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.4. c.1.]
     
  27. After Alexander had graceously received Strabo, Alexander marched to the city Marathon. From there he received letters from Darius who wanted to ransom his women captives. Alexander answered in a letter and sent Thersippus to deliver it. [Justin l.11. c.12. Curt. l.4. c.1. Arrian. l.2. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.] He wanted back the Greek ambassadors that were sent to Darius before the battle at Issos. Alexander understood that they were taken at Damascus. When Darius sent them, Alexander dismissed the two ambassadors of the Thebans, Thessalicus and Dionysodorus. Also he sent away Iphsicrates of Athens who was the son of that famous Iphicrates. Euthycles the Lacedemonian, he committed first to custody and later released him from irons. Later when everything went well for Alexander, he was sent away too. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  28. Alexander left Maratho and captured the city Biblus which conditionally surrendered to him. The Sidonians who had not long before been so terribly abused by Ochus sent to Alexander and desired to submit to him. They hated the Persians and king Darius. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.4. c. 2.] At that time Strabo reigned there. Because this surrender came more from the people than from Strabo, Alexander replaced Strabo by Abdolominus who lived by tending a poor garden there. Alexander gave him not only the rich furniture of Strabo's house but added various other rich gifts from what he had taken from the Persians. The new king controlled all the adjoining territories of Sidon. [Curt. l.4. c.2. Justin. l.11. c.10.] Plutarch in his discourse of the fortune of Alexander, calls this man Alynomus the king of Paphon. Diodorus calls him Ballinomus and says that Alexander made him king of Tyre.
     
  29. All of Syria and Phoenicia except Tyre were under Alexander's control. Alexander and his camp were on the continent. Between him and Tyre was a narrow channel of the sea. The Tyrians had sent a very massive crown of gold to him for a present and congratulated him for his great success. They sent him many provisions from their city. He received their presents as he would from good friends. He used many gracious and friendly words to them expressing his great desire to see their city and to sacrifice to Hercules. They told him that there was an alter in Palaetyrus or Old Tyre in the continent near by and that it would be better to offer sacrifice to Hercules on that one since it was the older of the two altars. When he heard this he was so enraged that he vowed to destroy their city. It happened that at the same time there came certain select men from Carthage to perform a yearly sacrifice to Hercules. The Tyrians were the founders of Carthage and the Carthaginians had honoured them as the father of their city. These men exhorted them to hold out and to endure the siege like men. They assured them of speedy supplies and aid from Carthage for at that time the Carthaginians, were a very strong naval power. [Curt. l.4. c.5,6. Justin. l.11. c.10.]
     
  30. Thus Tyre was resolved for a war and they endured a 7 month siege. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. Curt. l.4. c.15. Plutarch in Alexander.] Their king Azelmious was absent at sea. He left Autophradates, his son behind him in the city. [Arrian. l. 4.] Alexander levelled Palaetyrus or old Tyre to the ground. He sent for all the men in the surrounding country to come and help his men throw the stones and rubbish of the entire city into the channel that ran between the two cities. He made a causeway of half a mile long over to Tyre from the old city according to Diodorus. Curtius, [l. 4. c.5.] agrees with him. Pliny [l. 5. c.19] said it was 700 paces long. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112., Curt. l.4. c.8.]
     
  31. Amyntas the son of Antiochus had with him 4000 Greeks who had fled from the battle of Issos [as I mentioned previously]. Sabaces a Persian and governor of Egypt was killed in the battle of Issos. They set sail from Cyprus to Pelusium and seized the city. Amyntas pretended that he came to take charge of it by the order of Darius to replace Sabaces. From there he went with his army to Memphis. At the news of his coming, the Egyptians came from the towns and the country to help him against the Persians. With their help, he routed the Persians when they attacked him and forced them into the city again. Soon after by the advice of Masases their captain when he saw the Greeks scattered about the country and busy plundering it, Masases sallied forth again. In a surprise attack, he cut Amyntas and all his troops in pieces. [Curt. l.3. c. 22., l.4. c.3.]
     
  32. Some of Darius' captains and their troops who escaped from the battle at Issos along with some Cappadocians and Paphlagonians went to retake Lydia. Antigonus, who was Alexander's commander, routed them in three battles. At the same time, the Macedonian fleet came from Greece and attacked Aristomenes, who was sent by Darius to retake the Hellespont. They sunk or took all the Persian fleet. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112., Curt. l.4. c.4.]
     
  33. While Alexander besieged Tyre, he sent to Jaddua the high priest at Jerusalem and demanded from him supplies and other provisions plus the tribute they formerly paid to Darius. Jaddua replied that he was bound by a former oath of allegiance to Darius and that he could not be freed from that oath as long as Darius lived. Alexander was very angry and swore that as soon as he had taken Tyre, he would march against Jerusalem. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 3.]
     
  34. At the start of the siege of Tyre, Sanballat the Cuthite, defected from Darius and came with 8000 men. [Newer additions of Josephus say 7000 not 8000. Editor] Alexander graciously received him. Sanballat asked permission to build a temple on his own land and to make his son-in-law, Manasseh the high priest who was the brother to Jaddua the high priest at Jerusalem. When he obtained permission and because he was now growing old, he started the work quickly. He built a temple and made Manasseh the high priest of it. He thought that by this he would bestow great honour to the posterity of his daughter. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 4.]
     
  35. Alexander purposed to make a broader causeway from the continent for an easier approach to Tyre. After he had built new engines of war, he marched with his targeteers and a squadron of Agrians, to Sidon. There he gathered as many ships as he possibly could for he knew it would be impossible to take Tyre as long as the Tyrians were masters at sea. [Arrian. l. 2.]
     
  36. Meanwhile, when Gerostratus the king of Aradus and Enulus the king of Byblus found that all their cities were already taken by Alexander, they abandoned Antophradates and his fleet and came with their fleets to Alexander. Some ships of the Sidonians also came with them. Now Alexander had a navy of 80 ships. At the same time Rhodes sent a fleet of 10 ships to Alexander. One ship, was called Periplus. 3 more came from Soli and Mallus. 10 came from Lycia. Macedon sent a ship of 50 oars under Captain Proteas, the son of Andronicus. A little time later certain kings of Cyprus sent 120 ships to the port of Sidon. They heard of his victory at Issos and the news that all Phoenicia had yielded to him. Alexander forgave them their previous wrongs they had done to him. For previously they sided with Darius of necessity not by their free choice. [Arian. l.2.] Azelmicus, the king of Tyre, left Antophradates and came to his own city of Tyre while it was thus besieged. He was in it when it was taken later according to Arrian.
     
  37. In Mount Lebanon, Alexander cut timber for his ships. The wild Arabians suddenly attacked the Macedonians while they were busy at their work. They slew 30 of them and carried away almost as many prisoners. Alexander left Perdiccas and Craterus, or as Polyaenus seems to say, Parmenion, to continue the siege of Tyre. He went with a running camp into Arabia. [Curt. l.4. c.8.] Polyaenus confirms that he made an excursion into Arabia. [l. 4. Stratag.] Arrian gives more details. He says that Alexander with certain cavalry troops, light targeteers and his squadron of Agrians went into Arabia as far as to Anti-Lebanon. Plutarch tells us that he marched against the Arabians who dwelt opposite Anti-Lebanon.
     
  38. When he was come to the mountainous country of those parts, he planned to leave his cavalry and march on foot as others did. The body of his army had gone a good distance before him and the night was approaching and the enemy was close. Lysimachus, his childhood instructor was exhausted from the journey and Alexander did not want to leave him in that condition. Alexander encouraged him and helped him along. Before he knew it, he and his group were separated from the rest of his company. He would have to pass that night in the dark in a bitter cold frost and in a place devoid of all relief. Nevertheless, he saw not far off many fires made by the enemies. Since he had a nimble and active body, he ran to the next fire and killed the enemies that sat by it. He brought away a firebrand and kindled a fire for himself and the small group of Macedonians that were with him. This fire became so large that the enemies were terrified and did not move against him. So he and his company lay safely all that night. This story Plutarch tells of him from Charaetes, a Mitylean and one of those who wrote the Deeds of Alexander.
     
  39. When he had taken all that country, partly upon amicable terms and partly by force, he returned to Sidon after only 11 days from the time he left. He found Alexander the son of Polemocrates, had recently arrived with 4000 Greek mercenaries. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  40. His navy was now outfitted and totalled 190 ships according to Curtius or to 200 according to Diodorus. Alexander sailed from Sidon for Tyre in a very good formation. He was in the right wing, in a Quinquereme, or ship of five decks high. In that squadron were also the kings of Cyprus and the rest of the Phoenicians except for Pintagoras or Pythagoras. He and Craterus commanded the left wing. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.4. c.10.]
     
  41. Thirty commissioners arrived from Carthage and brought Tyre word that the Carthaginians were so embroiled with war at home that they could not possibly send help to them at this time. This did not discourage the men of Tyre. However, they sent away their wives and children to Carthage, as being a safer place for them no matter what happened at Tyre. [Curt. l.4. c.11. with Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Justin l.11. c.10.]
     
  42. When Apollo had appeared to various men in dreams and signified that he would leave the city, the superstitious men of Tyre took good golden chains and bound his image tightly to the foot of his shrine. His image was sent there from Syracuse according to Curtius or from Gela in Sicily by the Carthaginians as we have noted from Diodorus. [See note on 3599 AM.] They fastened the chain to the altar of Hercules the tutelar god of that city as if he should be able to hold Apollo by his strength from leaving. [Curt. l.4. c.11. Diod Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Plutarch in Alexander.]
     
  43. While Alexander besieged Tyre, ambassadors from Darius came to him and offered him 10,000 talents [not as Valer. Max. wrote 1,000,000] to ransom his mother, wife and children and all the territory lying between the Hellespont and the river Halys. Darius would give his daughter in marriage to Alexander. This offer was discussed in a council of his friends. It is reported that Parmenion said that if he were Alexander, he would not refuse those conditions. Whereupon Alexander replied that no more would he if he were Parmenion. Alexander wrote back to Darius that he offered him nothing but what was already his. Therefore he wished him to come in person to ask for his wife back and to accept such conditions as Alexander would give him. [Arrian. l.2. Justin l.11. c.12. Curt. l.4. c.16. Plutarch in his Apostchegmes and in his Alexander Valer. Max. l.6. c.4.]
     
  44. Tyre was taken, when Anicetes, [or Nicetes according to Dionys. Halicarnas. in Dinarchus] was archon in Athens in the month of Hecatombaeon. [Arrian. l.2. p. 49.] In the middle of that month, the 112Olympiad ended. In Plutarch we find that it was on the 30th day of the month Loi according to the Macedonian calendar and the 5th of Hacatombaeon on the Athenian calendar. This was July 24th as I have shown, in the end of chapter 5. of my discourse of the Solar years of the Macedonians and Asians.
     
  45. Justin, [l. 1. c.10.] says it was taken by treason, Polyaenus by a stratagem, [l. 1. stratag.] and Diodorus, Arrian., Curtius say by pure force. When the enemies had got into the city, yet the townsmen maintained the fight until there were 7000 thousand of them cut in pieces. [Diodorus]
     
  46. Arrian states that there were 8000 of the inhabitants killed. Curtius says that after the battle 2000 more were hung up all along the shore. Diodorus states that Alexander hanged 2000 young men all in their prime. Justin says that in remembrance of the old slaughter the inhabitants had made, he had all that were captured, crucified. He put them to a death befitting a slave because the Tyrian slaves had made a conspiracy against their own masters and had murdered all the freemen of that city with their own masters. They set up their own government and killed everyone except Strato an old man and his son. On him and his posterity, they established the kingdom.
     
  47. Concerning Alexander, Justin further adds: "that he spared all the descendants of Strato and restored the kingdom to him and his posterity."
     
  48. [This means perhaps Ballonymus, whom Diodorus confounds with Abdolominus, whom Alexander made king of the Sidonians a short time earlier.] "Alexander left the city to be repopulated by its innocent and harmless inhabitants. When he had abolished that wicked generation of slaves, he hoped to be considered the founder of a new and better people there."
     
  49. By this means it was, that Justin from Trogus, made Alexander the restorer and rebuilder of Tyre. [l. 18. c.3,4.] All other writers made him not its founder but its destroyer. The prophecy of Isaiah concurring with this, (Isaiah 23:1) compared with /APC (1 Maccabees 1:1) For if we believe Curtius, Alexander spared those who fled to the temples and slew everyone else and set fire to their houses. According to Diodorus, he made slaves of all that were not able to bear arms, together with the women and girls. This was over 13,000 even though most had been sent away to Carthage. However, according to Arrian, Alexander spared all that Azelmicus and the commissioners who came from Carthage had brought to the sacrifice of Hercules. He sold all the rest for slaves, to the number of 30,000.
     
  50. Curtius says that the Sidonians which joined in with the rest of Alexander's soldiers did not forget their blood ties between them and the Tyrians. For they believed that they were all brought there by Agenor who was the founder of both cities. The Sidonians got 15,000 on their ships and saved them. Curius [l. 4. c.15.] states: "Tyre quickly recovered and later grew to be a city again."
     
  51. Strabo [l. 16. p. 754.] states: "After this enormous calamity brought on them by Alexander, they quickly overcame their misfortunes by their navigational skills and with their purple dye industry."
     
  52. Justin [l. 18. c.4.] states: "By their parsimony and industry, they quickly recovered strength again."
     
  53. This happened so quickly that in the 18th year from then, they endured another siege from Antigonus who was then lord of all Asia. This siege lasted not 7 months as in the case of Alexander, but a full 15 months. [Diod. Sic. l.19. year 2. Olymp. 116.] They were not now content with their little city which was joined to the continent by Alexander's causeways and other works. They so enlarged their boundaries that in Pliny's time the wall of their city enclosed almost 3 miles. When one included Palaetyrus or Old Tyre with it the whole enclosure came to no less than 19 miles. [Pliny l.5. c.19.]
     
  54. Admetus, who first got onto the wall with 20 targeteers were all slain at the very first encounter with the enemy. In the whole time of the siege, no more than 400 Macedonians were lost. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  55. Alexander offered sacrifices to Hercules and went in procession with his whole host in full armour to his temple. He held a show also with his ships and caused wrestling and other games to be performed by torch light. There was a certain Tyrian ship consecrated to his honour which he had captured. This he rededicated to himself. [Arrian. l.2.] He took the golden chain from off of Apollos' image and the robes he was attired with. He gave the image a new name, "Alexander's friend". [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112.] Timaeus states that Alexander captured Tyre on the very exactly the same day that the Carthaginians had taken the image of Apollo from Gela in Sicily. The Greeks offered to Apollo a magnificent and solemn sacrifice as if by his power and favour they had captured Tyre. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 93.]
     
  56. As soon as Alexander had taken Tyre, he marched into Judah. [Euseb. Chron. with Pliny, l.12. c.25.] and subdued all that part of Syria which is called Palestina. [Arrian. l.2. p. 50.] He went in person against those places that would not willingly submit to him. [Curt. l.4. c.17.] When he was on his march to Jerusalem, Jaddua the high priest who was terrified by his former threats and now feared his rage, resorted to God by prayers and sacrifices for the common safety of all. God warned him in a dream that he should make a holy day in the city and open wide the city gates. He and the rest of the priests would go forth in their priestly raiment and all the rest of the people would be clothed all in white and accompany him to meet Alexander. When Alexander saw this company coming to him from a distance, he went all alone to the high priest. After he prostrated himself before that God whose name he saw engraven in the golden plate of his mitre he greeted him. When Parmenion asked the reason for his behaviour, he replied that while he was still in Macedon planning the conquest of Asia, there appeared to him a man clothed like this high priest who invited him into Asia and assured him of all success in the conquest of it. The priests went before him as he entered into Jerusalem. He went up to the temple and sacrificed to God in the manner the priests showed him. They had showed him the book of the prophet Daniel in which it was written that a Greek should come and destroy the Persians. (Daniel 8:7,20,21; Daniel 11:13) He did not doubt but he was the one in the prophecy. After this he dismissed the company. [Joseph. l.11. c.8. s. 5.]
     
  57. The next day, he assembled the people and asked them what they wanted from him. They replied they wanted nothing but that they might live according to the laws of their own country and that every 7th year, [in the sabbatical year when there was no harvest] they might be exempt from paying any tribute. He granted all they asked. When they asked further that he would allow the Jews who dwelt in the countries of Babylon and Media to live according to their own rites and laws he answered, that he would grant that request as soon as he had taken those countries too. When he told them that if any of them would follow him in his wars they could use their own rites wherever they came, many enlisted to serve him. When he had settled all matters in Jerusalem, he left and went to the rest of the cities of that country and was joyfully received everywhere. [Joseph. l.11. c.8. s. 6.]
     
  58. One of Alexander's captains, Callas went and recaptured Paphagonia, which defected from Alexander after the battle at Issos. Alexander's captains Antigonus Lyconia and Balacrus captured the city of Miletus after they defeated Darius' captain Idarnes. [Curt. l.4. c.17.]
     
  59. Alexander had given the government of Cilicia to Socrates and wanted Philotas the son of Parmenion, to take care of the country about Tyre. Coelo-Syria was committed to Andronicus by Parmenion. He wanted to follow Alexander in the war. Alexander commanded Hephastion with the fleet, to scour the coast of Phoenicia. He went with his whole army to Gaza [Curt. l.4. c.17.] and besieged the garrison of Persians for two months. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad. 112. Josephus l.11. c.8. s. 6.] [It appears modern editions of Josephus have deleted part of chapter 8. Editor.]
     
  60. According to Josephus, the name of the captain of the garrison at Gaza was Babemeses, or according to Curtius and Arrian, Batis an Eunuch. He was very loyal to his king:. He hired some Arabian mercenaries and made good provision of food and other things. He defended the walls, which were very strong with a small company of men.
     
  61. Alexander received two wounds at this siege. When Batis was taken alive, Alexander had cords or thongs drawn through his ankles and tied him to a chariot. He was dragged around the city. In that siege 10,000 Persians and Arabians died. The Macedonians also lost men. [Curt. l. 4. c.10.] Alexander sold all the women and children there for slaves. He repopulated the place with inhabitants from the neighbouring parts and made that the location of his garrison. [Arrian. l.2. in fin.] Those words of Strabo are not easily understood unless they refer to the former state of that city. He states: (*Strabo, l.16. 7:277) "Gaza which was formerly a glorious city, was destroyed by Alexander and remained desolate."
     
  62. We will say that this was meant of a later Gaza built in another place which Jerome in his book, De Locis Hebraicis: i.e.of places in Judea, affirms in this way: "The question is, how in one of the prophets it is said, And Gaza shall be turned into an everlasting heap? which is thus answered. There are scarcely left to be seen any sign of the old city. The present city of Gaza was built in another place instead of the location of the one which was destroyed."
     
  63. When Alexander had done what he wanted to do to Gaza, he sent Amyntas the son of Andremon, with 3 ships to Macedon to bring him the best of the youth for his army. [Diod. Sic. year 2, Olymp. 112. Curt. l.4. c.19.]
     
3673 AM, 4382 JP, 332 BC
  1. From Gaza, Alexander marched into Egypt as he formerly planned. 7 days after he left Gaza, he came to a place which he named Alexander's Camp. From there he came to the city Pelusium. [Arrian. l.3. in pri. Curt. l.4. c.20.] He did not go back again from Gaza to Jerusalem, as Josephus incorrectly reports.
     
  2. A large number of the Egyptians who were expecting Alexander's arrival, assembled at Pelusium. They were offended by the Persian's pride, avarice, and sacrilege and eagerly welcomed the arrival of the Macedonians. [Curt. l.4. c.20. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.]
     
  3. Alexander left a garrison in Pelusium and ordered his ships to go up the river to Memphis. He marched by land to Heliopolis having the Nile on his right all the way. Wherever he went, all the cities opened their gates to him. He passed the desert of Egypt and came at last to Helsopolis. After crossing the river, he marched toward Memphis. [Arrian. l.3.] The Persians who were there did not hinder his coming when they saw the general defection of the Egyptians from them. When he was not far from Memphis, he was met by Astraces, who commanded the garrison for Darius. He gave Alexander 800 talents and all his master's wardrobe. [Curt. l.4. c. 20.] However Curtius writes the name Astraces instead of Mazaces as he does in chapter 4 of the same book. Likewise, Arrian in the beginning of his third book, states that Mazaces a Persian whom Darius had made governor of Egypt received Alexander into that province and its cities in a very friendly way.
     
  4. Alexander offered his sacrifices at Memphis and there held games of wrestling and other activities and music. The most expert and skilful men of all Greece entered these games to try to win the prizes. He came down the river to the sea. He put his targeteers, archers and Agrians and the his troops aboard the ships of his confederates and they sailed to Canopus. There he picked a choice site for the city of Alexandria which was between the Egyptian Sea and Marea or Lake of Mareotis. He named the future city after himself. [Arrian. l.3.] In that part of it which lies next to the sea and the shipping docks, there was a street called Racotis. [Strabo. l.17. p. 792. Pansanius, in his Eliaca. p. 169. Tacit. Histor. l.4. c.84.]
     
  5. Alexandria was built not in the 7th, [as Eusebius in Chron and from him, Byril. of Alexandria, l.1. cont. Julianuni and Cedrehus state] but in the 5th year of Alexander's reign and in the very first year of the 112th Olympiad as Solinus has it in chapter 32 not as Diodorus in the 2nd year and much less, as Eusebius in the 3rd year.] For the exact time when Alexandria was built we can determine precisely from the interval of time between the taking of Tyre and that great battle at Gaugamela and his deeds in that interim. From this and from the 5th year of Darius and Thoth in 417th year of Nabonasar's account which falls in with the 14th day of September according to our Julian calendar or year 1. of the Olymp. 112th. Ptolemy of Alexandria, deduces the years of Alexander, whom in the Preface of his Procgeiroin Kanomoun [whereof this is one] he, after the fashion of all Alexandrians, calls Ktishn i.e.his founder.
     
  6. Dinocrates was the man who designed and laid out streets of this city [whom Plutarch both "in his life" and also in the 2nd book of the fortune of Alexander, calls Stesicrates and other books, call otherwise.] Dinocrates was that famous architect whose skill and industry the Ephesians used in the rebuilding of their temple of Diana. For the excellency of his workmanship showed in the temple deserves the second place after the original builders of the temple, in the annals of the world. [Strabo, l.14. p. 641. Valer. Max. l.1. c.4. Vitruvins, in the Proaeme of his second book. Pliny l.5. c.10., l.7. c.37. Solin. c.32,40. Ammia. Marcell. l22.]
     
  7. Alexander got them started and wanted them to work quickly. He journeyed to the temple of Jupiter Ammon, [Plutarch in his Alexander, with Arrian. l.3.] from an ambition which he had because he was told that Perseus and Hercules had been there. Callisthenes, in the history which he wrote of Alexander affirms this and is cited by Strabo. [l. 17. p. 814.]
     
  8. Therefore he went as far as Paraesonium along by the seaside. He found some fresh water by the way 200 miles from Alexandria according to Aristobulus. [in Arrian. l.3. p. 53.]
     
  9. He was met about midway by the ambassadors from the Cyrenians. They presented him with a crown and other costly items. Among these were 300 horses that were trained for war and 5 chariots each drawn by 4 horses. These were the best horses that could be found. He accepted these gifts and made a league of friendship with them. [Diod. Sic. Olymp. 112. year 2.]
     
  10. He went from Paraetonium to Mesogabas where the temple of Hammon was through dry countries. He wandered over the plains while the hot wind blew from the south. Callisthenes says that he was saved from death partly by a shower of rain that fell which settled the sand and partly by a flock of crows which led him on the way. [Strabo l.17. p. 814.] He adds further this fable to the story. Often when the men wandered out of the way in the dark, the crows with their cawing would call them back into the right way again. [Strabo. l.17. p. 814. Plut. in his Alex.]
     
  11. Ptolemy the son of Lagus states that there were two dragons which went before the company making a noise and led them into and from the temple again. However Aristobulus, with whom most writers agree, states that there were two crows which still kept on flying before the army and that these were Alexander's guides on the way there. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  12. When he came to a lake of bitter waters, as they called them, he went about 12 miles from there. He passed by the cities called after Hammon's name. After a day's journey from there they came to Jupiter Hammon's grove and temple. [Diod. Sic. Olymp. 112. year 2.]
     
  13. There the priests of the temple were secretly bribed before hand and instructed what to say. As soon as Alexander came to enter within the temple doors, they all came and greeted him by the name of Hammon's son. [Justin l.11. ca. 11.] So we learn by this event that the god although deaf and dumb had the power through the priests to lie as they wished. One who comes to consult the oracle could be told exactly what he wanted to hear. [Oros. l.3. c.16.]
     
  14. Callisthenes states that the priests permitted no one but Alexander to come into the temple in his ordinary dress. All the rest were required to change their clothes and to hear the oracle from the outside. The oracle told Alexander various things by signs and vague language. However, the oracle told Alexander plainly that he was Jupiter's son. [Strabo l.17. p. 814.] Yet Alexander in a letter to his mother Olympias, said that he had received many secret oracles there which he would tell to her alone when he returned. [Plut. in Alex.]
     
  15. At the same letter or in some other letter to his mother, [which I am sure was meant by Tertullian in his book de Pallio] Alexander said that he was told by Leo, a principal priest among the Egyptians, that they who were now gods were formerly men. In worshipping them, the nations preserved the memory of their kings and ancestors. [Aug. de Civit. Dei, l.8. c.5,27. and de Consen. Evangelist. l.1. c.23. Minutius Felix, in Octavio. with Cyprian, in his book de Idosor. vanitate.] In the beginning of his letter that he had written this to his mother, he opened with: "Alexander the king, the son of Jupiter Hammon, sends greetings to his mother Olympias."
     
  16. She very wittily in her answer replied: "Now my good son I pray thee be content and do not accuse me nor lay anything to my charge before Juno. For she will do me some shrewd turn, if you in your letters make me a step-queen to her." [M. Varro, in a book of his, entitled Orestes, vel de Insania: in Aul. Gellius l.13. c.4.]
     
  17. When Alexander had received such an answer, it pleased him well as he by his own confession admits. He returned from there to Egypt by the same way as he went according to Aristobulus. Ptolemy says he went by a shorter way to Memphis. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  18. When he arrived at Memphis, Antipater had sent 400 Greek mercenaries under the command of Menaetas the son of Hegesandrus. About 500 cavalry from Thracia, were led by Asclepiodorus. At Memphis, Alexander sacrificed to Jupiter and made oblations to him with his whole army. They were all in their complete armour. They held games, activities, wrestlings, other events and music. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  19. He ordered the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns and cities to leave their dwellings. He moved them into Alexandria and populated that place with a huge number of inhabitants. [Curt. l.4. c.21. and Justin l.11. c.11.] He also moved a colony of the Jews there whose virtue and good behaviour he much approved of and deemed them worthy of special trust. As a reward for their service in the war he made them free citizens and gave them equal honours and privileges with the Greeks. The group that was there went by the name Alexandrians and also by the name of Macedonians. [Josep. l.2. de. Bello Jud. c.36. p. 815. and l.2. cont. Ap. p. 163. in the Greek and Latin Edition.]
     
  20. He also gave lands to Sanballat's soldiers, whom he ordered to follow him into Egypt into the country to Thebais. He entrusted them with the keeping of that territory in his absence. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 6.]
     
  21. Alexander had a burning desire to go and visit the inner and more remote parts of Egypt and Ethiopia. His present war with Darius forced him to delay such expeditions. He made Esehilus and Pencestes, the Macedonian governors of Egypt with a 4000 man army. He ordered Polemon to defend the mouths of the Nile River with 30 ships. [Curtius l.4. c21.] Although, Arrian tells us that he made Pencestes the son of Macatetus and Balacrus the son of Amyntas, commanders of the foot soldiers whom he left there. He made Polemon the son of Theramenes, admiral of the fleet to defend the mouths of the Nile River with all the sea lying next to Egypt. For the civilgovernment of the whole country, he committed its care to Doloaspes, a native of Egypt according to Arrian.
     
  22. Curtius further tells us that he left Apollonius to govern Africa that bordered on Egypt and Cleomenes to gather the tribute from both Africa and Egypt. To much the same end, Arrian tells us, that he left Apollonius the son of Charinus to govern Libya which bordered on the west of Egypt. He appointed Cleomenes to take care of Arabia on the east from the city called Urbs Heroum which borders on Arabia Petraea. He was ordered to receive all tribute. He committed the judicial administration to the presidents and justices of the country as it was done before. In the second book of Aristotle's Occonomicks Cleomenes of Alexandria is mentioned as governor of Egypt. He is the same person whom Arrian. [l. 3. of the History of Alexander] called Ecnaucratius. Freinshemius who is very good at finding errors, says that in the one it should be, "of the Nauacritians or Naucratites" and in the other, "commander of Alexandria in Egypt". The result of this is that Cleomenes governor of Alexandria was a native of Naucratis which was an ancient colony made in Egypt by the Milesians. He was in charge of the administration and populating this city. We may partly gather from Aristotle who says that Alexander ordered him that he should populate a city near Pharos. [Alexandria is only a mile by sea from there.] He should redirect all the trade from Canopus to Alexandria. Justin, [l. 13. c.4.] clearly states that Alexander committed the building of Alexandria to Cleomenes. It may be added that Alexander wrote to him 8 years later and ordered him to build two temples to the deceased Hephaestion, one in Alexandria and the other in Pharos. Also all bills of lading and other contracts of merchants should have the name of Hephaestion inscribed on them according to Arrian. [l. 4. Histor.] He adds further that this Cleomenes was a most wicked man and one that did the Egyptians a thousand injustices.
     
  23. When Alexander was gone down the Nile, Hector, a son of Parmenions, who was in the flower of his youth and a great favourite of Alexander desired to catch up to him. He jumped into a little boat and others jumped in also. So much so that the overloaded boat sank and Hector drowned. The king was very grieved at the loss of him and when the body was recovered, he gave it a splendid funeral. [Curt. l.4. c.21.]
     
  24. Shortly after this, Alexander received news that Andromachus was burned alive by the inhabitants of Samaria. He immediately marched away as quickly as he could to exact vengeance of them for it. [Curt. l.4. c.21.]
     
  25. Alexander made bridges over the Nile and every point of it around Memphis at the beginning of spring. He went from there toward Phoenicia. [Arrian. l.3. p. 55.] While he was on his way, those who had murdered Andromachus, were delivered into his hands and executed. He sent Memnon to replace Andromachus. [Curt. l.4. c.21.] When he captured the city of Samaria, he gave it to be inhabited by his Macedonians. [Eusebius in his Chron. and from him Cedrenus derived it.] However, the territory that belonged to it, he gave to the Jews for their loyalty to him. They did not pay him any tribute for it according to Josephus who gets it from Hecaraeus of Abdera. [l. 2. cont. Apion. p. 1063.] The temple in the mount Gerisim was spared. If any at Jerusalem were in trouble for eating forbidden meats, breaching sabbath or such like crime, they immediately defected to the Sichemites and said that they were falsely accused. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8.] Similar quarrels between the Jews and Samaritans did not only happen here but in Egypt at Alexandria because of the different customs and rites used in the two temples. [Josep. l.11. c.1. and l.13. c.6.]
     
  26. When Alexander came to Tyre, he met his fleet which he had sent there ahead of him. He sacrificed a second time to Hercules and held games and exercises of wrestling and music and the like. [Arrian. l.3.] The kings of the Cyprus had the duty of providing suitable actors for them. Nicocreon, king of Salamis, sent Theslalus, a man very much favoured by Alexander. Pasicrates king of Solos sent Athenodorus, who took the prize from all by the majority decision. [Plut. in Alex.] These kings of Cyprus had long before defected from Darius to Alexander and sent him ships when he besieged Tyre. From that time on, he always honoured them as they deserved. [Curt. l.4. c.21.] Concerning Nicocreon it is said that Anaxarchus of Abdera the philosopher said to Alexander as he sat at supper [according to Laertius , in his Life.] that there was also a certain Persian governor had been served there. For this saying of his, Alexander later had him put to a most miserable death. [??]
     
  27. Alexander made Caeranus of Berthaea treasurer of Phoenicia to gather his tribute there. In Asia, he had Philoxenus do the same in the regions beyond the mountain of Taurus. He put Harpalus into their former job of being in charge of the money which was in his own treasury. He sent Menander, one of his confederates, into Lydia to be the governor. He put Clearchus into Menander's former job of overseeing the foreigners. He replaced Arimna by Asclepiodorus, the son of Eunicus to be governor of Syria. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  28. When these tasks were done, Alexander offered at Hercules' shrine a great vessel of gold with thirty dishes in it. Now he was anxious to get after Darius, so he marched forward toward the Euphrates River. [Curt. l.4. c.21.]
     
  29. When news came to Darius that wherever he went, Alexander would follow him, he ordered all countries no matter how far they were away, to come to him at Babylon. His army was now grown to about half the size it was at Issos in Cilicia. Many lacked weapons, which were provided for them. [Curt. l.4. c.22.] He is said to have 45,000 cavalry and 200,000 foot soldiers. At Issos, his forces in both kinds far exceeded these in number. It is certain that the number found in Justin, [l. 11. c.12. and in Orosius, l.3. c.17.] is short of what it really was, 400,000 or 404,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. Plutarch [in Alex.] says they were 10,000,000 and in his Apophthegmes, 100,000,000. [which is incorrectly printed] It should be 1,000,000. With this Diodorus agrees somewhat. He says there were 800,000 foot soldiers and 200,000 calvary. Arrian attributes to the foot soldiers only as much as Plutarch does to the sum of both of cavalry and the foot soldiers. That is a 1,000,000 and adding 40,000 cavalry to that number. Though some instead of 40 thousand, put there 400,000 cavalry so that the number of cavalry might be some what more proportional to the number of the foot soldiers. Also so that the number of cavalry might not here seem so far less of what it was at Issos. However, Curtius, [l. 4. c.22.] says it was far in excess of it. In addition he had 200 iron chariots and 15 elephants which the Indians brought him. On the other side, Alexander's army had not more than 7000 cavalry and 40,000 foot soldiers in it. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  30. Darius moved with this vast army from Babylon to Nineveh. He had the Tigris River on his left hand and Euphrates on his right. His army filled all that huge plain of Mesopotamia. [Diod. Sic. year 2, Olymp. 112. Curt. l.4. c.22.] When they had crossed the Tigris River, he heard that the enemy was not for off. He sent Satropaces, general of his cavalry with 1000 choice men to hinder the approach of the enemy. He ordered him to burn and lay waste all the lands through which Alexander was to pass. Darius thought want of supplies might defeat Alexander since he had nothing else but the spoil of the country for supplies. Darius marched to Arabela and left his baggage there. He marched forward as far as the Lycus River where he made a bridge. When he and his army had crossed over it in 5 days, they marched 10 miles to the Bumelus River. [Curt. l.4. c.22.] Arrian says that he pitched his camp at Gaugamela by the Bumelus River, for so he calls the place, [l. 6. p. 131.] not as in [l. 3. c.57.] Bumadus. It was a level field for if there were any hilly or uneven ground there, Darius ordered it to be made level. This would allow his cavalry to a freer range to attack. Also the whole area would be more open to his view. [Arrian. l.3. Curt. l.4. c.22.]
     
  31. Alexander advanced to Thapsacus, a large city in Syria, in the month Hecatombeon, when Aristophanes was archon at Athens. That is in year 2 of the 112th Olympiad in the very beginning of that year. Here the Euphrates River had a ford where Alexander found 2 bridges already made. They were not completely finished nor quite reached to the other bank. Mazaeus was sent by Darius to secure that crossing. As soon as Mazaeus heard that Alexander was coming, he fled with all his army. When he was gone, Alexander quickly completed the bridges to the other side and his army crossed over and then marched toward Babylon. They left the Euphrates River and the mountains of Armenia on their left hand. They did not take the shortest route there. The longer route was more suitable for provisions for his army and was cooler and more comfortable for the march. On the way, he intercepted some scouts from Darius. They informed him that Darius with all his army was on the bank of the Tigris River to prevent him from crossing there. His forces were now far more numerous than when he fought with Alexander in Cilicia. When Alexander went there, he did not find Darius or anyone else. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  32. Therefore, Alexander crossed the Tigris River. Although there was no one there to hinder him, it was difficult and dangerous to cross. The river ran quite swiftly there. However, he crossed safely and lost nothing except a small quantity of his baggage. [Arian. l.3. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112. Curt. l.4. c.23.] From Thaphacus where they crossed over the Euphrates to the place where he crossed the Tigris, Eratosthenes, calculates to be 1400 stadia or 350 miles. [Strabo, l.2. p. 79. and l.16. p. 746.]
     
  33. Alexander broke camp from the bank of Tigris and led his army through the country of Assyria. On his left hand were the mountains of Sogdiana and on the right, the Tigris River. The 4th day after crossing the Tigris, Mazaeus attacked him with 1000 cavalry. Alexander sent Aristo, who commanded the cavalry of Paeonia to counter the attack. Aristo singled out Satropaces, the commander of that troop and ran a spear through his throat. Although wounded, he fled away and Aristo chased him through the middle of the enemies' troops. He knocked him off his horse and decapitated him. Aristo brought his head and threw it down at Alexander's feet. He said: "Sir, in our country, such a present used to be rewarded with a cup of gold."
     
  34. Alexander smiled and replied: "Yea, with an empty one, but I will give thee one full of wine." [Arrian. l.3. Curt. l.4. c.23. Plutarch in Alexander.]
     
  35. Alexander camped there 2 days and ordered to move the next day. That night there was an eclipse of the moon in the first watch of the night. At first the moon was dimmed. Soon after the entire face of it turned a blood like colour. The whole army, considering the upcoming battle, were first troubled and later terrified at this sight. [Curt. l.4. c.23,24.] Pliny correctly noted that: "The moon was eclipsed at Arbela, in the 2nd hour of the night, and was then seen rising in Sicily," [Pliny, l.2. c.70.]
     
  36. Ptolemy in his Geography, [l. 1. c.4.] is incorrect where he states that: "The moon eclipsed in the 5th hour of the night and was seen at Carthage at the 2nd hour of the night."
     
  37. Plutarch [in Alexan.] correctly states that the eclipse happened in the month Boedromion, about the beginning of the Great Mysteries at Athens. That is in the full moon at the very middle of that month. At this time of the month the Great Mysteries started and were celebrated for a few days after this. The astronomical account shows that the eclipse happened on the 20th day of our September.
     
  38. To encourage his soldiers who were distressed at this sight, he consulted with the Egyptian soothsayers he had with him. Their answer was that the sun represented Greece and the moon, Persia. Therefore as often as the moon was eclipsed, it portended the ruin to those nations which she represented. [Curt., l.4. c.24.] Alexander presently offered sacrifices to the sun, moon and the earth because all three must be in correct position for an eclipse of the moon. Aristander, who was Alexander's soothsayer, declared publicly that the eclipse portended all good and happy success to Alexander and the Macedonians. Therefore, the battle should be fought in that very month and that the sacrifices that were offered did predict a victory for Alexander. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  39. When Alexander knew the soldiers were now very confident of victory, he ordered them to march on the second watch of the next night. They had the Tigris on the right hand and the Gordiaean mountains on the left. The next morning, Alexander with a small troop attacked 1000 Persian scouts. Some they slew and the rest he took prisoners. He then sent some of his own company on to discover what was ahead. He also wanted them to put out the fires in the towns and villages that the inhabitants had set on fire. When they fled from the enemy, they set fire to the barns and stacks of grain. Although the tops were burned, the fire had not consumed the pile. Hence the Macedonians saved a large quantity of food for themselves. Mazeus, who before had burned what he pleased, now fled before the rapidly approaching enemies leaving much untouched. [Curt. l.4. c.24.]
     
  40. Alexander knew that Darius was not more than 38 miles away. Since he had plenty of provisions for his troops, he stayed there for 4 days. [Curt. l.4. c.24.]
     
3674 AM, 4383 JP, 331 BC
  1. During this time Alexander intercepted certain letters sent from Darius in which he tried to incite the Greeks to murder or otherwise to betray Alexander. [Curt. l.4. c.25.]
     
  2. Statira the wife of Darius was weary of this long trip and vexed in her mind, aborted the child she was carrying and died. Alexander was deeply grieved by this and prepared a very elaborate and costly funeral for her. [Curt. l.4. c.25. Justin, l.11. c.12. Plutarch in Alex. and l. 2. de fortu. Alex.]
     
  3. While others were busy with the funeral, Tirus or Tyriotes an eunuch, stole away and carried the news of her death to Darius. At first he was infinitely perplexed and troubled at it. However, when he understood Alexander's respect he always had for her and his chaste behaviour towards her, he lifted up his hands to heaven and prayed to the gods. He asked that if it were decreed and there was no remedy left for him, he wished that none might sit on the throne of Cyrus but so just an enemy, so merciful a conqueror, as Alexander. [Curt. l.4. c.25. Plutarch in Alex.]
     
  4. Darius was so overcome with Alexander's great clemency and chastity toward his wife that he again tried to make peace with Alexander. He sent 10 of his most principal men to offer Alexander new conditions. He sent 30,000 talents for the ransom of his mother and two daughters. He also offered Alexander his other daughter Septina or Statipna or Sartina or Statyra [various editions of Curtius use all these variations] for a wife. [Curt. l.4. c.16.] Whatever lay between the Hellespont and the Euphrates he would give as a dowry. Alexander replied that had always found the money of Darius soliciting sometimes his soldiers to revolt from him or sometimes his nearest friends to murder him. Therefore he was resolved to pursue him to the death, not any longer as a noble enemy but as a malefactor and a poisoning murderer. Whatever Darius had already lost or yet remained in his hands was the reward of war. Further, war would set the bounds between their two kingdoms and each would have what tomorrow's fortune would give. [Curt. l.4. c.26. Justin l.11. c.12. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.]
     
  5. The ambassadors returned and told Darius that he must fight. Therefore, he presently sent Mazaeus ahead of him with 3000 cavalry to hold the passes where the enemy was to come. With the rest, he marched in good battle array 1.25 miles and there made a stand. He expected the enemy to attack him there. Alexander left all his luggage within his camp and set a reasonable guard to keep it. He advanced to meet the enemy. [Curt. l.4. c.26,27.]
     
  6. At that very instant, a sudden panic gripped his army. The sky [for it was the summer season] seemed to sparkle and shine out like fire. They imagined that they saw flames of fire issuing from Darius' camp. By sound of trumpet, Alexander signified to them that all was well. He ordered the Antesignary [i.e. those that stood next to the standard] in every company to put down their weapons at their feet. They should pass the word to those that followed to do likewise. When this was done, Alexander showed them there was no cause of fear and that the enemy was yet far off. Finally they recovered their courage and took up their weapons again. For more safety, Alexander decided to make his stand and to fortify his camp. [Curt. l.4. c.28. Polya. Stratag. l.4.]
     
  7. Alexander drew out all his forces by night and marched about the second watch and planned to fight as soon as it was day. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  8. Mazeus had taken up his stand with a choice company of cavalry on the rise of a hill to better view the enemy. The next day he left the place and returned to Darius. No sooner was he gone then the Macedonians captured it. They wanted the advantage of high ground and also a good vantage point to view the enemy forces in the plain. [Curt. l.4. c.29.]
     
  9. Alexander commanded his mercenaries from Paeonia to march in front. He drew his phalanx of Macedonians into two wings, both flanked with cavalry. [Curt. l.4. c.29.] The camps were about 7.5 miles apart. The army of Alexander came to some hills from where they might view the enemy. When he consulted his captains whether the main battle should be fought closer to the enemy or they should make a stand right there until he had better viewed the ground where they were to fight. Most were favoured the former but Parmenion favoured the latter which Alexander agreed with. [Arrian. l.3.] Therefore they resolved to camp on one of those hills. He immediately ordered the troops to build a camp there. This was quickly done. He went into his own pavilion and from there viewed the army of the enemy beneath him in the plain. [Curt. l.4. c.29.]
     
  10. Meanwhile the horse boys and other rag tag that followed the camp started fighting among themselves for fun. They called the captain of the one side Alexander and the captain of the other, Darius. When Alexander heard this, he had the rest stop fighting and had the two captains fight between themselves. Alexander helped captain Alexander on with his own armour and Philotas gave captain Darius' armour. All the army watched while these two fought. They thought it foreshadowed the outcome of the battle. It happened that he who played Alexander defeated the one who played Darius. He was given a reward, 10 townships and the honour of wearing a Persian garment that was given to him. [Eratosthenes, in Plut. in his Alexan.]
     
  11. Alexander's friends now came to him and complained that the soldiers were planning among themselves in their tents to take all the spoil for themselves and to put nothing into his treasury. At this Alexander smiled and said: "This is very good news, my friends that you bring me for I see by this they mean to fight and not to flee."
     
  12. Many of the common soldiers came to him to encourage him and not be afraid of the number of his enemies. They would not be able to endure the very first noise or shout of them. In this place does Ndassf does not signify, "the smell of them", or "of their arm-pits", as Xylander translates it [Plut. in his Apophthemes.]
     
  13. The 11th night after the eclipse of the moon, the two armies lay within sight of each other. Darius kept his men in their arms all night and reviewed them all by torch light. So that all the plain lying between the mountain Niphat and the Goriaeans hills shone with torches. While his army was sleeping, Alexander was up with his soothsayer Aristander before his pavilion engaged in certain arcane and secret rites and ceremonies and offered sacrifice to Apollo. [Plut. in Alexan.] Curtius states: "Aristander in a white robe, carrying bunches of vervain in his hand and his head covered, mumbled certain prayers which the king was to say after him to propitiate Jupiter, Minerva, and Victoria."
     
  14. Parmenion and his other friends advised him to attack Darius in the dead of night and thereby conceal from his soldiers the terror of the fight since he was so heavily out numbered. He replied that he did not come there to steal a victory. [Plut. Curt. Arrian.] On the contrary, Darius feared least he be attacked in the night. He knew his camp was no better fortified than it should be. Therefore he kept his men up all night in arms. Lack of sleep was the main reason his men lost the battle the next day. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  15. Alexander was troubled in his mind with what might happen the next day and did not sleep at all that night until toward the morning. Then he fell into so deep a sleep that when it was fully day they could not wake him. When his friends asked him what made him sleep so soundly, he answered thus. It was Darius, who by gathering all his forces into one place, had eased him of thinking how to follow him into various other countries. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. (112). Justin. l.11. c.13. Curt. l.4. c.30,31. Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  16. Justin says, [l. 11. c.14.] this battle was fought by Alexander, in the 5th year of his reign in the very end of it and in the beginning of the 6th. Although Jerome commenting on (Daniel 11) disagrees and states that he overcame and slew Darius in the 7th year of his reign. Arrian says this battle was fought when Aristophanes was archon at Athens in the month Pyanephion. The prophecy of Aristander was fulfilled when he said that in that very month when the moon was eclipsed, Alexander should fight and defeat Darius. [Arrian. l.3. p. 63.] Both Arrian and Diodorus state that the battle was fought in the year when Aristophanes was archon at Athens. Dionysius Halycarnass places the battle in the following year when Aristophontes was archon at Athens by simple mistake in the name in his Epistle to Ammaeus]. Aristander was correct when he foretold that Alexander should gain that great victory over Darius in that very month. However Arrian, mistakes one month for another and says that it was in the month Pyanepsion. However the astronomical calculations show that eclipse was in the month Boedromion. On the 11th day after the eclipse Alexander had that battle. [as Plutarch affirms in Alexander] In his Camillus Plutarch says, that he got that victory on the 5th day of the last quarter of Boedromion which is the 25th day of Boedromion. This month had 31 days and corresponds to October 1.
     
  17. Ptolemy Lagus and Aristobulus who were both in the battle testify that this battle was fought at Gaugmela near the Beumelus River. Strabo, [l. 16. p. 737.], Plutarch [in Alex. in some copies, as also in Zonaras, is written as Gausamela], Arrian. [l. 6. p. 161.] and Ammina. Maycellinus, [l. 23.] agree with this. Gaugamela was only a small country village. The sound of the name is harsh on the ear. According to Strabo and Plutarch, it means "the house of a camel", or rather, "the body of a camel' for so that word armg
     
  18. in an equal distance from each point, was located Arbela and the hill Nicatorium [called by Alexander after this victory near it]. Strabo in the beginning of his 16th book shows this. Hence it appears that Arbela, in Ptolemy's 5th table or Map of Asia, should be located where Gaugamela is. Both places are located in the same place according to him. These cities were not on this side but on the further side of the Lycus River. This disagrees with Strabo, Eratosthenes' report, [as written by Strabo, l.2. p. 79.], Curtius and Arrian. When all of these are diligently compared together, we may gather, that Gaugamela and Arbela were not 60 to 75 miles from each other [as some have reported and as Arrian notes l.3. p. 57,63. & l.6. p. 30.] but a little more than 10 miles apart.
     
  19. Aristobulus reports that when the fight was over there was found a description of Darius' battle plans as we find in [Arrian. l.3. p. 52.] Curtius, [l. 4. c.27,32.] details the battle plans for both armies.
     
  20. Darius left his chariots and threw away his weapons and mounted his mare that just had a new foal. He fled as fast as she could carry him [Plut. in Alex.] just as he did at the battle at Issos, as I showed before from Elian. He tells us in the same place that for this very purpose Darius always had mares that had recently foaled with him in the battle field. So with very few in his company, he came to the Lycus River. When he crossed it some advised him to destroy the bridge after him to hinder the pursuit of the enemy. When he considered how many there were behind him who were yet to cross, he replied that he had rather leave a way for a pursuing enemy than take one from a fleeing friend. [Curt. l.4. c.36,37. Justin. l.11. c.14.] In Justin's work we find "Cydnus" instead of "Lycus" printed. In the note on 3671 AM, we showed that the Cydnus River ran through the middle of the city Tarsus in Cilicia. From there Orosius who followed Justin very closely made the mistake of saying that this last great battle between Alexander and Darius was fought at Tarsus. [l. 3. c.17.]
     
  21. When Mazeus pressed hard on the squadron of the Macedonians, Parmenion sent to Alexander who had chased the enemy as far as the Lycus River. He wanted Alexander to come and help them. However, when Mazeus heard that Darius had left the battle, he fled also. He did not go the shortest way to Babylon but went around over the Tigris River. This was a longer but safer route. He brought what was left of his army safely to Babylon. [Curt. l.4. c.37.]
     
  22. About midnight, Darius came to Arbela. Many of his nobles and other soldiers resorted there too. He called them together and said that his purpose was to leave all for the present to Alexander. He would flee to the utmost borders of his kingdom and there begin the war afresh on Alexander. [Curt. l.5. c.1.] Presently he went on horseback and fled over the mountains of Armenia into Media. With him were a few of his kindred and his guard. The guard was called Melophori, i.e.apple bearers because they each bore a golden apple on the point of his spear. Later, 2000 mercenaries under the command of Paron of Phocaea in Ionia and Glaucus of Aloe joined him. [Arran. l.3.]
     
  23. When Alexander was returning from the Lycus River, he had his fiercest battle yet with the Parthian, Indian and some elite Persian cavalry. In the encounter, he lost 60 men plus his captains Hephaestion, Caenus, and Menidas. Alexander was severely wounded but recovered. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  24. In the main battle, Alexander lost at most 100 foot soldiers but 1000 cavalry of which half were his confederates. On the other side, 300,000 were slain and a much larger number taken prisoner. He captured all the elephants and as many of the chariots that were not broken in the battle. [Arrian. l.3.] However Diodorus states that 90,000 Persian's cavalry and foot soldiers died. On the Macedonian side, 500 were missing and a large number were wounded. Curtius, [l. (4). c.ult.] says that 40,000 Persians and less than 300 Macedonians died. The total killed in the three battles, this, Issos and at Granicum, Orosius [l. 3. c17.] over the last 3 years plus 3 or four months is given as follows. "In such a multitude of calamities, it is a thing incredible, that in three battles fought within three years time there should be slain 500,000 cavalry and foot soldiers. These were from a kingdom and those nations from which a few years earlier had slain 900,000 men In addition to those 3 battles in those three years, a number of cities in Asia had been destroyed with their inhabitants. All Syria was laid waste. Tyre was destroyed and all Cilicia depopulated. Cappadocia was subdued and Egypt and Rhodes sold into slavery. Many provinces bordering on the mount Taurus were brought into subjection. Mount Taurus was forced to receive the yoke which it had so long striven to avoid."
     
  25. When Alexander had rested his cavalry that were with him, he set out at midnight toward Arbela. He understood that Darius had stored there all his money and royal provisions which Alexander purposed to capture with a surprise attack. The next day he came to Arbela. He did not find Darius but all his treasure, his shield and his bow. [Arrian. l.3.] Diodorus says that he found there 3000 talents, Curtius said 4000. All the wealth of the whole army had been stored in that place. [l. 5. c.2.]
     
  26. With this battle the empire of Persia seemed to have been ended. Alexander was proclaimed king of Asia and thereupon offered magnificent sacrifices to his gods and distributed among his captains houses, territories and provinces at his pleasure. [Plut. in Alexander.]
     
  27. Because he knew the air would be infected with the stench of the dead carcases, he hurried to get away from Arbela. [Diod. Sic. in the beginning of his second part, l.17. Curt. l.5. c.2.] After 4 days he came to a city called Mennis where there is a fountain which issued sulphur or liquid brimstone. [Curt. l.5. c.2.]
     
  28. As Alexander came toward Babylon, Mazeus, who had fled there from the battle, humbly met him with his children that were of age. He surrendered himself and them with the city of Babylon, into his hands. Alexander received him and his children very graciously. Babophanes, who had the keeping of the citadel there with the king's treasure did not want to be out done by Mazaeus. He covered all the way where Alexander was to pass with flowers and garlands. On each side of the path he had silver altars, burning frankincense and all sorts of sweet odours. Alexander was guarded with armed men. He commanded all the men of Babylon that came to meet him follow behind him after the last of his foot soldiers. Alexander in his chariot made his entrance into the city and went up to the king's palace. The next day he viewed the king's treasure. [Curt. l.5. c.3. Justin l.11. c.14.] He stayed 34 days and refreshed and rewarded his soldiers [According to the better copies have it and Orosius agrees with this as does Curtius. [l. (5). c.5.] His army spent the same number of days there in relaxation. Diod. Sic. [year 2, Olymp. (112).] confirms that they stayed there longer than 30 days. They like the spaciousness of the city and the entertainment which they were given by the residents.
     
  29. Among those who entertained Alexander in this city were the Chaldeans. They talked with him concerning the course and motions of the stars and sudden change of events. [Curt. l. 5. c.3.] The Chaldeans gave Callisthenes one of Alexander's followers, the observations of the heavenly bodies for 1903 years of time. He gave them to Aristotle in Greece. This I mentioned in note on 1771 AM <49>. This information came from Porphyrie.
     
  30. Alexander consulted with the Chaldeans. He followed their advice and sacrificed to Belus. He did whatever they asked of him concerning temple repairs. Alexander commanded the Babylonians to repair the temples which Xerxes had previously demolished and in particular, the temple of Belus, that was located in the heart of the city. He ordered that all the rubbish be immediately carried out of the temple. [Arrian. l.3. p. 63. & l.7. p. 159.] This work was so great that it took 10,000 men two months to clear the place where the temple stood. [Strabo. l.16. p. (738).] When Alexander commanded all his army to help to carry away the rubbish, only the Jews refused to help in that work. Hecataeus of Abdera, who was then with Alexander, stated that they endured many a blow and many other grievous inconveniences. When Alexander heard their reasons for refusing, he exempted them from the task. [Josephus cont. Apion. l.1. p. 1049.]
     
  31. Alexander marvelled most at that hole in the earth in Ecbatana or rather in Batana, as other copies have it. [Batana, which is a city placed by Stephanus Byzantinus near the Euphrates and not Ecbatana, the city of Media is meant here.] Flames of fire continually shot forth as from a fountain and an active spring of Naphta shot out fire not far from that hole. Plutarch, [in his life] describes these effects in more detail.
     
  32. Alexander, ordered Bagophanes, who had surrendered the citadel of Babylon, to follow him. He committed the keeping of the citadel to Agathon, from the town of Pydna along with 700 Macedonians and 300 mercenaries. He made Mazaeus, who surrendered the city to him, governor of all the province of Babylon. He appointed Apollodorus from Amphipolis and Menetes from Pella in Macedonia, to be commanders of that militia in Babylon and all the other countries west as far as Cilicia. For that purpose he left with them, 2000 soldiers with 1000 talents of silver to hire mercenaries. He appointed Asclepiodortus, the son of Philotas, to collect his tribute in those parts. He sent Mithrines, who surrendered the city Sardis to him, to be governor in Armenia. [Diodor. Arria. Curtius.]
     
  33. From the money which he found in Babylon, he gave to every Macedonian cavalry (Prayer of Manasseh 6) pounds, to every foreign cavalry (Prayer of Manasseh 5) pounds, to every Macedonian foot soldier, 2 pounds and to every foreign foot soldier 2 month's pay. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.] An Attic ounce or pound contained 100 drachmas. Curtius confounded this with the Roman denarius and said that he gave to every Macedonian cavalry (Prayer of Manasseh 600) denarii and to every foreign cavalry (Prayer of Manasseh 500) and to every foot soldier 200. [Curt. l.5. c.6.]
     
  34. Alexander was on his way from Babylon when Amyntas the son of Andromenes, came to him with a number of men sent to him by Antipater the governor of Macedon. From Macedon came 500 cavalry and 6000 foot soldiers, from Thrace, 600 cavalry and 3500 foot soldiers, from Peloponesus, 4000 foot soldiers and 380 cavalry. This is according to Curtius but Diodorus has a little less than 1000 cavalry. With them went the sons of 50 of the principal nobles of Macedon to be Alexander's body guards. [Diod. & Curt.]
     
  35. When Alexander had received these troops, he continued on his journey. After marching 6 days, he came into a country called Sitacine, but Curtius calls it Satrapene. This country abounded with provisions and he stayed there many days. He held contests to test every man's prowess and dexterity in the feats of chivalry. He gave the 8 best men command of 1000 troops. He then divided his whole army into so many brigades. Before this, they were organised into companies of 500 and their captains were not chosen by contests of skills. Before, the cavalry of every nation served together apart from other nations. Now he made no difference based on nationality. He appointed as commanders, those who were most skilled in the war no matter what country they were from. He reformed the martial discipline of his army in many points. As a result, all the troops liked him better than ever and were more ready to serve him. He continued his journey. [Diod. & Curt. l.5. c.6.]
     
  36. As Alexander approached Susa, he was met by the son of the governor of Susa, with letters from Philoxenus. Alexander had sent him away immediately after the battle at Arbela to Susa. The letters said that the inhabitants of Susa had surrendered their city and all the treasure there was kept safely for him. [Arrian. l.3.] The son of Abulites, the governor of the city, told him the same message. He did this either voluntarily or according to some, by the orders of Darius so Alexander would be detained there longer. This would give Darius more time to raise a new army against Alexander. [Diod. and Curt. l.5. c.7.]
     
  37. The king entertained the young man with much grace and favour. He used him for his guide to the Idaspes or Choaspes River. This river is a narrow and violent stream. Abulites met Alexander and gave him costly gifts which included some dromedaries which are camels that run very fast and 12 elephants which Darius had sent for from India. [Curt. l.5. c.7.]
     
  38. The day after he left Babylon, he came to Susa. After he entered the city, he received 50,000 talents of silver with all of the king's wardrobe and other belongings. [Arrian. l.3.] Curtius states he received much more silver in bars. Diodorus calculates upward to 400,000 talents of silver and gold in bars and ingots and 9000 talents minted into darics. Plutarch mentions 40,000 talents in coins and 5000 talents worth of Hermionic scarlet. This had been stored there 190 years earlier and looked as fresh as it did the first day it was put there.
     
  39. Alexander offered sacrifice according to the Macedonian manner by torch light and held gymnastic sports and exercises. [Arrian.] He sat down on the royal throne of Persia which was far higher than for the size of his body to sit on. His feet could not reach to the step by which he mounted the throne. One of the pages took the table that Darius used to eat his meals from and put it under him for a footstool. When Philotas saw this, he persuaded Alexander to take it as a sign of good luck. [Diod. & Curt. l.5. c.7.]
     
  40. The robes and other purple clothes which were sent to Alexander from Macedon with those which made them, he sent to Darius' mother Sysigambes, whom he highly respected and honoured as a son should do to his mother. With the gift he added the message that if she liked those clothes, she would do well to let her young nieces learn to make them. When he knew that she was quite troubled, he personally went to her and excused himself for his ignorance of the Persian manners and comforted her again. [Curt. l.5. c.8.] So he left her and Darius' two young daughters and his little son Ochus at Susa. He left some to instruct her and them in the Macedonian language. [Diod.]
     
  41. He continued on to the farthest borders of Persia and left Archelaus with a garrison of 3000 soldiers to keep the city. He appointed Xenophilus to hold the citadel and Callicrates to gather his tributes. He committed the civilgovernment of the province of Susa to Abulites, who had surrendered the city to him. [Curt. l.5. c.8.] He sent back Menetes to the sea coast and made him governor of Phoenicia, Syria and Cilicia. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  42. After a 4 day march, Alexander came to the Pasitigris River and crossed it with 9000 foot soldiers and 3 or 4000 cavalry. He went into the country of the Uxians which bordered on the province of Susa. It extended into the main part of Persia between which there is a narrow pass. Madates, the governor of this country, had married Sysigambes' niece.
     
  43. Alexander gave Tauron 1500 mercenaries and 1000 Agrians and ordered him to march as soon as it was dark. He was to follow his guides in the secret passes that they would show him. He was to advance as far as to the city which Alexander planned to besiege. Alexander took with him the captains of his troops, his targeteers and some 8000 other soldiers. They marched in the third watch of the same night and by day break came to those passes, which opened into the Uxian's country. When he had gone through them, he came and besieged the city. When the Uxians saw they were besieged on all sides, they sent from the citadel there 30 men to ask for his pardon but he would not give it. Finally, when he received letters from Sysiagambes, he did not only pardon her kinsman, Madates but set at liberty all he had taken prisoner who had voluntarily submitted to him. He left the city untouched and all their land free from tribute. [Curt. l.5. c.9.] Arrian reports from Ptolemy Lagus, that through Sysigambes' request, he left them their lands to till but levied a yearly tribute on them of 100 horses, 500 beasts of burden and 3000 sheep. This whole account is related differently by Diodorus, Curtius and Arrian.
     
  44. When Alexander had subdued the country of the Uxians, he added it to the province of Susa. He divided all his forces between himself and Parmenion. He ordered that the luggage, the Thessalian cavalry, confederates, foreign mercenaries and the heavily armed soldiers to go with Parmenion through the plain country. He took the Macedonian foot soldiers and the cavalry of his confederates. He sent before them the light cavalry with the squadron of Agrians and archers to reconnoitre. They went by the way of the mountains which run all along in a ridge as far as Persia. [Curt. l.5. c.10. Arrian. l.3.]
     
  45. On the fifth day after this, [according to Diodorus and Curtius] he came to the passes of Persia, called the Susian Pyles, or Gates. Diodorus states that Ariobarzanes, the Persian, held these with 25,000 foot soldiers and 300 cavalry. Arranius states that he had about 4000 foot soldiers and 700 cavalry. He repulsed Alexander's attack and made him retreat about 4 miles from that pass. At last he captured a shepherd who was born of a Persian mother but begotten by a father born in Lycia. He guided Alexander through narrow and craggy bypaths and over certain snowy mountains. Alexander routed the enemy and took control of the pass. Ariobarzanes with some 40 cavalry and 5000 foot soldiers broke through the army of the Macedonians. There was a great slaughter on both sides. Ariobarzanes hurried to get into Persepolis which was the capital city of that kingdom. He was unable to reach it and the enemy was at his very heels. Ariobarzanes attacked them and in the second battle his forces were cut to pieces by Alexander. This is more fully related in [Diodor. Curtius, Arria. Plutarch, and Polyanus, l.4. Stratag.]
     
  46. As Alexander was marching toward Persepolis, he received letters from Tiridates, Darius' treasurer in that place. He told Alexander that when the inhabitants of Persepolis heard of his coming, they were ready to take the king's treasure and share it among themselves. He desired Alexander to come quickly to prevent this. Alexander left his foot soldiers to come later and travelled all night with his cavalry. Although they were already tired with so long a journey, they came by day break to the Araxes River. After they made a bridge, they crossed over it with his army. [Diodor. and Curt. l.5. c.11.]
     
  47. When he came within a quarter mile of the city, about some 800 [for so Diodorus, Justinus and Suidas, in the word Alexander, report, not 4000 as Curtius] poor Greek slaves led by Euctemon of Cuma in Eolia, came out as humble suppliants to meet him. These were the ones whom the former kings of Persia had taken in the wars and made slaves. They were cruelly treated. Some had their feet, hands, ears or noses cut off. They were all branded in the face with letters or other marks. These besought him that as he had done in Greece so he would now promise to deliver them from the slavery of the Persian cruelty. Later, when he offered to send an escort with them into Greece, they desired of him rather to give them lands in that place. They feared that they would not prove a comfort but an abomination to their friends and kinsfolks at home. Alexander approved their request and gave each of them 3000 drachmas. [Curtius writes "denarios" instead of "drachmas"] He gave every man and women 5 suits of clothes, 2 yoke of oxen, 500 sheep and 50 bushels of wheat. They could now go to till and sow the land which Alexander had given them. Moreover, he exempted their land from paying any tribute and left some to protect them and to see that no man would harm them. [Diod. & Curtius, l.5. c.12. with Justin, l.11. c.14.]
     
  48. The next day, he called all the commanders and captains of his army together. He told them that this city Persepolis, the metropolis of Persia, had always been against the Greeks. Therefore he was resolved to give all its plunder to the soldiers, except for the king's palace. After this there was a huge slaughter of the prisoners whom they had taken. This he avowed as his own act in writing since he thought it to be for his honour that he commanded them as enemies to be so butchered. Plutarch said that he found as much treasure there as at Susa. Diodorus writes that when he came into the citadel, he found 120,000 talents, calculating the value of the gold by the rate of the silver. Curtius agrees. [Curt. l.5. c.13.]
     
  49. When Alexander first sat down on the royal throne under a golden canopy in Persepolis, Demaratus the Corinthian and an old friend of his and his father is reported to have fallen like an old man, weeping. He said that those Greeks missed a great event who died before that day and had not lived to see Alexander sitting on Darius' throne. [Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  50. Alexander committed the keeping of the citadel of Persepolis to Nicarthides with a garrison of 5000 Macedonians. Tiridates, who delivered the treasure to Alexander held the same position which he had under Darius. He left there a great part of his army and baggage and committed the keeping of the city to Parmenion and Craterus. Alexander with a 1000 cavalry and lightly armed foot soldiers went to visit the inner parts of Persia when the constellation Pleiades arose. [beginning of the fall] Although he was plagued with storms and other tempestuous weather on the way, he came to a place all covered with snow and frozen over with ice. When he saw that his soldiers did not want to go any farther, he leaped off his horse and went by foot over the ice and snow. When the country people, who lived in scattered cretes and cabins saw the enemy troops, they started killing their children and others who were not able to go with them. They all fled to the wild woods and mountains covered with snow. However, some of them were convinced to talk with Alexander. They were not afraid and submitted to him. Alexander did not allow any of his troops to harm them. [Curt. l.5. c.14.]
     
  51. After Alexander had laid waste to all the country of Persia and taken its various towns, he came into the country of the Mardi. This was a warlike nation and of much different behaviour from the Persians. After Alexander had subdued them, he returned to Persepolis on the 30th day after he set out from there. He bestowed rewards on his captains and others, every man according to his deeds. He gave away almost everything he had gotten there. [Curt. l.5. c.14.]
     
  52. This journey was taken, as I said before, about the time of the rising of the seven stars. Only Curtius notes this. Plutarch states that because the winter was now approaching he planned to give his army some rest. Therefore, he spent 4 months in Persia. Pliny [l. 18. c.31.] tells us that the Athenians began their winter upon the Ides of November when the seven stars set. However the amount of time from the time of the battle at Gaugamela, shows that Alexander could not come to Persepolis before our December. Others also cast a doubt concerning the Mardi expedition. Curtius tells us that he did not subdue them until after the death of Darius. [Curt. l.6. c.9.] This may be true unless we distinguish the Mardi of Persia [Herod. l.1. c.125 & Nearchus in Strabo l.11. p. 524. & Arrian. in his Indica, p. 196.] from the Mardi who bordered on Hircania. Neither do other writers agree with Curtius where he says: "He gave away almost all that he got at Persopolis."
     
  53. For he speaks expressly of that and not of what he got at Pasargadis. [as we showed before in the note 3669 AM, from Jacobus Capellus] He well agrees with that which he wrote in the very end of the next precedent chapter [??], where he says that Alexander commanded horses and camels to be sent for from Babylon and Susa to carry those 120,000 talents which he found in this city. This we may compare with Strabo, [l. 15. p. 731.] where he says: "He carried all the money of Persia from Susa, which was full of treasure and rich goods. It is known for certain that whatever he got in Babylon and in Darius' camp never was included in this total. In Persia and Susa he found 40,000 talents, some say 50,000 talents."
     
  54. Diodorus Siculus states: "When he was forced to lay out much of the money he had found there to pay for the war, he planned to send part of it to Susa to be stored in a bank there. He had to get a multitude of draught horses, carriages and 3000 camels with pack saddles from Babylon and from Mesopotamia to carry his treasure to its destined places."
     
  55. Plutarch [in Alexan.] states: "His money and wealth he took from there needed 10,000 yoke of mules and 5000 camels to carry it away."
     
  56. After Darius had stayed a while at Ecbatan in Media, he gathered together those who were left of after the defeat and replaced the weapons they had lost in the battle. He also sent letters to the governors in Bactria and other countries to remain loyal to him. [Diod. Sic. l.17. 2nd part] His purpose was that if Alexander stayed about Susa and Babylon, he would stay in Media to see whether they who were around him might unite in a new battle against Alexander. However, if he found that Alexander planned to pursue him, then he would retire to Parthia and Hircania, or even into Bactria. By laying waste all the countries as he went, he would leave Alexander no possibility of following him for lack of forage. Therefore he sent away before him all the women and other baggage and carriages to the Caspian Gates, or passes. He stayed at Ecatane with a small force to see how things would unfold. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  57. Alexander made a feast celebrating his previous victories and offered magnificent sacrifices to his gods. He feasted his nobles with a most sumptuous banquet and with a number of whores and curtisans, each with her ruffian. Among these there was an Athenian called Thais who was a sweet heart to Ptolemy the son of Lagus. Alexander was as drunk as she was. He commanded all Persepolis, both city and citadel, to be burnt to the ground and caroling and instruments of music should play all the while. This was against the advice of Parmenion, if Alexander would have listened. It is true that after he slept on it, it grieved him greatly for what he had done. He said: "The Greeks could not have been more revenged by the Persians, if they had been forced to have seen him sitting in Xerxes' throne. [Curt. l.5. c.15. Diod. Plut. Arrian.]
     
  58. The next day, he gave 30 talents to that shepherd of Lycia who had guided and showed him the way into Persia. [Curt. l.5. c.15.]
     
  59. After this, Alexander took Pasargada. It was a city built by Cyrus and was surrendered to him by its governor, Gobares. He gave Alexander 6000 talents. [Curt. l.5. c.13.] Alexander visited the sepulchre of Cyrus according to Strabo's account from Aristobulus who was present at that time. [Strabo. l.15. p. 730.]
     
  60. Then he took the rest of the cities of Persia, some by force, others voluntarily surrendered. [Diod.] This seems to have been when the seven stars rose in the morning sky. From this time, the ancients reckoned the beginning of summer, not at the morning setting of them and beginning of winter when according to Curtius, Alexander took his journey into the heart of Persia.
     
  61. Alexander made Phrasaortes the son of Rheomithris, governor of Persia [Arrian. l.3.] and then went into Media. He got reinforcements from Cilicia. The 5000 foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry where under the command of Plato, an Athenian. After this he advanced to find Darius. [Curt. l.5. c.16.]
     
  62. Darius had planned to leave Ecbatane and flee into Bactria. Since he feared lest Alexander would overtake him on the way, he changed his plans. At that time, Alexander was about 190 miles away. No distance seemed great enough to prevent Alexander from catching up to him. Therefore Darius resolved that instead of fleeing, to try his fortune in another battle. He had 30,000 men about him, of which 4000 were Greeks under the command of Patran. All these men were loyal to Darius. In addition he had 4000 archers and slingers. He had 3300 cavalry consisting for the most part from Bactria under the command of Bessus the governor of Bactria. [Curt. l.5. c.16.]
     
  63. Diodorus states that there were 30,000 Persians and Greek mercenaries. Arrian states there were only 3000 cavalry and 6000 foot soldiers. He also says that Darius carried with him out of Media no more than 7000 talents. However, Strabo [l. 15. p. 731.] says that when Darius fled out of Media, he took 8000 talents. Those who murdered Darius rifled and shared the money among themselves. Diodorus, [year 4. Olymp. 112.] says, that when Alexander pursued Darius he had the same number of talents with him. Atheneus [l. 11. p. 514. of the Greek and Latin Edition,] states from Chartetes his history of Alexander, that the custom of the Persian kings was, wherever they went, to have over the king's bedchamber, a garret with five chests in it. In these were kept 5000 talents of gold and they were called the king's pillows. At the back stairs in another room, were always kept 3000 talents in three chests and that was called the king's bench to sit on.
     
  64. Bessus, the governor of Bactria and Nabarzanes the commander of 1000 cavalry both who had followed Darius in his flight, commanded their soldiers to seize Darius and to bind him. They resolved that if Alexander overtook them, they would purchase their freedom by delivering Darius bound into Alexander's hands. However, if they could escape from Alexander, they would renew the war against Alexander in their own names. [Curt. l.5. c.18,22, 23. Arrian. l.3. p. 67,68, 76.] Justin [l. 11. c.15.] states that this happened in a town in Parthia called Thara or rather, Dara. It was so called later by Arsaces, the first king of Parthia, in remembrance of this villany against Darius. He adds from Trogus that this was done by a kind of fate that the Persian empire should end in the land of those who were preordained to succeed the Persians in the empire.
     
  65. The king's treasure and baggage was rifled, as if it had all been enemies' goods. Bessus and Nabarzanes with Braza [or Barzaentes] the governor of the Arachoti and Drangian took Darius. They carried him away prisoner in a cart. To show some respect, they placed golden chains on him. To escape detection, they covered the cart with a lowly dirty covering made of skins and had strangers drive it. If any man should ask, they could not tell who was in it. Those who were his jailors followed from a distance. The Persians were won over by Bessus' generous promises and since there was no one else left to whom they might unite with, they joined with the Bactrians. Bessus was made general in the place of Darius by the Bactrian cavalry and the other nations who had accompanied Darius in his flight. Artabazus and his sons with those which he commanded and the Greeks under Patron, did not go with Bessus. They left the road way and went up the mountains and marched away to Parthiene. [Curt. l.5. c.23. Arrian. l.4. p. (68).]
     
  66. Alexander changed his course for Media and attacked the Paritacae, and subdued their country. He made Oxoathres the son of Abuletus governor over them. [Arrian. p. 66.]
     
  67. Tabas was a town in the remotest border of Paritocene. Alexander was told by some who had abandoned Darius and fled to Alexander that Darius had quickly gone into Bactria. [Curt. l. 5. c.24.] When he was within 3 days journey of Ecbatane, he was more accurately told by Baistanes the son of Ochus who reigned in Persia before Darius that Darius had fled from Ecbatane 5 days earlier. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  68. When Alexander came to Ecbatane, the Thessalian and others of the confederate cavalry refused to accompany him any further. He dismissed them to return into their own countries. When they left he gave them over and above their regular pay, 2000 talents to be shared among them. [Arrian. l.3. Plut. in Alexan.] However, Diodorus and Curtius, refer to this event as happening after the death of Darius and in a general way without any special mention of the Thessalian troops. They say that he gave to everyone that served in the cavalry a talent, or 6000 deneers, as Curtius [l. 6. c.3.] expresses it. Everywhere he calls a "drachma", a "deneere". Diodorus adds that he gave to every foot soldier ten minas i.e.1000 drachmas and abundant provisions for every man for his return journey to his home country. To everyone that would continue in his service, he gave 3 talents in coined money. When he found that the number of them that stayed was large, he appointed Epocillus to escort the rest to the seaside in Asia. The Thessalians that returned left their horses with him. He wrote to Menetes, the governor in those parts that as soon as they arrived there he should furnish them immediately with shipping and have them transported to the European side. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  69. To pay the vast sums he gave to the soldiers that left, Alexander was forced in spite of all his haste in the pursuing Darius, to levy a vast quantity of money in the way as he went. Diodorus states that he received of Darius' treasurers, 8000 talents over and above that which they had bestowed among his soldiers with cups and other rewards. This amounted to over 13,000. The amount they either stole or took by force was calculated to be a great deal more, according to Diodorus. [p. 547. in the Greek and Latin Edition] Curtius [l. 6. c.2.] agrees fully when he says: "In the next plundering that he made, he raised 26,000 talents. From which 12,000 [Justin has 13,000. l.12. c.1.] talents were spent in one largesse which he bestowed among his soldiers. His treasurers brought [??] him of so much more."
     
  70. However, we read in Arrian, [p. 67.] that now he ordered Parmenion to take all the money which was brought to him from Persia and store it in Ecbatane under the keeping of Harpalus. He was to guard it with 6000 Macedonians and some cavalry of his confederates. Now this money was brought and stored in Ecbatane. Some reckon it to have amounted to 180,000 talents. [Strabo, l.15. p. 731.] Diodorus agrees and says also that Parmenion had the charge of all that treasure. [p. 552.] Justin [l. 12. c.1.] says, that the treasure amounted to 190,000 talents and that Parmenion was in charge of keeping it. Diodorus and Justin are more correct in making Parmenion the keeper of it than Arrian who names Harpalus to that office. We showed before that he was left behind in Babylon to gather up the tribute and other duties for Alexander in those parts.
     
  71. Here Arrian tells us that Alexander sent away Parmenion with certain brigades of foreigners, the Thracian cavalry and others except the troops of his own fellow cavaliers. They were to march through the country of the Cadusians into Hircania. He wrote also to Clitus, captain of the king's troops that as soon as Clitus came from Susa to Ecbatane, [for he was left behind sick at Susa] he should take such cavalry as were left there to guard the money and to march into Parthia and to meet him there.
     
  72. Alexander took with him the troops of his fellow cavaliers, vant [??] couriers, mercenaries led by Erigyius, the Macedonian squadron [except those who were left at Ecbatane to guard the money], the Agrians and the archers and he went after Darius. Since he marched so far so fast, many of his foot soldiers and cavalry were not able to follow. They fainted in the way and perished. However Alexander continued and on the 11th day he came to Rages. [Arrian. l.3.] In those 11 days, he went over 410 miles. On this long journey, the cavalry followed him very cheerfully although they lacked water in many places. Of that company which set out with him from Ecbatane, there were only 60 with him at the end of his journey. [Plut. in Alex.]
     
  73. This city of Rages [/APC (Tobit 1:14; Tobit 4:1)] is a day's journey from the Caspian Gates or passes to anyone that would ride at Alexander's pace. Darius had already passed through them. Many of those who set out with him on his journey slipped away and returned home. Also many of them returned to Alexander on the way. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  74. Alexander gave up all hope of overtaking Darius. He rested there 5 days. When he had refreshed his army, he made Oxydates a Persian, governor of Media, whom formerly Darius had committed to prison in Susa and planned to decapitate him. [Arian. l.3. with Curt. l.6. c.2.]
     
  75. From here Alexander went with his army into Parthia. The first day he camped near the Caspian Gates or passes. The next day he went through the passes and came into places that were well populated. He ordered provisions to be brought to him, for he was told that he was to go through countries lacking such provisions. He sent Coenus with the cavalry and a few foot soldiers abroad to forage. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  76. Meanwhile Bagisthenes a great man in Babylon, came from Darius' camp to Alexander. He told Alexander that Darius was not yet laid hold on but was in great danger either of death or bonds. [Arian. l.3. & Curt. l.5. c.24.]
     
  77. Therefore, Alexander pursued him harder and did not wait for Coenus to return from foraging. He took along with him his fellow cavaliers, his vant [??] couriers, the mercenary cavalry led by Erigyius, the Macedonian battalion [except those that were to guard his treasure] with the Agrians and Archers. He left Craterus to command the rest and ordered him to come after him at a more leisurely pace. He travelled all that night and the next day until noon and rested for a while. He travelled all night again and early next morning he came to the camp of Darius from where Bagisthenes had come to him. He continued and rode all that night and the next day until noon. He came to a certain village where they who had the charge of keeping Darius stayed the day before according to Arrian. Curtius states this was the place where Bessus first laid hold on Darius.
     
  78. When he was about 60 miles from the place where Bagisthenes first came to him, he found Melon who was Darius' interpreter. He was unable through weakness to follow Darius any further. When he saw Alexander approaching so quickly, he made as if he had fled over to Alexander from Darius for fear lest he should be taken for an enemy. He told Alexander what happened and where they went. However his men were quite weary and needed rest. Alexander took 6000 choice cavalry and selected from them 300 Dimachs [??], [who and what they were, you may learn from Pollus and Hesychius] These wore heavy armour yet rode on horse back. If the need arose, they could get off their horses and serve as foot soldiers according to Curtius. However, Arrian [l. 3. c.68.] states that when he saw the foot soldiers could not possibly keep pace with him on horse back, he made about 500 of the cavalry get off their horses and commanded the captains and best men of the foot soldiers to mount the horses with all their armour on. He ordered Nicanor, who commanded the targeteers and Attalus, the captain of the squadron of Agrians, to follow in the way that Bessus had gone with his men with those who were most lightly armed. He commanded the rest to come later in a phalanx formation.
     
  79. While Alexander was busy giving orders, Orcillus and Mithracenes came to him. They abhorred Bessus for his treachery and fled from him to Alexander. They told him that the Persians were not more than 60 miles away and that they could lead him to them by a shorter way. He used them as guides and set out early in the evening with a select company of cavalry. He ordered the Macedonian phalanx to follow him as fast as they could. When he had gone about 40 miles, he was met by Brocubelus [called by Arrian p. 67. "Antibelus"] the son of Mazeus, sometimes governor of Syria under Darius. He told him that Bessus was not more than 25 miles ahead of him. His army thinking they were out of danger, marched in no particular order. It seemed they were bound for Hircania. Brocubelus said that if he hurried, he might attack them when they were all straggling from their colours. [Curt. l.5. c.24.]
     
  80. When Bessus and his consorts found that Alexander was on their heels, they went to Darius where he was in his poor tilted cart. They wanted him to get onto a horse and save himself by fleeing. When he refused to do this, Satibarzenes and Barsaentes each shot an arrow and wounded him. They also houghed the horses that drew the cart so that they might go no further and killed his two servants that still attended Darius. [Curt. l.5. c.25. with Arrian. p. 69. l.3.] Only his dog stayed with him. [Elia. Histor. animal. l.6. c.25.]
     
  81. When they had done this, Satibarzanes and Barzaentes with 600 cavalry fled away as fast as possible. [Arrian. p. 69.] So that they might not be pursued together, Nabarzanes fled into Hircania and Bessus into Bactria. After the rest had lost their captains, they scattered here and there. Only 500 cavalry stayed together, undecided as to fight or flee, [Curt. l.5. c.25.]
     
  82. When Alexander saw what confusion the enemy was in, he sent Nicanor to ask them to stay. He followed after him. After they had killed about 3000 that would not yield, Alexander drove the rest before him like so many cattle without harming them and gave the word to stop the killing. He advanced so quickly that barely 3000 cavalry followed him. The number of prisoners was greater than of those that captured them. So far had fear bereft them of their senses that they never considered either their number or how few their enemy troops were. [Curt. l.5. c.25.]
     
  83. Meanwhile the horses which drew Darius' cart, wandered from the road since there was no one to drive them. When they had gone about half a mile, they stopped in a certain valley. They were exhausted from the hot weather and sore from the injuries they received. There was a fountain of water close by. Polyustratus a Macedonian learned of this fountain from the people of that place. He was exhausted from the heat and his wounds and went to quench his thirst there. As he was taking up water in his helmet, he noticed the arrows in the bodies of the horses that drew the cart. [Curt. l.5. c.25.] When he came nearer, he saw Darius lying in the cart seriously wounded but not quite dead. Darius called to him for a little water. When he drank it, he desired him to thank Alexander for the favour which he had showed to his mother, wife and children. He begged nothing for himself but a decent burial. He desired no revenge as Alexander did. For if Alexander neglected revenge, it might prove both dishonourable and dangerous to him. The first concerned Alexander in a matter of justice, the other concerned his personal safety. Darius in a token of his sincerity gave Polyustratus his right hand and told him to carry it to Alexander. So when Darius had given his hand to Polystratus, he gave up the ghost. [Just. l. 11. c.15. & Plut. in Alexander.]
     
  84. So Darius died at age 50 in the year when Aristophontus was archon in Athens in the month Hecatombaeon. [Arrian. l.3. p. 69.] He had reigned for 6 years. 200 years had passed from the year of the death of Cyrus who set up the Persian Empire until now, which was the very beginning of the 3rd year of the 112th Olympiad. From this time Calippus [a man renowned by Aristotle who was at that time famous in his school at Athens, l.12. of his Metaphysics,] began his epoch or account of 76 years as we find by various astronomical observations of Ptolemy in his great book, Syntaxis. Although Strabo, [l. 6.] says that Darius lost his empire at the battle of Gaugamela fought 9 months [sic. original has 9 years] earlier and Justin [l. 11.] confirms this that then Alexander took the empire of Asia from Darius. However since it appears that Darius was murdered by his kinsfolk, he lost his life and kingdom at the same time [Justin l.10 fin.] We can not doubt that Calippus in memorial of the founding of Alexander's Empire made this the starting point of his Periodus or calculation of years. The Macedonian Empire
     
  85. The empire of Alexander lasted 5 years according to Isidore and Beda from Eusebius' Chronicle. Jul. Africa. states 6 years and the historian who wrote in the time of Alexander Severus, 7 years [Tome 2. Antiqu. Lectio. Henr. Canisis, p. 600.] Strabo [l. 15. fin.] allows 10 or 11 years. Nicephorus Constantinopolitanus in his Chronicle, states 12 years. Clemens Alexandrinus, [l. 1. Stromat.] is wrong when he says it was 18 years. It is most obvious that from the month Hecatombaeon when Darius died [when Aristophontes was archon at Athens] to the month Thargelion when Alexander died, as we shall show presently, [when Hegesias was archon in Athens] only 6 years and 10 months passed. In this short period of time, Alexander did so many and great feats of arms in the east that he may well be said to have flown rather than to have marched over all those regions. Hence it is said that in [(Daniel 8:1)] Alexander is described under the figure of a goat who came from the west over the face of the whole earth. He never so much as touched the ground. In [(Daniel 7:6)] Alexander is compared to a winged leopard. Hierome notes on this passage that of all the beasts, the leopard is the swiftest and most impetuous. He adds that nothing was done so swiftly as his conquest. He took everything from the gulf of Venice and the Adriatic Sea to the very Indian Ocean and the Ganges River. He did this not so much by war but as by his reputation. What he did after the death of Darius, is set down by Diodorus, [l. 17. 2nd part], by Justin, [l. 12.] by Curtius, [5 last books of his History], by Plutarch [in his life] and by Arrian [l. 3.]. I have inserted these accounts from the various authors in this work.
     
  86. Darius was no sooner dead then Alexander rode on his horse to the place where he lay. When he saw his dead body, Alexander wept to see so unworthy a death happen to so noble a person. He took his own coat and placed it over him and immediately sent his body to his mother to be buried in a royal manner with the kings of Persia. He also took Darius' brother Oxathres into the circle of his friends and nobles. He bestowed upon Oxathres all honour belonging to his high place and parentage. Alexander planned to pursue Bessus but since he and his army had escaped to Bactria and Alexander could not reach him at this time, he returned again.
     
  87. While he remained at Hecatompulis which was a city in Parthiene built in former times by the Greeks, he gathered a good store of provisions. All the army grew restless as they lay idle in their quarters and they all wanted to return to Greece as soon as possible. When Alexander had allayed this desire, they all asked him to lead them wherever he would and they would follow him. After 3 day's march through the country of Parthiene, he came into the borders of Hircania which Nabarzanes had captured. He left Craterus with the troops he commanded, Amyntas' brigade, 600 cavalry and 600 archers. They were to keep Parthiene safe from the incursions by the bordering countries. He commanded Erigyius to take care of the carriages and to follow him through the plain country with a considerable company to guard them. Alexander took his targeteers and the cream of the Macedonian squadron and some archers. When they had marched about 12 miles, they camped in a plain near a small river.
     
  88. After he had refreshed his army 4 days there, letters came to him from Nabarzanes, who, together with Bessus, had murdered Darius. He surrendered to Alexander. From here Alexander moved 2.5 miles through an almost impassable way. No enemy opposed him and he got through. When he had gone almost another 4 miles, Phradapharnes governor of Hercania and Parthia met him. He surrendered to Alexander along with all those who had fled to him after the death of Darius. Alexander graciously received them all. He next came to a town called Arvas. Here Craterus rejoined him. He had taken in all the countries which he had passed through. He brought with him Phradates or Autophradates, the governor of the country of the Tapurins. Alexander restored him to his government again and sent him back home.
     
  89. When Alexander came to the nearest borders of Hircania, Artabazus the Persian, who was an old friend of Philip met him. At this time he was banished by Ochus and had always remained most loyal to Darius. He was now 95 years old. He came to Alexander with Cophenes and 8 other sons of his, all born by the same mother who was the sister of Mentor and Memnon. Alexander received them all most graciously. Ariobarzanes and Arsames, who were governors under Darius came and submitted to Alexander.
     
  90. Alexander now invaded the country of the Mardians which bordered on Hircania. They held the mountain passes and met Alexander with an army of 8000 men. Alexander attacked the army, slew many of them and took more of them prisoners. The rest fled into the craggy mountains. Finally they returned his cavalry man Bucephalus, whom they had captured. They sent 50 ambassadors to him to ask his pardon. When Alexander had taken hostages, he made Autophrodates governor over them as well as the Tapurins.
     
  91. From there he returned in 5 days to the place from where he set out against the Mardians. From there Andronicus the son of Agerrus and Artabazus brought with them 1500 Greek mercenaries of Darius to Alexander. 90 ambassadors who had been sent to Darius from various counties, also came to him. Alexander put 4Lacedemonian ambassadors and Dropis the Athenian to prison. Democrates the other Athenian ambassador who always opposed the Macedonian party comitted suicide because he did not expect a pardon from Alexander. He freed the ambassadors from Sinope and Hecraclides who were sent from Carthage and the other ambassadors from Greece. He gave the command of the Greeks who stayed in his service to Andronicus. When he had doubly honoured Artabazus and gave him greater honours than he held under Darius, Alexander sent him home.
     
  92. When these matters were taken care of, he marched against the greatest city of all Hircania, called Zeudracarta or Zadracarta and there stayed 15 days. Nabarzanes came to him there and brought with him many presents. Among these was Bagoas, an eunuch of rare beauty who was later highly respected and could do whatever he wished with Alexander.
     
  93. At this place, Thalestris or Minithaea came to Alexander with 300 ladies. She was the queen of the Amazons which is a place between the two rivers, Phasis and Thermodoon. She left the rest of her army at the borders of Hircania and came hoping to be with child by him. She stayed 13 days. Curtius in this account contrary to the stream of all geographers, locates these Amazons on the borders of Hircania. [l. 6. c.10.] However, Justin says that they bordered on Albania. [l. 42. c.3.] Clitarchus says that Thalestris came from the Caspian Gates and the Thermodoon River to Alexander. It took her a 25 or 35 day journey to reach him through many counties. [l. 12. c.3.] The journey was at least 750 miles. [Strabo. l.11.] Her visit to Alexander is recorded by Polycrates, Onesicritus, Antigenes, Hister and various others. However, Aristobulus Chares the historian, Ptolemy Lagus, Anticlides, Philo Thebanus the historian, Hecateus Eretriensis, Philippus Chaleidensis and Duris Samius say that it is a mere fable. Alexander seems to agree. In his Commentaries to Antigonus, in which he recorded the events exactly, he says that a certain Scythian offered him his daughter for a wife. No mention is made of an Amazon. It is also reported that Onesisieritus, many years later was reading his 4th book to Lysimachus who was then reigning. When he mentioned something of an Amazon that came to Alexander, Lysimachus smiled and said: "I pray sir, where was I all the while?" [Plut. in Alex. see Strabo, l.11. p. 505. and Arria. l.1. p. 155,156.]
     
  94. When Alexander returned to Parthiene, he indulged himself there in all kinds of Persian luxuries. He commanded also his nobles to take and wear the long Persian robe of cloth of gold and scarlet. If any of the common soldiers wanted to marry a Persian, he allowed it.
     
  95. Bessus now wore his turban upright and pointed along with other regal attire. He assumed the title of Artaxerxes and king of Asia. He gathered into a body all those Persians who had fled into Bactria. With these he had Bactrians, the Scythians and others who lived as far as the bank of the Tanais River. He planned to make a war on Alexander.
     
  96. Alexander made Amminapes a Parthian, governor of Patthia and Hircania under him. Amminapes with Mazeus or Mezaces, had delivered Egypt into his hands. Alexander had Tlepolemus the son of Pythophanis, one of his friends, [Arrian. l.3. p. 69.] in the government with Amminapes. Although Curtius says, that he made Menapis [for so he calls Amminapes] governor of Hircania, who before was banished by Ochus and had fled to his father Philip for refuge. [l. 6. c.8.] Justin says that when Alexander had subdued Parthia, he made a certain noble man of Persia, called Andragoras its governor. From him the kings of Parthia descended since Arsaces notes him as the founder of the Parthian kingdom. He was also called Andragoras. [Justin. l.41. c.4.]
     
  97. After this, Alexander came to Susia, a city of the Arians. Sanbarzanes, governor of the Arians, came to him. Alexander restored his government to him. He also had Anaxippus, one of his nobles to hold the government with him. He gave him 40 javeliners on horse back to attend him. He could put these in places where he thought best to keep the Arians from being plundered or injured by the army as it passed by.
     
  98. Alexander was now ready to march against Bessus. When he saw that his army was so loaded with the spoil and luxurious goods they were in no condition to march, he first commanded his own goods than their goods to be burned. He kept only what was necessary for their immediate needs.
     
  99. Nicanor, the son of Parmenion, the captain of the Argyraspides, [i.e. of the silver shields, or targeteers,] died suddenly and everyone mourned his passing. Alexander was especially grieved and would have stayed to be present at his funeral but lack of provisions in that place would not permit him to. Therefore he left Nicanor's brother Philotas there with 2600 men to take care of the funeral. Alexander went on his journey in pursuit of Bessus.
     
  100. Satibarzanes, to whom Alexander had restored his government over the Arians, as mentioned earlier, murdered Anaxippus with his 40 javeliners on horse back. He gathered all the forces he could to the chief city of the Arians, called Chortacana or Artacoana. When he heard that Alexander was coming, he planned to go and join with Bessus in a common war against the Macedonians.
     
  101. When Alexander heard of this, he halted his journey into Bactria. He marched 75 miles in two days and came to Attacoana. Satibarzanes with 2000 cavalry [for that was all he could gather at that time] fled into Bactria to Bessus. The rest escaped to the mountains. Alexander pursued Satibarzanes a long time but was not able to overtake him. He attacked those who were in the mountains and took the craggy rocks where 13,000 armed Arians had fled. Alexander returned to Attacoana which was besieged by Craterus during this time. Craterus had prepared all things for an assault and waited for Alexander to lead it so that the honour of taking the place would fall to Alexander not him. Joab did the same for David. (2 Samuel 12:27,28) When the king came, he found them ready to plead for his mercy. He pardoned them and lifted his siege. He restored to every man what was his. Within 30 days he had taken all the places of that country and made Arsaces their governor.
     
  102. Fresh supplies came to Alexander. Zoilus brought him 500 cavalry from Greece. Antipater sent him 3000 soldiers from Illyrium. Philip the son of Menelaus brought him mercenary cavalry from Media along with 130 of the Thessalians that Alexander, at Ecbatane, had given leave to return home. They refused and continued with Alexander. From Lydia came 2600 foot soldiers with 300 cavalry under the command of Andromachus, according to Arrian.
     
  103. With these new forces Alexander came to the Drangeans [whom Arrian calls Zarangeans] whose governor was Barzaentes. He was one of those who with Bessus and Nabarzanes had turned on Darius. He feared punishment from Alexander and fled away to the Indians on this side the Indus River.
     
  104. Alexander spent 5 days in the chief city of the Drangean country. Some of his own people began to conspire his death. Dimnus, a Macedonian, revealed to Nicomachus, Alexander's bard that 3 days from then, Alexander would be murdered and that he was in on the plot with various nobles. Although Nicomachus was sworn to secrecy by Dimnus, he told the matter to his brother Ceballinus and wished him to tell the king of it. Since Ceballinus could not get to Alexander, he told it to Philotas first. When he found that Philotas was indifferent and likely in on the plot, Ceballinus went to Metron, a noble young gentleman and in charge of the artillery. He advised Metron to tell Alexander about it immediately. When Alexander heard of it, he immediately ordered all those in the plot to be arrested. When Dimnus was taken, he knew why and killed himself with his sword. When Ceballinus was questioned, he protested that the very hour he heard of it that he told the matter to Philotas and requested him to tell the king. When Philotas was questioned about this, he said it was true. He said he meant no harm but only through his carelessness he did nothing thinking it was a baseless rumour. When Philotas was put on the rack, he confessed all and was executed with the rest of the conspirators. Philotas was the son of Pamenion who was next to Alexander in authority.
     
  105. Alexander Lyncestes was also called before a council of Macedonians for his previous conspiracy for which he was in prison for 3 years. [Diodorus & Curtius] This is that Alexander Aneropus who before the battle at Issos 4 years earlier was put in prison for plotting the king's death. [Diodorus, Justin and Arrian] See note on 3671 AM. Lyncestes had plotted Alexander's death several times previously. Alexander spoke the following to his council of Macedonians: [Curt. l.8. c.16.]: "Alexander Lyncestes was twice arraigned for two counts of treason against my life. I have twice taken him out of the hand of justice and when he was convicted a third time, I gave him a reprieve and kept him in prison these 3 years. [For so it should be according to the true Palatine Manuscript and not "2 years", as in the ordinary printed books.] Until now you desired that he be given his just punishment."
     
  106. When he was questioned concerning that latest attempt on Alexander's life, he could not answer without faltering. Therefore without any more adieu, he was thrust through with lances by those which stood about and heard him at the bar.
     
  107. After the body of Lyncestes was carried from the place, the king still sat at in the judgment seat. He had Amyntas the son of Andromenes with Attalus and Symmias' brothers, all very close to Philotas to be brought to the bar. When Polemon who was the youngest of the group had heard that Philotas was put on the rack, he fled but was captured and brought to judgment. Finally, Alexander acquitted them all, as a result of the general intercession of those that were there. Then he immediately sent Polydamas whom Parmenion loved very much, with two Arabians on dromedary camels into Media. They were to get there before the news of the death of Philotas reached those lands. They had letters for Cleander, Sitalces and Menidas, the commanders in the army under Pamenion, to kill him. He was the governor of Media and had the greatest reputation and authority next to the king in the army. Parmenion was now 70 years old. After he had read Alexander's letter and was reading the second letter written to him in the name of his son Philotas, he was stabbed to death. Cleander sent his head to the king and would hardly allow the rest of his body to be buried. Strabo [l. 15. p. 724.] tells us, that this all happened in 11 day's time. An ordinary journey normally took 30 to 40 days just to get there.
     
  108. Alexander feared least the glory all his actions might be blemished with the cruelty by the previous action. He did as Gaus formerly did. [See note on 3620 AM] He let it be known that he was to send some of his friends into Macedonia. He advised all men that wanted to write to their friends in those parts not to miss this opportunity of sending a note back home since they were going further east. Every man wrote a letter and he ordered to have all the letters brought to him. By this he found out what everyone thought of him. He put all those whom he found either weary of the war or unhappy with his actions, into one company. He called this the unruly company and put Leonidas, formerly an intimate friend of Parmenion's, in charge of it. Then he divided his fellow cavaliers into two regiments. He assigned the one part to be commanded by Hephaestion and the other by Clitus.
     
  109. When Alexander had settled matters among the Drangians, he marched toward them who were called of old, Agriaspe, or Arimaspi. In later times Cyrus called them the Euergetae, i.e.Benefactors for a good deed they did to him. Alexander was warmly received and entertained by them.
     
  110. After staying 5 days in that country, he had news that Satibarzanes with 2000 cavalry from Bessus, had attacked the Arians and made them defect from Alexander. Against Satibarzanes, he sent 6000 Greek foot soldiers and 600 calvary under the command of Erigyius and Caranus. Diodorus says that Stasanors commanded together with Artbazus, the Persian, Andronicas and Phrataphernes, the governor of Parthia.
     
  111. He stayed with the Euergetae and sacrificed to Apollo. He committed Demetrius to prison. He was one of the captains of his bodyguard [??], whom Alexander suspected of conspiracy with Philotas. He replaced him with Ptolemy the son of Lagus. He gave to the Euergetae a large sum of money and such lands as they desired which was not much. When he was welcomed by the Gedrosians, who bordered on the Euergetae, he also rewarded them according to their deeds.
     
3675 AM, 4384 JP, 330 BC
  1. After he spent 60 days with the Euergetae, he left Amenides as their new governor. He had been Darius' secretary for some time, according to Curtius. However, Arrian says he left them a free state. Diodorus reports that he made Teridates the governor of both the Euergetae and Gedrosions.
     
  2. Alexander left them and marched into Bactria against Bessus. He subdued the Drangi, the Dragagi and Arachosia on his way. Part of his army which was formerly commanded by Parmenion met him. There were 6000 Macedonians and 200 men of honour among them. These were the very pith and marrow of all his army. He appointed Menon as governor of Arachosia and left him 4000 soldiers and 600 cavalry to keep order in the country.
     
  3. Alexander led his army into the country of the Paropamisadae about the time of the setting of the seven stars and beginning of winter. [Strabo, l.15. p. 724.] All the country was covered with snow. The days were obscurely dark rather than light so that a man could hardly discern anything close by. In this vast wilderness, Alexander's army endured the misery of lack of food, cold, weariness and even despair. Many died from the cold and many men's feet rotted off their legs from frost bite. At last they came into a warmer country with more provisions. The army was relieved and the whole country was quickly brought into subjection.
     
  4. Alexander went to the Caucasus Mountains which some call Paropamysus. He crossed the mountains in a 16 or 17 day march and built a city near the foot of them at a place where that mountain pass opens into Media. He called the city after his own name, Alexandria. He also built various other cities, each a day's journey from Alexandria. He relocated 7000 inhabitants of the countries in that area into these new cities. He put 3000 which followed the camp and let as many of those who were grown unserviceable in the wars settle there who wanted to. He made Proexes, a Persian, governor of all that region and left one of his friends, Niloxenes, to be the ruler over them.
     
  5. When the Macedonians and Arians were fighting, Satibarzanes, who commanded the enemy came between the two armies. He pulled off his helmet, said who he was and challenged any man that dared to a duel. Erigyius, the general of the Macedonian army took up the challenge and ran his spear through his body, killing him. When the barbarians, who came there by compulsion rather than willingly saw that their captain was dead, they trusted Erigyius and laid down their arms and submitted to him.
     
  6. Bessus and those Persians who joined with him in seizing Darius, with about 7000 Bactrians and some of the Dahae who lived east of the Tanais River, foraged the country bordering on the Caucasus Mounatins. They hoped that by ravaging and destroying all the countries which lay between them and Alexander that he would not dare come that way for fear of starving his army. Nevertheless, Alexander went on under extreme difficulty of much snow and too little food.
     
  7. When winter was almost over, he had India on his right hand. He passed over the mountains into Bactria. Not a tree was to be seen all the way except for a few shrubs. [Strabo. l. 15. p. 724.] His troops found by the way some quantity of Indian wheat. From this the common soldiers squeezed a kind of juice which they used for oil to ease the pain of their cold joints. This juice was sold for 240 denarius per pitcher. A pitcher of wine fetched 300 denarius. There was very little wheat to make bread with. From hunger, the common soldier sustained himself by catching river fish and eating such herbs as he could get. Finally they came to a place where there were neither fish nor plants to eat. They were told to kill their draught animals and eat them. This kept them alive until they came into Bactria. [Curt. l.7. c.7.] Strabo adds, that they were forced to eat it raw for lack of fire to roast it with. To settle their stomachs, they had a supply of an herb called benzome which helped their digestion.
     
  8. Bessus was terrified by Alexander's rapid advance. After he had first sacrificed to his gods, he feasted his friends and captains. As they ate they discussed the war at hand. He bragged of a kingdom which he had gotten by treachery. He was hardly in his right mind. He boasted that the cowardice of Darius had enhanced the fame and glory of the enemy. He resolved to march with his army into Sogdiana. He would have the Oxus River as a wall between him and Alexander until help came in from other parts. When all the rest were as drunk as he was, Cobares, [according to Curtius, or Bagodoras: according to Diodoras], a Median and a soothsayer by profession, advised him that when he was sober and came to his senses, he should submit to Alexander. Bessus was so enraged that he drew his sword and those with him could barely restrain him from killing Cobares. In the meantime, Cobares fled and the next night came to Alexander.
     
  9. On the 15th day after he set out from his new city of Alexandria and his winter quarters, he came to Adrapsa, a city of Bactra. [Strabo l.15. p. 725.] or Drapsaca, according to Arrian. After he had refreshed his army he marched to Aornos and Bactra, the two main cities of Bactria. He took them on the first assault. He put a garrison into the citadel of Aornos under the command of his friend, Archelaus.
     
  10. Bessus had 7000 or 8000 Bactrians in his army. They remained loyal to him and thought that Alexander would never follow them into that cold climate but rather go into India. However, when they saw that Alexander marched toward them, every man stole away to his own home and left Bessus all alone. He was left with a small retinue of his servants and tenants which remained loyal to him. After they crossed the Oxus River by boat, they burned the boats so that Alexander might not make use of them. They went to a place called Nautaca, in the country of Sogdiana to raise new forces from those parts. Spitamenes and Oxyartes followed him with some Sogdian cavalry and such Dahae as had come to him from the bank of Tanais.
     
  11. Alexander made Artabazus governor of Bactria. He left his wagons with a guard to keep them. With the rest of the army, he set out at night and came into the desert of Sogdiana. When he had gone about 50 miles and found no water at all, the next day his whole army was dying of thirst. Later when they found water, more died from drinking too much than he had ever lost in any battle.
     
  12. Toward evening, Alexander came to the river Oxus where he spent that night greatly disturbed as he waited for the rest of his army to come.
     
  13. Before he crossed the river, he picked from his Macedonians those who either from age or wounds were not fit to fight and from the Thessalians who followed him as volunteers, he selected 900. He gave everyone in the cavalry 2 talents and to each foot soldier he gave 3000 denarius or drachmas. He wanted them to go home and join their families and dismissed them. He thanked the rest for promising to go on with him in the war.
     
  14. He also sent his friend, Stasanor to the Arians to seize Arsaces their governor, because he seemed to up to no good. He appointed Stasanor to be governor in his place.
     
  15. There was no timber there to make boats with. Therefore when he grew impatient by the delay, he had the hides which covered the soldiers' tents to be taken down and leather bags to be stuffed with straw and sown or tied together. In 5 days, he ferried his army across the river on these leather boats.
     
  16. Spitamenes was Bessus' most respected and honoured friend. As soon as he heard that Alexander had crossed the Oxus River, he told the news to Dataphernes and Catenes. They were trusted aides of Bessus. Catenes laid hold on Bessus, removed his regal diadem from his head and tore the robe in pieces which he wore and had taken from the body of Darius.
     
  17. After Alexander had crossed the Oxus River, he soon marched to the place where Bessus was. On the way, he received news from Spitamenes and Dataphernes that if he would be pleased to send any captain of his with a sufficient guard, they would deliver Bessus into his hands. Therefore Alexander sent Ptolemy the son of Lagus with 3 companies of cavalry, the regiment of foot soldiers under Philotas, 1000 of the silver targeteers, all the entire squadron of the Agrians and one half of the Archers. Ptolemy marched in 4 days with these to the place where Spitamenes with his army had camped the day before. This is normally a 10 day journey.
     
  18. Meanwhile, Alexander came to a little town of the Branchids. The inhabitants were relocated there by Xerxes from Miletum many years earlier. This was the reward he gave them for their work on his behalf in betraying Miletum and in pulling down the temple of Apollo Didymaeus. See note on 3526 AM. This town became the home of traitors. It was wholly plundered and then totally destroyed. All the inhabitants, men, women and children, were killed with the sword. Had this been executed on the traitors, it would have been an act of justice and not of cruelty. Now the children suffered for their forefather's fault. These never saw Miletum, much less betrayed it to Xerxes. [Curt. l.7. c.12. with Strabo l.11. p. 117,118.]
     
  19. As Alexander was on his march, Bessus was brought to him not only bound but stark naked, a sight well pleasing to all the men, both Greeks and barbarians. All that brought him were rewarded for their efforts. The prisoner was committed to the keeping of Oxertas, Darius' brother whom Alexander had made one of the captains of his bodyguard. Oxertas planned to have him crucified after his ears and nose were cut off, his body shot through and through with arrows and that his dead body should be watched so that no bird might land on it. After Bessus was scourged with whips, he was remanded to Bactria and his death deferred. He was to be executed in the place where he had murdered Darius.
     
  20. Alexander had re-enforced his army. He had lost many troops in crossing over the Caucasus Mountains, the journey to the Oxus River and his march to the Tanais River. This is not that river which divided Europe from Asia and empties Ameotis Lake into the Euxine Sea. It is another Tanais, called also Jaxartes, which Pliny [l. 6. c.16.] is by the Scythians termed "Sylis", and by the inhabitants in the area "Orxantes", according to Aristobulus.
     
  21. At this place certain Macedonians went foraging not as carefully as they should have done. They were attacked by certain natives from the mountains. Many were killed but more were captured. These natives numbered 30,000 men but Curtius says 20,000 men. Against these natives, Alexander speedily gathered such companies as he had closest at hand. In this fight, he was shot with an arrow in the thigh and when the shaft was pulled out the head stayed in. Arrian tells us that the hill was taken and of 30,000 enemy troops, less than 8000 escaped. However, Curtius tells us that the next day after he was hurt, those barbarians voluntarily surrendered to him and sent him the prisoners which they had taken and made their peace with him.
     
  22. He moved his camp and he was carried in an ordinary stretcher which every man was happy to take turns carrying. In 4 days he came to Maracanda, the principal city of all Sogdiana whose wall is almost 9 miles in circumference. He left a garrison to keep the city. He went and wasted and burned the nearby towns. A few days later, ambassadors came to him from the Scythians called Abis. These had always lived as a free state ever since the death of Cyrus but now they surrendered to him.
     
  23. The barbarians who lived near the river captured the Macedonian soldiers that were left there in the garrison and slew them. They started to fortify their cities. Many of the Sogdians joined with them and were encouraged by those who had taken Bessus' side. They caused some of the Bactrians to defect also. The Susians and Bactrians had 7000 cavalry which helped cause the rest to defect. Alexander sent Spitamenes and Catenes, who had delivered Bessus into his hands, to repress them. They reproved the principal ring-leaders of that rebellion. They said that Alexander had sent for all the Bactrian cavalry so that he could murder them.
     
  24. When Alexander heard of this, he attacked the city of Gaza and sent Craterus against Cyropolis. When he had taken Gaza, he slew all that were of age in it. The women and children were sold into slavery and the city was destroyed. This was to be an example to others. He took 4 other cities in those parts within 2 days and treated them in the same manner. After this he marched away to Cyropolis. 18,000 men had fled there because the place was well fortified and a good refuge. In that siege he both lost the bravest and best men of his army and he was in extreme danger. He took such a blow in the neck with a stone that his eyes were dazzled and he fell and lost his senses for the present. However he was of an invincible courage against such casualties that would daunt other men. Although his wound was not yet thoroughly healed, he assaulted it more fiercely than before. His anger spurred on his natural fighting abilities. When the city was first taken, 8000 of the enemy were killed. The rest fled into the citadel. When Alexander had besieged it for only one day, they surrendered for lack of water.
     
  25. Alexander ordered Cyropolis to be levelled to the ground. Of 7 cities which the natives had fortified for themselves, there remained now only one to be taken. He took it on the very first assault. However, Ptolemy says, it surrendered to him. Aristobulus says, that the men taken in it were distributed in the army and kept bound until Alexander left that country. This would leave none behind who had a hand in that revolt.
     
  26. Meanwhile the Scythians of Asia came with a great army to the bank of the Tanais River. When they heard that the counties on the other side were up in arms against Alexander, they planned that if the inhabitants of these countries revolted in large numbers, to join with them against Alexander and to attack the Macedonians.
     
  27. Spitamenes stayed within the walls of Maracanda and besieged the garrison of Macedonians who were in the citadel there. Against him, Alexander sent Menedemus, Andromachus and Caranus along with 60 of his fellow cavaliers, 800 of his mercenaries led by Caranus, 1500 mercenary foot soldiers. [Curtius says 3000.] Alexander gave them Pharnuches for an interpreter because he spoke the barbarian's language and could therefore best serve to negotiate with them.
     
  28. Alexander came back to the bank of the Tanais River and made a wall around his camp. He made a city of it with walls of almost 8 miles in circumference and called the city after his own name, Alexandria. The work was done so quickly that within 17 days after the walls were up, it was filled with houses also. [Curtius, l.7. c.17.] However, Justin says, that in 17 days, he built a wall around it 6 miles in circumference. [l. 12. c.5.] Arrian states that in 20 days the city was enclosed with a wall. He gave the city to his Greek mercenaries to live in along with any of the natives in the area who wished to live there. Any of his Macedonians who were grown unserviceable for the war were allowed to live there too. He also put some of his captive prisoners to fill this newly built city. He paid their various masters their ransom and so made them freemen and citizens of the place. He also relocated the inhabitants of three cities which Cyrus had built, to this city.
     
  29. The king of the Scythians whose kingdom lay beyond the Tanais River, knew that city was built on purpose to restrain his ambitions. He sent his brother Carcasis to take and demolish it and to expel those Macedonians from the river side. These Sycthians rode up and down on the other side of the river in Alexander's sight and shot arrows and hurled insults at him and his Macedonians. Alexander was not yet fully recovered from his wound. His voice failed him and he could not stand alone nor sit on horseback. He could not order for what he wanted done.
     
  30. Spitamenes had with him besides his own men, some 600 Dahae and wild Scythian cavalry. These attacked a part of the army that was sent by Alexander to relieve them who were besieged in the citadel at Maracanda and slew them. Aristobulus says, that when the Macedonians were fighting, there suddenly arose from the neighbouring gardens such a number of Scythians that they slew almost all the Macedonians. Barely 40 cavalry and 300 foot soldiers escaped. Curtius mentions only that 2000 foot soldiers lost in that defeat. However, Alexander, to hide the greatness of that loss, ordered those who returned to his camp, upon pain of death, not to speak a word about it.
     
  31. Alexander put his heavily armed foot soldiers into as many boats as he could make. The rest swam on leather bags stuffed with straw. They crossed the Tanais River with incredible courage and attacked and routed the Scythians. Even though Alexander was quite weak, he pursued them for 10 miles. In this battle, 60 Macedonian cavalry and almost 100 foot soldiers died. About 1000 were wounded.
     
  32. Not long after this, Scythian ambassadors came to him to justify what had happened. They said that this war was not made on him by the Scythian nation but by only a few among them who lived by robbery and plundering. The law abiding inhabitants would yield to him. Alexander accepted this and replied kindly. He released all the prisoners without a ransom so that these warlike people would see that his battle with them, was for honour, not revenge.
     
  33. When the Sacae saw this, they sent their ambassadors to him and offered him their service. He as graciously dealt with them. He had Excipinus, a young gentleman whom he loved very dearly and was to him like Hephaestion was, to keep them company and to entertain them.
     
  34. Alexander took half of his fellow cavaliers, all his targeteers, archers, Agrians and the best of all the Macedonian squadron. He marched to Maracanda where he was told that Spitamenes had returned again to besiege the Greeks in the citadel. He marched about 90 miles in 3 days and came early the next day to the city. When Spitamenes heard of his approach, he lifted his siege and fled. Alexander pursued him as fast as he could. On the way he came to the place, where the Scythians had slain his Macedonians. He had their bones gathered and buried with a proper Macedonian funeral. After this he followed the enemy until he came into the desert.
     
  35. And by this time Craterus who marched at a slower pace as he was told to, came to Alexander with the largest part of the army. To punish the Sogdians who had revolted from him, Alexander divided his army into two parts and ordered them to burn every place and kill all males of age. In this manner he overran all that region. Here the river called Polytimetus runs. Beyond that the river runs underground and all the country is a desert, totally devoid of cities and inhabitants.
     
  36. Diodorus guesses [part 2. l.1.] that Alexander killed 120,000 Sogdians. 30 of the most noble of them, all men of great strength were brought to Alexander. He wondered at their undaunted courage when they faced death and freed them on the condition they would be loyal to him after this. They kept their word and when they returned home, they made all their people submit to Alexander. Alexander took 4 of them to be in his bodyguard. No Macedonians proved more faithful to him than these were.
     
  37. He left Pencolaus there with a garrison of 3000 foot soldiers [for no more were needed] and he came into Bactria. Alexander called together all that were there and ordered that Bessus be brought to him. Alexander reproached him for his treachery to Darius and had his nose and crops of his ears cut off. He sent Bessus to Ecbatane so that he might there be executed in the sight of the Medes and Persians. Plutarch says that Alexander ordered both his arms and legs tied to two trees that were bend down so that when the trees were released, they would tare him to pieces. Diodorus writes that the brother of Darius and his other kinsfolks railed and reproached him in many speeches. Then they cut his whole body into gibbets and then put them into slings and scattered them abroad.
     
  38. About the same time Phrataphernes the governor of Parthia and Stasanor who was sent into Aria to apprehend Arsaces, came to him. Stasanor brought Arsaces bound in chains along with Barzanes, whom Bessus had made governor under him of Persia and other men involved in the revolt of Bessus.
     
  39. From the Asian sea coast Epocillus and Melanidas came to Alexander. Also Ptolemy the commander of the Thracians came who had escorted the money sent by Menetes and those old soldiers whom Alexander had dismissed to go home. Ptolemy and Melanidas brought with them 3000 foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry mercenaries. A man called Alexander came with the 3000 foot soldiers and 500 cavalry. Bessus the governor of Syria, Asclepidorus the commander at sea sent him just as many. Antipater sent him 8000 Greek mercenaries and 500 cavalry under the command of Asander and Nearchus.
     
  40. With this larger army, he proceeded to set in order what had been disturbed by that general revolt from him. Many, especially the Sogdians, had gone into walled towns and cities and set up their own defences and would not submit to the governor whom he had set over them. Therefore he left Polysperchion, Attalus, Gorgius and Meleager in Bactria to keep order so that they would not revolt again nor draw others into rebellion. After a 4 day march, Alexander came to the bank of the Oxus River. This river had a muddy bottom and is very filthy and unhealthy to drink. Therefore, the soldiers started digging wells for water but found none. At last they saw a spring rising up in the king's pavilion, which because they had not seen it before they said that it suddenly arose there. [Curt. l.7. c.25.] Plutarch reports that Proxenus a Macedonian and muster of the king's wardrobe dug a place near the Oxus River to pitch the king's pavilion. He found a spring of a fatty and oleaginous or oily liquor that Alexander in his letters to Antipater states was one of the greatest miracles that God had shown him. Arrian goes further and says that he found two fountains, one of water and the other of oil. They recently had sprung up near the place where Alexander's tent stood. When Ptolemy brought Alexander word, he presently [as he was directed by his soothsayers] offered sacrifices to his gods. Aristander told him that the fountain of oil foreshadowed the great labour and travail that he was to endure but in the end he would be crowned with victory.
     
  41. When he had crossed the Ochus and Oxus River, he came to the Marginia or Magriana River. Around it he built 6 towns, 2 on the south side and 4 on the east side. They were build close together so each town could help the other one if needed. [Curt. l.7. c.25.] Strabo tells us that he built 8 towns in Bactria and Sogdiana. [l. 11. p. 717.] Justin mentions 12 [l. 12. c.5.] and notes that he put those in his army who were rebellous and seditious and hence got rid of them.
     
3676 AM, 4385 JP, 329 BC
  1. Arimazes of Sogdiana with a 30,000 man army climbed to the top of a high rock called Oxi by Strabo. They made provision for a 3 year seige. This rock was about 3.75 miles high and 19 miles in circumference. Alexander made generous promises to 300 gallant young lads who volunteered to climb the rock. Using cramp-irons where needed, they were able to slowly climb the rock. 32 died in the attempt. They either slipped or the rock broke from under them. The Sogdians were astonished as if by a miracle, to see that men had gotten up there. They thought there were more coming who were better armed then they were, so they surrendered. Arimazes their leader was quite afraid. He and the chief men of the country, came down to the king in his camp. Alexander had them well whipped and later crucified at the base of the hill. He distributed the rest for slaves among the new cities which he had built with the money he had taken from them. Arabazus was left to keep the Sogdians and the neighbouring countries under subjection. [Curt. l.7. c.ult. & Polyanus Stratag. l.5. in Alexander n. 29.]
     
  2. After Alexander had taken the Oxi Rock in Sogdiana, he saw the enemies in various parts. He divided his whole army into 5 brigades. Hephaestion commanded 3 brigades, Caenus and Artabazus the 4th and Alexander the 5th. Alexander marched the next day toward Maracanda and the rest ranged here and there as they wished. If they found that any had fled to citadels or places of strength, they attacked and captured them. If they surrendered, they were treated mercifully. When all these five brigades had taken in most Sogdiana, they met at Maracanda. Alexander sent Hephaestion to make colonies in various parts. He sent Coenus and Artabazus to Scythia for he heard that Spitomenes had gone there. He took the rest of the army into Sogdiana, and easily retook any places that the rebels had fled to. Those that surrendered without fighting, he relocated in those towns which he had subdued by force and caused their lands to be divided among these new inhabitants.
     
  3. While these things happened, Spitamenes, the rebels of Bactria, a company of Sogdians who were fled from thence into Scythia and some 600 or 800 Massagetan cavalry who came to him, went to a certain citadel which was built and manned against the Bactrians. They suddenly attacked the garrison and slew every man and put the governor in prison. Proud of their deed, they went soon after to take the city of Zariaspes. This they failed to do but carried away much spoil from the country around it.
     
  4. To suppress this rabble, Attinas governor of the country, led out some 300 cavalry not knowing the enemy had planned to ambush him. With these troops, he took some of the king's cavalry that had been left sick at Zariaspes and were now recovered. Pithon, the son of Sosicles and Aristonicas, a musician, commanded them. These two gathered some 80 mercenary cavalry troops of those who were left in the garrison at Zariaspes along with some of the king's cavaliers. They planned to go in a company with Attinas into the country of the Massagetae. However, Spitamenes and his troops rose from the thickets and woods and suddenly attacked them. They killed 7 of the king's cavaliers and 60 of the mercenaries. Aristonicus the musician, was also killed in that fight and behaved himself more like a soldier than a fiddler. In this encounter, Spitamenes killed Attinas with his whole company, Pithon was wounded and escaped. The news of this ambush came quickly to Craterus. He with all his cavalry troops attacked the Massagetae and routed them. He pursued them until they came to the wilderness of that country, where they fought. After a fierce battle, the Macedonians routed them. When the Massagetae saw that 150 of their cavalry were killed, they fled and easily saved themselves in that wilderness. The Dahae lost at least 1000 men. This put an end to the rebellion in those parts.
     
  5. After Alexander had subdued all Sogdiana for the second time, he returned to Maracanda. An ambassador from the king of the Scythians who lived on the European side north of the Bosphorus came to Alexander with a present and offered him his daughter in marriage. Alexander mentions this in his letter to Antipater as I said previously. If Alexander declined the proposal, the ambassador's alternate plan was to have Alexander allow his Macedonian nobles to marry into the principal houses of the Scythians. The ambassador offered that if Alexander wished, he would come in person to receive his commands from Alexander. [??]
     
  6. At the same time, Phrataphernes or Pharoemenus, who commanded the Chorasmians who bordered on the countries of the Massagetae and Dahae sent his messengers to let them know that he was ready to receive Alexander's commands. After he graciously heard both the ambassador's and the governor's errands, Alexander stayed there waiting for the return of Hephaestion and Craterus.
     
  7. As soon as Hephaestion and Craterus came, Alexander with his army attacked the country of Bazaria or Bazistis. Here was virgin forest in which a huge lion attacked the king by chance. Lysimachus, who was later the king of Thracia, offered to interpose himself with his hunting spear but the king would not allow it and asked him to stand aside. When the lion came on, Alexander held his ground and slew him with only one blow. After his army slew some 4000 wild beasts in that forest, he with all his army had a great feast in the woods.
     
  8. When Alexander returned to Maracanda, Artabazus resigned as governor of Bactria by reason of his age. Alexander gave the command of it to an old soldier of his father's, called Clitus, the son of Dropidas of Macedon, the brother of Hellanica or Lanica, Alexander's nurse. She was a woman whom he always respected and loved as his own mother. In a dream, he happened to see himself in mourning and sitting among Parmenion's sons who had died previous to this.
     
  9. The 3rd day after this dream was a holiday to Bacchus when Alexander usually offered the yearly sacrifice to him. Now someone at that time had brought him apples from Greece. He wondered at the fresh colour and good appearance of them. He sent for Clitus to show him the apples and to give him some of them. Clitus left the sacrifice which he was about to make. As he was going quickly to the king, he was followed by 3 sheep which were already prepared to be offered having meal and salt on their heads. When the king heard of this he asked his two principal soothsayers, Aristander and Cleomenes the Spartan, what this meant. They told him that it was an abominable sign and Alexander remembered his dream. He ordered them to go quickly and offer a sacrifice for him. Clitus came to the feast which the king made. Alexander had sacrificed to Castor and Pollux. When he was quite drunk, he began to brag greatly about his acts and devalue the deeds of his father Philip. Most who were at the feast applauded him. However, Clitus on the other hand upheld the deeds of Philip and spoke honourably of his achievements and decried the present times. He sometimes said some disgraceful things about Alexander. Alexander rose in a rage and intended to kill Clitus. He [according to Aristobulus] escaped out the back door and left the trenches and got into the fort to Ptolemy the son of Lagus. Both of them returned to the feast and Clitus sat again in the same seat. Ptolemy saw Alexander as he was calling out for Clitus. He said that here is Clitus and what do you want to do with him? Thereupon Alexander ran Clitus through with his spear and slew him.
     
  10. Later when Alexander considered the foulness of this act, he grew as angry with himself as he formerly had been with Clitus. He resolved to make amends and therefore shut himself up 3 whole days and did not have food or drink nor took any care at all of what became of him.
     
  11. When he had now continued fasting into the 4th day, the captains of his bodyguard broke in on him. After a long time, they were able to persuade him to eat again. His soothsayers told him that this happened because he did not sacrifice to Bacchus. Therefore, he soon went and sacrificed to him. He was glad to hear that this event came from the anger of the gods rather than from the malice of his heart. Aristander reminded him of his dream and of the sheep. He told Alexander that what was done, was done by fate and could not have been avoided. Calisthenes the philosopher agreed with Aristander in this. Anaxarchus of Abdera, a subtil teacher, went much further in this shameless flattery. He quoted an old proverb that Justice always sits at Jupiter's elbow. From that he concluded that whatever kings did, was to be taken as right and just. To lift Alexander's spirits, all the Macedonians unanimously declared that Clitus was treated fairly and justly put to death. They would have forbidden his burial, if the king himself had not ordered it to be done.
     
  12. When he had spent 10 days in settling his mind over this, he sent Hephaestion with a part of his army into Bactria. He was to prepare his winter quarters there. Alexander made Amyntas, the son of Nicolaus the governor of Bactria to which Clitus was intended to be. He left Caenus there with his own and Meleager's brigade. He left 400 of his fellow cavaliers and spearmen on horseback, with the Bactrians and Sogdians, who were under the command of Amyntas. Alexander ordered everyone to obey Caenus and to spend that winter in Sogdiana. He wanted to keep order in that country and hoped to capture Spitamenes if he happened to come for his winter provisions into those parts. [Arrian. l.4.]
     
  13. Alexander journeyed to Xenippa which bordered on Scythia where the Bactrians who had revolted from him had retired to. As soon as it was known that Alexander was coming, the natives ordered them to get out. Therefore, they gathered into a body of 2200 cavalry and attacked Amyntas, a commander of Alexander's. There was a fierce and long skirmish between them. They fled after losing 700 men and having had 300 taken prisoner. They had killed 80 Macedonians and wounded 350 more. However, when they yielded to Alexander again, they were pardoned.
     
  14. After this, Alexander went with his army to a place called Naura or Nautaca. Sisimithres, its governor, had two sons born from his own mother. With those people, it was lawful for children to have intercourse with their parents. Sisimithres had taken the gates or passes which open through the mountains into his own country. With a strong force he had well fortified the pass which was naturally well defended by a most swift and violent river through it [??] and had a huge rock at the back of it. [Curt. l.8. c.6.] Arrian says that this rock was at Parataca and was (2.5) miles high and about 7.5 miles in circumference. He calls the name of the rock, Chorienes, after the name of him that kept it. However, Strabo, together with Curtius and Plutarch, calls it Sisimithres' Rock and locates it in Bactria. They say it was almost 2 miles high and 10 miles in circumference. It had a large plain on the top of it of good land and well able to support 500 men. They also say that on the rock [not on that other rock in Sogdiana] Oxyartes had his daughter Roxane whom afterward Alexander made his wife. [Strabo, l.11. p. 517.]
     
  15. Although Alexander saw this pass was naturally well fortified and strongly defended, his battering rams quickly made a breach in the fortifications. He entered the outer fortifications and approached the rock. At the base of the rock there was a vast bog caused by the rain which fell from the rock and was trapped there. He did not know how to fill it up quickly. Meanwhile, he had the beech trees which grew in abundance there, cut and made into long stakes which his army drove down into the bog. All the day long he stayed to encourage the work. Perdiccas and Leonatus, and Ptolemy the son of Lagus, the captains of his personal guard divided the rest of the army into 3 parts and continued the work at night. They could not advance more than 30 feet by day and less by night even though all the army incessantly worked at it. The rock was so craggy and the work was very difficult.
     
  16. At that time Oxyartes, a great man of that country, a prince and the father of Roxane, was with Alexander. When Alexander asked him about the spirit and courage of Sisimithres, he replied that he was the most cowardly man that ever lived. Alexander replied: "Surely you have said enough to teach me that this rock is possible to be taken since you tell me that the one defending it is so weak."
     
  17. Alexander sent Oxyartes to Sisimithres to immediately demand him to surrender with his mother, children and all that were dear to him. Sisimithres surrendered immediately. Alexander with 500 of his silver targeteers, went up into the rock to view its situation and strength. When he had offered sacrifices to Minerva and Victoria, he left Sisimithres as the governor of that fort and the surrounding country as he was before. Alexander gave him hope of a greater dominion, if he performed well and faithfully in this command. At Sisimithres' request, Alexander took along his two sons to serve Alexander in the wars.
     
  18. He left his Macedonian squadron to capture the other places which had revolted from him. He advanced with his cavalry up a steep and a rocky way. He had not gone far, but all his cavalry horses were exhausted by the journey and could not follow him any further. Each day, his company became fewer and fewer. Also the young gallants who never wished to be far from him, stayed behind all except Philip, the brother of Lysimachus. He was wearing his full body armour and other arms, an incredible thing to do. Although he was on foot, he kept up with the king for over 60 miles, although the king rode and often changed his horse. They came into a woods where the enemy attacked the king. Philip stepped between them and rescued Alexander from that danger. The barbarians were routed and the woods cleared of them. When they were gone, Philip fainted from over exertion and fell down between the king's own hands and died. No sooner had this happened then Alexander was told that Erigyius, was one of his greatest captains, was killed. He had both their funerals to be observed with all the honour that might be given them.
     
  19. Spitamenes with a rabble of 3000 wild Scythians who followed him, came to Gabae. It was a strong town of the Sogdians that was located between the Sogdians and the Massagetae. He easily persuaded them to join with him and to plunder the country of the Sogdians. When Coenus heard of his coming, he attacked him with his army and killed 800 of them. He lost only 25 of his cavalry and 12 of his foot soldiers. The Sogdians who escaped along with some Bactrians, deserted Spitamenes on the way and surrendered to Coenus.
     
  20. When the Massageraean Scythians saw how poorly things went, they plundered all the carriages of the Bactrians and Sogdians and accompanied Spitamenes into the deserts of Scythia. He heard that Alexander came after them and planned to follow them into those very deserts. They decapitated Spitamenes and sent his head to Alexander and hoped by this to make him stop chasing them. [Arrian. l.4.] However, Curtius, [l. 8. c.8.] writes, that when Alexander was not far off, Spitamenes' own wife met him with her husband's head in her hand. When he saw it he abhorred the sight and had her put out of the camp least the foulness of such an act might corrupt his Greeks with these barbarian ways.
     
  21. When the Dahae heard what had become of Spitamenes, they took Dataphernes the principal author of that revolt and delivered him bound to Alexander. They submitted to Alexander. Coenus, Craterus with Phrataphernes, governor of the Parthians and Stasanor governor of the Arians returned to Alexander at Nautaca when they had completed their missions.
     
  22. Alexander rested his army at Nautaca because it was now the middle of winter. Arrian expresses this, "in the strength of winter". He thought about how to avenge the soldiers wrongs, which they had suffered through the pride and avarice of their officers. Thereupon he ordered Phrataphernes to go into to Hircania and the countries of the Mardi and Tapuri. He wanted him to bring Phradates who was the governor there. Alexander had often sent for him based on complaints he received, but he would not come. Phrataphernes was to bring him to Alexander under a sufficient guard.
     
  23. He removed Arsanes from the government of the Drangi and put Stasanor in his place. Arsace, [according to Curtius] or Atropates [according to Arrian] was made governor over Media to replace Oxidates. The king thought that Oxidates was not loyal to him. The province of Babylon, after the death of Mazaens was committed to Deditamenes, or, to Stamines [according to Arrian]. Sopolis and Epocillus and Menedas, were sent into Macedonia to bring him a fresh supply of soldiers from there.
     
  24. Three months after this, he started to march into a country called Gabaza. The third day into the journey, there was a dreadful storm and it was extremely cold. His whole army was in danger of perishing in this storm. Curtius, [l. 8. c.4.] describes this event in great detail. He tells of the fierceness of the storm and the king's fortitude in enduring it. He showed his wisdom and humanity in keeping the army together and comforting the poor weather-beaten soldiers in that distress. However, about 2000 perished of the poorer sort of soldiers, the support personal and hangers on. Curtius adds further, that which is recorded by Valerius Maximus, [l. 5. c.1. and by Julius Frontinus, l.4. Stratag. c.6.]. While Alexander was warming himself at a fire, a common soldier of the Macedonians, half frozen with cold and benumbed in his wits no less than in his limbs, pushed his way to his fire. Alexander took him and set him down in his own chair and told him that would be for his good. In Persia, anyone who sat in the king's chair was executed.
     
  25. The next day, he called his friends and captains together, he made a proclamation that whatever any man had lost in that storm, he would personally make it good again to him. This he did to the smallest detail. For example, Sisimithres had brought along with him many beasts of burden, draught animals, 2000 camels, whole flocks of sheep and herds of beasts. These were distributed among the army. These compensated them for their losses and saved them from the famine. Thereupon the king, declaring publicly how much he was beholding to Sisimithres for that courtesy. He ordered every soldier to take 8 days' of food with him. They went to capture the Sacae who had revolted from him. When they had gathered all the spoil of that country, Alexander gave Sisimithres from the spoil 30,000 head of cattle.
     
  26. Alexander married Roxane, the daughter of Oxyartes. Strabo reports this to have been done in the rock or fort of Sisimithres when it was first surrendered to him. [l. 15.] Many of his Macedonians followed Alexanders' example and married foreign wives from the more illustrious families of the foreign countries. [Diod. Sic. l.17. in several chapters]
     
  27. Now he thought wholly about the war on India. So that everything would be safe and quiet behind him, he conscripted from every province, 30,000 men, whom he planned to take with him into India. They would serve as soldiers and for pledges of their fidelity whom he left behind. He moved into Bactria and he sent Craterus with 600 of his fellow cavaliers, his own foot soldiers with the regiments under Polysperchon, Attalus and Alcaetas. They were to pursue Anstanes and Catanes who only remained of the rebels of Paratacene. There was a great battle fought between them. Catanes was killed and Austaces was taken prisoner and brought alive to Alexander. The Greeks lost 150 cavalry and about 1500 foot soldiers. After this Craterus went into Bactria and Polysperchon subdued the country of Bubacene for the king.
     
  28. Alexander assumed divinity and affirmed that he was the son of Jupiter. He was no longer to be addressed in the Macedonian custom but would be adored with prostration after the fashion of the Persian kings. There were plenty of court flatterers to feed this desire of Alexander. These are the curse of all kings and by whose tongues more kings have perished than by the sword of their enemies. [Curt. l.8. c.5.] The main ones around Alexander were Agis of Argos, the worst flatterer that ever was after Choerilus. There was Cleo of Sicilia and Anaxarchus, an orator. Calisthenes, an honest philosopher and a scholar of Aristotle opposed Alexander in this and he paid for it with his life.
     
  29. Hermolaus was a gallant youth and one of the king's company of pages, and instructed in the basics of philosophy by Calisthenes. He was once hunting with the king and slew a boar which the king had aimed at. Upon this, the king commanded him to be taken away and whipped. The youth took this badly and started a conspiracy to kill Alexander. First he conspired with Sopater, the son of Amyntas, a youth like himself the same rank. Then he conspired with Antipater, the son of Asclepiodorus, governor of Syria and others of the same company of pages. When the conspiracy was exposed by Epimenes one of the conspirators, they were all executed and Epimenes was rewarded. Alexander in his letters to Craterus, Alcetas and Attalus, written at that time stated that they had confessed that the conspiracy was among themselves only without the encouragement of anyone else. However, in another letter written later to Calisthenes, he charges him as being the author of it and he observes that Aristotle, whose first cousin was mother to Calisthenes states: "The youths indeed were stoned to death by the Macedonians but that orator I myself will punish and those who sent him and any who received them that conspire against me into their towns."
     
  30. When he had seized Calisthenes, he kept him in irons for 7 months to have him judged and condemned in a court of justice when Aristotle would be present. Chares the Mitilenian tells us that when Alexander was in the country of the Mallians and Oxydracans in India, he was recovering from a wound received in a fight. 17 months had passed since the conspiracy. Calisthenes who was a fat man, became sick of the Pthiriasis, or lowsie disease and died of it. However, Aristobulus and Ptolemy state that the pages confessed upon the rack that Calisthenes had put them up to it. Again, the same Ptolemy says that Calisthenes was first racked and later hanged. However, Aristobulus says that he was carried about with the army in chains and so died. So we see that these great authors and who were present in the army and waited on Alexander at the very time when these things happened do not agree with each other. However, there is no doubt about the time when this happened.
     
  31. Alexander left Amyntas in Bactria with 3500 cavalry and 10,000 foot soldiers. Toward the middle of spring [according to Arrian] Alexander moved with his army from there toward India to make the ocean and utmost border of the east, the boundary of his empire. He prepared his army in their attire for this great plan of his. He had all their shields covered with silver plate and their horse bridles made of beaten gold. Their very body armour he had enriched with gold or silver. He had 120,000 men with him on the Indian expedition.
     
  32. Alexander crossed the Caucasus Mountains in 10 days and came to his city of Alexandria which he had built in Paropanisus. He replaced its governor for his bad behaviour and relocated more people into his new city from the neighbouring countries. Any Macedonians who were unserviceable for the war were allowed to live here. He made Nicanor, governor of the city and made Tyriaspes commander of the whole region of Paropamisus and of all that territory as far as the river Cophene.
     
  33. From there he went to the city of Nicaea and sacrificed to Minerva. He then marched to the river of Cophene and sent an herald who ordered Taxiles and the rest of the governors of the countries lying between Cophene and the Indus River to come to him.
     
  34. Taxiles and other petty kings under his government came and met Alexander. They received his orders and told him that he was now the 3rd son of Jupiter that had come into those parts. They had only heard of Father Bacchus and Hercules but they were happy to see him now personally present among them. They therefore brought him rich presents and promised him to send 25 elephants. Alexander entertained them very graciously and asked them to go with him to be his guides through the passes of that country.
     
  35. When he saw that no one else came, he divided his army and sent Hephaestion and Perdiccas into the country called Pencelaotis toward the river Indus. The armies led by Gorgias, Clitus and Meleager and half the company of his fellow cavaliers and all the mercenary cavalry were told to capture any town they found by any means. When they came to the bank of the Indus River, they should start building boats to cross over it into further countries. Taxiles was sent with them and other commanders of those parts.
     
  36. The governor of the country of Peucelaitis revolted and died in the city which he resorted to. Hephaestion came and besieged it and after a month's time took and sacked it. The governor was killed and Sangaeus was made governor of it. Before Sangaeus had defected from Astes had fled to Taxiles. This act helped Alexander trust him all the more.
     
  37. Alexander, with his troop of silver targeteers, the cavalry of his fellow cavaliers, Hephaestion with the troop of those who were called Assateri, his archers, Agrians and javelin man, marched into the country of the Aspians, Thyraeans and Arasocans. He journeyed to the Choes River. This way was mostly mountainous and rocky. When he crossed that river, he commanded Craterus to come after him with the foot soldiers. He took the whole body of his cavalry and 800 Macedonians, targeteers on horseback and marched quickly away. He had heard that the people of that country had fled, some to the mountains and others to fortified cities. They all planned to fight with him.
     
  38. Those who came to oppose him, Alexander easily routed and drove them back into the town by the way they came out. He easily defeated the townsmen, who stood all in battle array before their walls and made them take refuge within their walls again. Craterus came with the foot soldiers. Therefore to strike the greatest terror into the minds of a nation which did not know what manner of men the Macedonians were, he ordered the army to spare no life. They set fire to the outer works which they had made. As Alexander rode about the walls, an arrow wounded him through his armour into the shoulder but it was a minor wound. Ptolemy and Leonatas were both wounded at the same time. Then Alexander saw a place where the wall was the weakest. He pitched his camp against it. Early the next day in the morning, he easily took the outer wall which was of no great strength. At the inner wall, the inhabitants made some resistance. When the Macedonians had scaled the walls and the townsmen felt the arrows showering down upon them, the soldiers within broke out of the gates and ran every which way to the nearby mountains. Many of them escaped and saved themselves there. The Macedonians followed them and overtook and slew the greater number of them. The townsmen that were left behind, were all killed and the city levelled to the ground.
     
  39. After Alexander had subdued another weak country, he advanced to the city Nisa. It was located at the foot of a hill called Meros and was said to have been built in old times by Bacchus. By the entreaty of Acuphis, the chief man of the place, who was sent to him with 30 other leaders, he spared the inhabitants of Nisa. They were only commanded to give him 300 horses. When this was done, he restored their freedom and allowed them to live after their own laws and made Acuphis governor of the city and the province of Nisa. Alexander took Acuphis' son and grandchild for hostages. He sacrificed there to Bacchus under the name of Dionysius. He made merry and feasted his friends and all his Macedonians. They wore garlands of ivy on their heads and sang praises to Dionysius with all his titles and names. "Calling him Bacchus, Bromius and Lyaus, Born of the fire, twice born and not like others, But the only one that ever had two mothers."
     
  40. Ovid speaks of him in like manner although on a different occasion. [Ovid l.4Metamorph.] See also Philostratus in Vita Apollonii, [l. 2. c.4.]
     
  41. From there he went to a country called Dadala. All the inhabitants had fled to the woods and mountains. Therefore he went through Acadera which was also deserted by the inhabitants.
     
  42. When the city Ardacena surrendered, he left Craterus there with other commanders of the foot soldiers. They were to capture places that did not voluntarily surrender and to order matters there as they saw fit.
     
  43. Alexander with his silver targeteers and his squadron of Agrians and Caenus and Attalus their brigades and the body of his own cavalry and at most four companies of his fellow cavaliers and the one half of his archers on horseback, went to the river of Euaspla. Here the governor of the Aspians was. After a long journey, the 2nd day he came with his army to a city called Arigaeum. As soon as the inhabitants heard that he was coming, they set their city on fire and fled to the mountains. The Macedonians chased them and slew a vast number of them. Ptolemy killed their captain in hand to hand combat and brought his armour with him.
     
  44. Alexander came with his foot soldiers which rode on horse back. They got off their horses and attacked the natives. After a long skirmish, the natives were forced to flee for refuge to the mountains. Craterus came to Alexander with the main body of the army when he had fully completed the task he was sent on. Alexander commanded him to rebuild Arigaeum which the inhabitants had burnt and to repopulate it with the people from the nearby places who wanted to live there and with those Macedonians who were no longer fit for military service. Alexander went to the place where he heard that natives had fled to. When he came to the foot of a mountain, he pitched his camp there.
     
  45. Meanwhile Ptolemy, who was sent foraging, went further on with a small troop to discover what was ahead. He sent word back to Alexander that there seemed to be more fires in the enemy's camp than there were in Alexander's camp. Thereupon Alexander left part of his army in the camp and went with the rest to view those fires for himself. When he had examined the situation well, he divided the company which he brought with him into three parts. One part he gave to Leonatus, one of the captains of his bodyguard with the brigade of Attalus and Balaerus. The second one he ordered Ptolemy to take charge of. He gave him a third part of his own Argyraspides or silver targeteers, the brigade of Philip and Philoras with 2000 archers, all the Agrians and half of the whole cavalry. The third part he led himself to a place where he saw was the largest number of the enemy. The enemy had confidence in their numbers and supposed the Macedonians to be but few in number. They left the mountain and came down into the plain. After a bloody battle was fought, the Macedonians won. Ptolemy, who led one of the three brigades of Macedonians, reports, that there were taken in the that fight, almost 40,000 prisoners and more than 230,000 cattle. Alexander selected the best of the cattle and sent them back to Macedon, to breed there for the tillage of the ground.
     
3677 AM, 4386 JP, 328 BC
  1. From there Alexander went into the country of the Assacenians who were said to have mustered 1000 cavalry, 3000 foot soldiers and 30 elephants to fight with him. It was said also, that Assacenus, [which as it seems, was the common name which all their kings went by] recently died. His mother Cleophis, commanded all that force.
     
  2. When Craterus had finished rebuilding the city, Arigaeum, he brought all his heavily armed foot soldiers to Alexander with battering rams and other equipment for a siege, if it was required. Alexander advanced with the cavalry of his fellow cavaliers, his javelin soldiers on horseback, with Coenus' and Polysperchon's companies, with 1000 Agrians and the archers toward the Assacenoans. He marched through the country of the Guraeans and had great trouble crossing the Guraeus River. When the natives heard of his coming, they dared not fight him in one body but divided their army and dispersed themselves. Each went into the their cities and planned to make a stand there.
     
  3. First, Alexander went with his army to Massaga. It was the largest city of the Assacenian country and enclosed with a wall of about 4.5 miles. 30,000 men defended it which included 7000 mercenaries from the inner parts of India. These came to fight at the foot of a hill about a mile from the Guraeus River and were forced to flee back into their city when they lost about 200 men. Shortly after this, Alexander drew up his main battle line of the Macedonians before the gates of the city. He was wounded in his thigh by an arrow shot from the wall. In pain he cried out that they told him he was Jupiter's son but when he was wounded, he felt pain like any another man. He added [as Plutarch in his book of Alexander's fortune writes] that when he saw the blood running down his body he cited a saying from Homer in his 5th book of his Iliad, that this was blood indeed, but not: "Such blood as from the blessed gods doth flow."
     
  4. After 9 days of the siege, the courage of the defenders began to weaken. They saw Alexander's works, the incessant labour of the besiegers, what vast valleys they filled up, what towers they built and how they made them run upon wheels. However when their captain was shot through with an arrow from a battering ram their courage failed completely. They gave up of holding out any longer and retired into their citadel. From there they sent messengers to beg for a pardon and to surrender. Cleophis, the queen with a great multitude of noble ladies, all pouring wine into golden basins, came out to Alexander. The queen lay her young son at his feet and obtained not only his pardon but she was restored to her father's kingdom. This was owning more to her good looks than to Alexander's generousity. For men commonly said, that all that was but the fee of a night's lodging and that she got her kingdom again by her allurements which she could not do by force. After that among the Indians, she went by the name of the king's concubine. In that siege Alexander lost not more than 25 men.
     
  5. The Indians in the seige who were hired from the inner parts of India caused Alexander more trouble than all the rest. According to the terms of the truce, they were allowed to depart with their arms. However, they camped about 100 miles from there. When Alexander was told of this, he was very angry with them and attacked them. He said that he indeed allowed them to depart with their arms but not that they should ever use them against the Macedonians. The Indians were not aware of the greatness of their danger. They locked themselves close together and formed a ring and placed their wives and children into the middle of the circle. When the enemy attacked, they withstood them very courageously. If any man was slain, the women took up their arms and took his place in the ring. At last they were overcome by the numbers of the enemy and they all died in that place. Alexander gave the women and the rest of the rabble who were left to his cavalry. This massacre of the Indians blemished Alexander's glory and remained as a spot on all his former noble actions.
     
  6. Alexander sent Coenus to a strong and rich city called Bazira. Alexander supposed that the inhabitants would readily submit when they heard what happened at Assacan. However, they refused to surrender. He sent Alcaetas, Attalus and Demetrius general of the cavalry to besiege the city Ora until he came. The inhabitants made an attack on Alcaetas but the Macedonians easily pushed them back and quickly besieged them on that side. Alexander heard that Abissarus would secretly move more of the natives in to defend it. Alexander sent word to Caenus to build a strong citadel there and leave a large enough garrison in it to prevent the natives from tilling their ground. He was to return to Alexander with the rest of the army.
     
  7. The inhabitants of Bazira saw that Caenus had gone with most of his army and left the rest in the citadel. They went out into the open field for battle. When 500 were killed and 70 more taken prisoners, the rest returned into the city. They were more securely besieged than before and did not venture out of the gates.
     
  8. Alexander took the city Ora at the first assault and took as many elephants as he found there. When the inhabitants of Bazira heard this, they were afraid of being taken also. Therefore, in the dead of the night, they all fled out of the gates and got up into a rock called Aornus. The rest of the cities in the area did likewise. Every man went there with his weapons. Alexander put garrisons in Ora and Massaga. He strengthened the walls of Bazira and captured the towns which the inhabitants had abandoned.
     
  9. When Taxiles died, his son Omphis or Mophis who had persuaded his father to submit to Alexander, sent to him to know his pleasure. He wanted to know if he would be the next king or live a private man till Alexander came. Although word was returned to him that he should reign, yet he held off for the present. Meanwhile, when Hephaestion and Perdiccas were sent to make a bridge over the Indus River, came that way, Omphis received them with all honours and freely furnished them with provisions. However he did not go out to meet them on the way least he should seem to depend on any man for favour but Alexander himself.
     
  10. When Alexander came to Embolyma, a city not far from the rock Aornus, he left Craterus with some of the army there. He ordered him to make provisions of grain and other necessaries for a long time in case the siege of Aornus lasted a long time and he was not able to capture it on the first attack. Alexander took his Agrians, archers, Caenus' brigade, from the Macedonian squadron such as were of the nimblest sort and best armed, 200 of his cavaliers and 100 archers on horseback and marched to the rock.
     
  11. According to legend, when Hercules was in those parts, he tried to take that place but could not because he was thwarted by an earthquake. Alexander was all the more eager to take the rock and outdo Hercules. According to Diod. Sic. the rock was about 12.5 miles in circumference and 2 miles high. Arrian says that the rock was 12.5 miles in circumference and at its lowest point it was about 1.4 miles high. At the foot of it toward the south, the Indus River ran not far from its source. [Strabo, l.15.] The rest was covered with vast bogs and inaccessible cliffs. In one of the cliffs a poor old man with his two sons lived in a cave where three beds were cut out of the rock. Alexander promised him 80 talents if he would show him a way up the rock. Thereupon he told him there was but one way and showed him where it was. When Alexander found no way other but that one, he manned that place so strongly that those on the rock could not possibly receive any relief from others. Then he put his army to work. He cast up a mound of earth and rubbish so high that now he could come at least to fight with them at closer range. He launched an assault on them which lasted 9 whole days and nights without cessation. Alexander lost many of his men in the fighting and in climbing the rocks. Among those who died, were Chares and a person called Alexander. Although he had no hope of taking it yet he pretended to carry on the siege but left one passage which led to the rock open for them to flee. Those on the rock were overcome by his persistency and resolution. They took the advantage of a dark night and all fled from the rock.
     
  12. When the king saw no activities on the rock the next day, he sent Balacrus to see what had happened. He brought word that the enemy was all gone. Then Alexander took some of the captains of his bodyguard and 700 of his silver targeteers and went up onto the rock first. The rest of the Macedonians followed lending one another a hand to climb up as well as they could. Alexander then ordered them to pursue the enemy. This they did and killed many of them in the chase. Many fell over the rocks and were dashed to pieces. When Alexander had conquered the place, he offered many sacrifices, and built altars to Minerva and Victoria on the rock. He left a garrison there and made Sisicoptus or Sisocostus, the governor of that place and country around it. Sisocostus had come previously from India to Bessus in Bactria. When Alexander had subdued Bactria, Sisocostus came in with his men to Alexander and served him faithfully after that.
     
  13. Alexander left Aornus and went into the country of the Assaceni. He was told that the brother of Assaecanus, the last king, with a number of elephants and number of the inhabitants and bordering nations were fled to the mountains in those parts. When Alexander came to the city of Dirta, he found no one there, nor in the surrounding country side.
     
  14. The next day he sent out Nearchus with 1000 silver targeteers. He assigned to Nearchus some lightly armed Agrians. Antiochus was given 3000 silver targeteers. These were sent out as scouts and to see if they could find any of the natives of whom they might enquire among other things, about the elephants.
     
  15. Alexander marched forward to the bank of the Indus River. He sent an army before him to clear his way. Otherwise it would have been impossible for him to have gone through. When he found that its narrow passes were controlled by Erix, he left Coenus to bring the main body of the army later at a less strenuous pace. Alexander advanced with his slingers and archers, cleared the forest and made a safe way for the army that followed later. Diodorus calls this Indian, Aphrices and says that he had with him 20,000 men and 15 elephants. Whether from a hatred to this Erix or Aphrices, or whether to ingratiate themselves with Alexander, the Indians killed him and brought his head and arms to Alexander. He pardoned them but did not thank them lest others follow their example.
     
  16. In 16 days he came to the Indus River. He captured the city Penceliotes not far from there which surrendered to him. He left Philippus with a garrison of Macedonians there to keep order. He subdued also a number of smaller towns that were along the river. Cophaeus and Assagetes, the governors of that country attended him as he went from place to place. Alexander learned from some natives whom he had taken prisoner that the men of that country were all gone to Barisades [or perhaps Abisarus] and that the elephants were left grazing on the banks of the Indus River. Thereupon he ordered them to show him the way to the place where the elephants were. They caught all but two which fell over the rocks and died. The rest were taken and trained for service and were added to his army. He found good trees for timber there. He ordered them cut down to make boats with. When the boats were launched, he went in them to the bridge of boats which Hephaestion and Perdiaccas had built for him. Since they saw that they would have more rivers to cross, they made their boats so they could be easily disassembled and carried on carts. Besides these boats, they built two others of 30 oars a piece and many more smaller craft.
     
  17. Alexander stayed there 30 days to rest his army. In that time he offered magnificent sacrifices to his gods and entertained his cavalry and foot soldiers by the river side. He made one of his friends, Nicanor, governor of all that region on this side Indus. After this he crossed the river by the bridge that was made at Pencolaites [Strabo, l.15.] with his army. Again he sacrificed to his gods after the manner of the Greeks. Alexander came into the region which lies between the Indus and the Hydaspes River in the beginning of the spring. This is noted by Aristobulus who was with him then and by Strabo [l. 15. p. 691.]
     
  18. When Alexander was about 8 miles away, Omphis the son of Taxiles met him with an army and elephants spaced at equal distances among the companies. At first Alexander did not know whether he came as a friend or a foe and prepared for a fight. When Omphis saw Alexander's actions, he halted his army and rode quickly by himself to Alexander and surrendered both himself and his kingdom [which was not much bigger than Egypt] into his hands. When Alexander asked him whether he had mostly labourers or soldiers in his kingdom he replied that he was at war with two kings. Hence he must of necessity keep more soldiers than labourers in his kingdom. His enemies were Abisarus and Porus who reigned on the other side of the Hydaspes River. With Alexander's permission, Omphis assumed title and position of a king. After the custom of his country, he was called by the name of Taxiles, for that name goes with the kingdom with whoever rules it.
     
  19. The city Taxila from which the king is named after, is the largest of all the other cities lying between the Indus and Hydaspes Rivers. All its inhabitants with Omphis entertained Alexander very joyfully. On the 4th day after his arrival there, Omphis told Alexander what grain he furnished Hephaestion for his army. He presented both Alexander and all his friends with crowns of pure gold. In addition he gave them a large number of cattle, 3000 oxen and almost 10,000 sheep. Arrian adds, that he sent Alexander 700 Indian cavalry and 200 talents of silver. Curtius mentions only 80 talents of silver ingots.
     
  20. Alexander was very impressed with this entertainment and sent him back his 200 talents of silver with 1000 talents more of his own. He also sent many dinner plates of gold and silver with a great deal of Persian attire and 30 of his own horses with their equipment. Alexander's liberality pleased and obliged Omphis to loyalty. It greatly offended his friends. One of those, Meleager was eating at supper and was quite drunk. He told Alexander that he was very glad to see that he found a man here in India whom he thought worthy of 1000 talents. Alexander remembering what penance he had done for Clitus, did not seek revenge but only said: "Envious men were nothing else but their own worst tormentors."
     
  21. The next day, Abisarus, king of the Indian mountaineers sent his own brother to him with other ambassadors to present him with money and elephants. He submitted himself and all that he had to Alexander's disposition and pleasure. When Alexander had made a firm league with him, he sent them back again to him. Also ambassadors with presents came to him from Doxareus, a governor in those parts.
     
  22. In the country of Taxila, Alexander offered again his usual sacrifices and made shows and contests with his cavalry and foot soldiers. He left Philippus the son of Machates, to be the governor in those parts with a garrison in the city. He left behind in the country of Taxila those of his army that were unfit for military service. He then went on toward the Hydaspes River.
     
  23. Alexander thought his fame would make Porus readily submit to him. He sent a message to him by Cleochares to require tribute of him and to order him to meet Alexander at the border of his kingdom. Porus answered that one of these two things he would not fail to do. He would meet him at the border of his kingdom with his army.
     
  24. There was another Porus a king of a neighbouring country in India. He was the nephew of the other Porus. Because he hated his uncle, he sent ambassadors to Alexander and offered himself and all his kingdom to his service.
     
  25. Alexander sent back Caenus to the Indus River with orders to dismantle the boats and bring them overland in carts to him. The smaller boats came apart in 2 sections, the larger were in 3 sections. They were all brought to the Hydaspes River.
     
  26. When they were reassembled and launched, he used them to return to Taxila with his army. He received 5000 Indians whom Taxiles and others had brought to him. He returned to the banks of the Hydaspes River. On the way, Barzaentes who was governor of the Drangians at times and the instigator of the revolt of the Arachosians was taken prisoner and brought to Alexander along with 30 of his elephants. This was a great prize for the Indians trusted more in their beasts than in their men. Gamaxus, a petty king in those parts and a confederate of Barzaentes, was taken and brought bound to him. Both were committed to prison and the elephants enlisted into Alexander's service and sent to Taxiles or Omphis. Alexander advanced and came to Hydaspes where he had executed Barzaentes for his old treason against his master Darius. [Arrian l.3. p. 72.]
     
  27. Porus was camped on the other side of the Hydaspes River. He planned to stop Alexander. He was a man of large statue and a brilliant mind. He was said to be five cubits high [7.5 feet] although Plutarch says that he was but four cubits high and a hand breadth [6 feet 4 inches]. His body was so big that his coat of armour was twice as large as any other man's. He rode upon an elephant taller than all the rest on which he sat like an ordinary man on horseback. Curtius says that in the forefront of his battle he placed 80 large elephants. Diodorus says he had 13. Arrian says that he had almost 200. He had 300 chariots and 30,000 foot soldiers in his army. Diodorus states that he had more than 1000 chariots and 50,000 thousand foot soldiers, although Plutarch says he had 20,000 soldiers and 200 cavalry. Diodorus says 3000 and Arrian 4000 cavalry. The Hydaspes River ran between the two armies. Porus with his elephants always appeared at the head of his army and was ready to hinder the crossing of Alexander. Alexander had noises daily to be made in his army to make the similar noises from the barbarians more normal and therefore less terrible to his men. After a while, in a stormy dark night, he crossed over the river with certain of his foot soldiers and most choice cavalry. He crossed way up the river onto a small island in the midst of the violent thunderstorm. Although, he saw some of his men hit by lightning and others seriously hurt, he was determined to cross and hide on the other side. The river was swollen with the rain and undermined its banks in many places with the swiftness of its current. Alexander got to land, where he could hardly stand for the unstableness of the ground and the undermining of the banks. When the Macedonians saw this, they also forced themselves to land being up to their very arm pits in water.
     
  28. When he crossed the river, he went ahead of his foot soldiers some 2.5 miles with his cavalry. He engaged 1000 enemy cavalry and 60 chariots. He captured all the chariots and 400 cavalry. When Porus learned that Alexander had crossed the river, he attacked him with all the troops he had except the ones he left to take care of the Macedonian army that had not yet crossed over. Alexander feared the number of the enemy and their elephants. He attacked one wing of them and commanded the rest to attack the other wing. When the natives were hard pressed anywhere, they always retired in a group to the elephants as a place of refuge. The fight grew confused everywhere and Alexander could scarcely route them until about 2 p.m. Alexander described the battle in detail in his own letters:
     
  29. Aristobulus says that in the former of these two fights he killed 400 cavalry and captured 60 chariots and Porus' son was killed in the fight. However, Ptolemy states when the forces who were sent out under Porus' son, he was killed in the fight. Ptolemy says the forces which were sent out with Porus' son were twice as many as Alexander mentions in his letter. Ptolemy says they attacked with 2000 cavalry and 120 chariots. Concerning the latter engagement which was fought with Porus, Alexander does not go into detail. Arrian gives more information concerning the number killed. The Indians lost almost 20,000 men and 3000 cavalry. All their chariots were scattered, two of Porus' sons were killed. Spitarches who commanded all that region of India and all the captains both of the elephants and chariots and of his cavalry and foot soldiers were killed in the battle. All the elephants which were not killed in the fight were captured. Of Alexander's foot soldiers, he lost 80 of the 6000 engaged in the first battle. He lost 10 of the archers on horseback, which led the first assault, 20 of his fellow cavaliers and 200 cavalry. Diodorus states that about 12,000 died including the two sons of Porus, all the chief commanders of his army and bravest captains that he had. 9000 prisoners were taken and 80 elephants captured. 280 of the Macedonian cavalry died along with more than 700 foot soldiers.
     
  30. When Porus was taken, Alexander asked him how he wanted to be treated. He replied: "Like a king."
     
  31. Alexander asked him again, whether he wanted anything else and his answer was that word: "Like a king."
     
  32. comprehends all. When Alexander saw his noble and royal disposition, he treated him accordingly and took him into the number of his friends. He restored him to his kingdom again which reached from Hydaspes to the bank of the Acesives River. In it were 300 cities. [Strabo, l. 15. p. 698.]
     
  33. Arrian shows that these things happened after the summer solstice in the rainy season in India. The Hydaspes River would swell greatly whereas in the middle of winter a man may wade across it. [Arrian. l.5. p. 107.] Jacobus Capellus compares another place of his, [Arrian. l. 7. p. 163.] where he writes the same thing of the Euphrates River, saying: "It is fordable in the winter. When the spring approaches, and much more when the sun returns from its summer solstice, it grows deep and overflows its banks."
     
  34. The Greeks call the four seasons of the years by the name of tropics. They may just as easily divide the year into two parts, summer and winter. Summer would start at the vernal equinox and winter from the autumnal equinox. However Arrian is speaking after the manner of the east when he says: "as the spring approached and after this toward the summer season, the rain began to fall there and the waters to rise."
     
  35. Concerning those Indian regions, Aristobulus was an eye-witness of them, and was present with Alexander at the Hydaspes River. He says that at the beginning of the spring, the rains begin to fall and so grow stronger from day to day. Strabo says the same. [Strabo, l.15. p. (114).]
     
  36. This battle was fought between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice. Arrian plainly shows this where he says: "This was the end of the battle fought by Alexander against Porus and his Indians on the other side of the Hydaspes River in the year when Hegemon was archon of Athens in the month Munichion:"
     
  37. In that year that month corresponds almost entirely to our month of May according to the Julian Calendar. The summer solstice did not happen until Alexander came to the Acesines River, as I show later from Nearchus.
     
  38. Alexander was glad for this victory which opened the way to the farthest borders of the east. Thereupon he had all his men that died in the battle to be honourably buried. He sacrificed to the sun, as the giver of this victory. He held games and contests both on foot and horseback at the river Hydaspes near the place where he crossed. Since there was of all manner of provisions in the place, he stayed there for 30 days to rest his wearied companies. To cheer up his soldiers for the remainder of this war, he called them together and gave them a pep talk commending their prowess and valor. He told them that all the forces of India were quashed by their one day's work. All the rest was a rich spoil for them to take. He gave the chief commanders of his army crowns to wear. Every one of them received 1000 pieces of gold. He rewarded the rest according to his place and rank in the army. For a description of the monument he made there, see [Philostratus l.2. Life of Apollion. c.ult.]
     
  39. Alexander planned that as soon as he set foot in India, to go and see the Indian Ocean. Therefore he had his shipwrights build boats for that purpose. In the Emodian hills nearby, there was an abundance of tall fir trees with a quantity of cedar and pine trees along with other timber fit for ship building. When they went to cut them down, they found there very many large snakes, as long as 24 feet. In those woody mountains, they found rhinoceroses as well as a huge number of apes, some quite large. The rhinoceros is a rare beast in other countries. When the Macedonians saw a number of them ranging on the side of a hill in a kind of array like soldiers, they first thought that they had been an enemy. They cried out, "Arm, Arm" and arranged themselves to attack them. It was not until Taxiles, who was then with Alexander, told them what they were that the fray ended. [Strabo. l.15. p. 698,699.]
     
  40. Alexander built 2 cities here, one on each side of the Hydaspes River. The one on this side the river at the place where he crossed and the other on the other side where he fought this battle. This city he named from the victory over the Indians and gave it the Greek name, Nicea. The other one he called Bucephalis or Bucephalia after his horse Bucephalus. He had died there not of any wound received in the battle [As some have it. A. Gellius [l. 5. c.2.]] but spent with travel and old age. He was 30 years old according to Arrian and Sicritus as cited by Plutarch. The king gave him a solemn funeral and build a monument and there built a city round it. [Pliny, l.8. c.42.] Near to these cities he built his navy for the ocean [Strabo. l.15. p. 698] on the Hydaspes River which ran between the two kingdoms of Porus and Taxiles. Both of these helped him greatly in building this fleet. [Curt l.9. c.7.]
     
  41. Alexander left Craterus there with a part of his army to finish the buildings of these two cities and their wall. He went further into India against those who bordered on Porus' kingdom. Aristobulus called the kingdom Glauconica but Ptolemy called it Glausa. He took one half of his fellow cavaliers along with him, the best men from every squadron, with all his archers on horseback, his squadron of Agrians and the other archers. On this expedition, 37 cities surrendered to him. The smallest city had at least 5000 inhabitants and many had more than 10,000. In addition, many towns and villages surrendered to him some which were as large as the cities. All this territory he added to Portus' kingdom. He made Taxiles and Portus good friends and sent Taxiles back into his own kingdom again.
     
  42. At the same time ambassadors from Abisarus came to Alexander. Arisarus promised to be at his command, provided that Alexander would not require him to give up his kingdom. For he would not live without a kingdom nor reign if he were enslaved to another man. Thereupon Alexander sent back word to him that seeing he would not come to Alexander, Alexander with his army would take the pains to go to him. This would cost Abisarus dearly. Ambassadors came to him from those Indians which lived as free states and from another Porus, king of the Indians also.
     
  43. Phrataphernes, the governor of Parthia and Hircania came at this time to Alexander with such Thracians that Alexander had left with him. Messengers came to him from Sicicus, governor of the Assacenians to tell him, that the Indians had murdered his vice-governor and had revolted from him. Against these Alexander sent Philippus and Tyriespes with an army ordering them to suppress the rebellion of the Assacenians and keep that province in order. About this time, Cleophis, the queen of the Assacenians bore Alexander a son, whom she named after Alexander and was later king of that country. [Justin. l.12. c.7. with Curtius, l.8. c.20.]
     
  44. The other Porus who was the nephew to the one whom Alexander had overcome, feared his uncle Porus more than Alexander. He left his kingdom and fled into the country of the Gaugaride. He took with him as many as would follow him and that were fit to bear arms.
     
  45. Alexander with his army crossed over the violent Acesives River which was almost 2 miles wide. Those who crossed on bags made from skins did much better than those in the boats. Those who crossed in boats were dashed many times on the rocks in the way. Some boats sunk, drowning some of the army as Arrian from Ptolemy reports, [l. 5. p. 145.] Alexander left Coenus with his brigade on the near side to provide for the crossing of those supplying grain and other things for the army and to protect them from any attackers.
     
  46. Nearchus, who was in the army at this time, says, [cited by Strabo, l.15. p. 692.] that Alexander first camped by the river side. He was forced to move his camp later to higher ground to escape the flood waters. This happened about the summer solstice. Arrian confirms this in his book [Indica, p. 172.] where he says that Alexander's army ran away from the Acesives River when its water flooded all the country at midsummer.
     
  47. There were vast forests and shady trees of an enormous size and incredible height. Some were over 100 feet high and so thick that 4 men could barely get their arms around them. They cast a shadow of 3 acres or 300 feet from their limbs. For the most part, they were like huge beams bowing downward to the ground and grew up from there again. The new plant was not nourished by the same bough but rooted itself were the bough touched the ground. For more information about the banyan tree see [Pliny. l.12. c.5. & Strabo l.15. p. 694.]. He states from Aristobulus that under one of these trees 50 men could sit at dinner.
     
  48. There were also a large number of deadly snakes. They were small and very colourful. Their bite was so deadly that it caused sudden death to any one that was bitten. To avoid this danger, the Macedonians hung their beds from the limbs of the trees and slept above ground. They got little sleep. At length they learned a remedy for the snake bite from the native people. They showed them a root to take if any man happened to be bitten.
     
  49. Alexander sent Porus back to his own kingdom with orders to return with an army of the choicest and ablest Indians that he could find along with any elephants he had. After the army crossed the deserts, they came to the Indian river of Hyarotis or Hydraotes. It was as wide as the Acesines River but not so violent. He left garrisons everywhere he went in convenient places so that Craterus and Caenus might safely come to him with grain which they were to gather from all the places they went. He committed part of his army to Hephaestion. He gave him charge of two squadrons of foot soldiers, both his own and Demetrius' Cornets of cavalry and half his archers. He sent them into the country of that Porus who fled away and ordered him to transfer the kingdom to his friend King Porus. If he found any other Indian nation bordering on the Hyarotis River which lived as free states, he should add them all to Porus' kingdom. Alexander crossed the Hyarotis River with less trouble than he had with the Acesines River.
     
  50. Next to this river there was a grove of shady trees not usually seen in other parts and wild peacocks that flew up and down in the trees. Alexander advanced and took over other countries. Some surrendered and others he took by force. For some he was forced to chase and overtake and make them yield to him.
     
  51. Meanwhile, Alexander was told that there were other Indian states and a people called the Cathaeans who intended to fight him if he came into their countries. They joined with other free states of India to form an alliance with them in this action. Also another nation of those parts called Oxidracans and the Mallians. A little before this, Abisarus and Porus with their joint armies along with many other confederate Indians, went to subdue them but were unable to. The Indians awaited Alexander's arrival in Sangalae, a large city of the Cathaeans. It was surrounded with a wall and with a bog. These Cathaeans are called by Polyannus [l. 4. Stratag.] the Calthaei. Diodorus call them the Cathari. He states that it was law, agreed to by all these countries that when the husband died, the wife would be buried with his body. Strabo also notes this of the Cathaeans. [l. 15. p. 699.]
     
  52. Alexander went into these parts and came the second night to a city called Pimprama. That country of the Indians are called Adraista. Diodorus calls them the Andrasta. These came to him and surrendered conditionally.
     
  53. Alexander rested his soldiers there the next day. On the third day, he marched to Sagala where the Cathaeans and their allies awaited his arrival. They stood in battle array on the rise of a hill before the city. Instead of a trench between them and the enemy, they placed 3 rows of chariots locked closely together. Alexander quickly scattered the chariots and they all fled back into the city. Alexander immediately besieged them. He cast up a double trench around the city except where the bog hindered them. He set Ptolemy there with 3000 of the silver targeteers, all the squadron of Agrians and one company of archers to guard that quarter. He set all the chariots which he had taken, in an escape route from the city to hinder them from escaping. The inhabitants tried to escape in the 4th watch of the night and fell over those chariots. They were beaten back by Ptolemy who killed 500 of them and forced them to retreat within their gates again. Meanwhile Porus came to him with the rest of his elephants and 5000 Indians. His battering rams were assembled and approached the wall. The Macedonians did not have to batter the inner wall but only undermined the outer earthwork made of brick and raised their ladders against the inner wall, thus taking the city by assault. 17,000 inhabitants were killed, 70,000 taken prisoner, 300 chariots were captured and 500 horses were taken. Alexander did not lose more than 100 men in this seige. 1500 more including Lysimachus, one of the captains of his bodyguard were hurt.
     
  54. After Alexander buried his dead after the Macedonian customs, he sent Perdiccas with sufficient forces to ravage and plunder all the country around there. He sent Eumenes the secretary, [that is that Eumenes who was secretary sometimes to King Philip and whose life, Plutarch and Probus have both written] with 300 cavalry to two cities which had allied with those of Sangala. He was to offer them a pardon and he should receive them in mercy. However when the townsmen heard what was done at Sangala, they all fled from the town before he came. As many as were not able to escape through infirmity, were all killed by Eumenes to the number of 500. Alexander gave up the idea of overtaking the rest and returned to Sangala and utterly destroyed it.
     
  55. Alexander went to besiege another strong town into which a great number of people from weaker places had fled. When they asked his mercy and opened him their gates, he pardoned them and took hostages. He marched away to the next town, which was a very large one and full of people. There he had the hostages whom he received to be presented before the walls. Those in the town knew them as their neighbours and they desired to speak with them. The hostages told them what a merciful man Alexander was and how dreadful he was to his enemies. They easily persuaded them to yield to him. Now the news went out that before people thought Alexander was more like a robber was wrong and he behaved more like a conqueror. The rest of the cities surrendered without a fight. [Curt. l.9. c.2. Polya. Stratag. l.4. in Alexan. s. 30.]
     
  56. From here he went into the kingdom of Sopithes who at more than 6 feet was taller than all men of those parts. He came from his chief city with his two mature sons. He gave Alexander his golden rod, all set with beryl stones and surrendered to him, himself, his children and all his kingdom. Alexander gave him his kingdom back again. A few days later, he feasted Alexander and all his army in a very sumptuous manner. He gave Alexander personally many large and costly gifts. He also gave him 150 Indian dogs which were, as was said, a cross breed between dogs and tigers. They were very strong and courageous. To prove this he had 4 of them attack a very large lion. [Strabo, l.15. p. 700. Elia. Histor. Ammal. l.8. c.1.]
     
  57. Meanwhile Hephaestion returned to him with the troops he left with. He subdued all the countries of the Indians far and wide wherever he went. Alexander spared no honour for him and praised him before the army.
     
  58. Alexander left Sopithes in his kingdom as he found him. He advanced still to the next country where Phegeus was king. All the inhabitants welcomed the Macedonians and Phegeus went out personally to meet Alexander with gifts and presents. He submitted himself wholly to his pleasure. Alexander re-established him in his kingdom. Alexander was royally entertained with all his army and stayed there 2 whole days.
     
  59. On the 3rd day he departed from there and came to the Hyphasis or Hypanis River. It is almost a mile wide and 36 feet deep. It was very rocky under water and quite difficult to cross. Phegeus told him what he wanted to know about the other side of the river. There was a vast desert of 11 or 12 days journey to cross bounded by the Ganges River. It was the largest in all of India. Beyond the river lived various peoples. The people there were the Gaugaridae or Gongaridae and Prasians or Praendians, or Praesiaeans, or Pharrasians, or Tabraesians, for they are all known by these different names. Their King was called Agrammes. [Diod. Sic. calls him Xagrames,] He had an army of 20,000 cavalry, 200,000 foot soldiers, 2000 chariots and 3000 or [as Diodorus says] 4000 elephants, all trained and equipped for war.
     
  60. These things seemed incredible to Alexander. When he had questioned Porus further, Porus told him that the force and power of that king and kingdom was indeed very great and no less than what he was told. However the current king was of ignoble birth and no better than a poor barber's son. He was hated and scorned by his subjects. Androcottus, who was then but a youth and had not only seen Alexander but also for a certain saucy prank played on Alexander, was ordered to be executed. He would have died had he not fled. Justin, [l. 15. c.4.] tells us that he later said that Alexander almost conquered all of India. The part he missed was of little note since their the king was too wicked, so base, so hated and so much scorned by his people.
     
  61. Alexander began to reflect that his soldiers were all tired out and spent with the length of the war. Every man began to look for an end of these dangers and for the reward and fruit of all their labours. They had now been 8 whole years [for so long it was since he became king] in a continual perilous war. It happened that for 70 consecutive days, it poured rain accompanied with violent thunderstorms according to Diodorus. Diodorus says that to pacify the soldiers, he gave them permission to plunder a most rich and bountiful country of the enemies and to take all to themselves. While they were busy at this, he called together their wives and children and made there a law that the wives would receive their monthly allowance in grain and their children the same wages that their fathers did.
     
  62. When the soldiers were returned home laden with wealth and riches, the king called them all together. He made a prepared speech to request them to accompany him cheerfully to the conquest of the Gangaridae. Caenus the son of Polemocrates replied in the name of the whole army and concluded that they all desired an end of the war. The Macedonians would not listen to Alexander's request. Ptolemy reports that he went on and offered sacrifices for the crossing of the river. When the entrails portended all direful things if he proceeded, he called together his friends and such as were the oldest and most intimate with him. He told them first and afterward declared to all the army that since all things seemed to be against his going any farther, he was now content and resolved to return home.
     
  63. Pliny very improbably writes that notwithstanding all this, he crossed the Hypanis River and erected altars on the other side. [l. 6. c.17.] For a similar action occurred in the same place, that is in the king's own letters to confirm as much. I think that those words refer not to his crossing over the Hypanis or Hyphasis River but to that which went before concerning the order and distance of his camps and journeys from place to place. These were described and recorded by Diognetus and Baeton, his two principal harbingers and camp masters. For who can believe that Alexander alone without his army and without any purpose of going any further would offer to cross such a dangerous river as that was. If he would, then the enemy who were on the other side, would have attacked him and hindered his work. Strabo, [l. 15. p. 700.] notes that he went no further eastward because he was forbidden to cross the Hypanis or Hyphasis River. Plutarch also tells us that in his time the kings of the Praesiaeans or Prasians crossed the river to his side and worshipped those altars which Alexander then set up and offered sacrifices on them after the customs of the Greeks.
     
  64. It is obvious that Alexander divided his army into various companies. He had 12 altars to be built, all of square stone on the west side of the Hyphasis River and not on the east side. Each alter was 75 feet high and similar to so many large towers and of a greater size than towers were usually constructed. On these altars, he offered sacrifices after the Greek manner to his gods. He held for his men, games of all sorts, wrestling, dancing and sports on horseback. Then he made his camp three times larger in every respect than it was ever done before. He made trenches 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep. He had the earth cast up from the ditch. He made a good wall around the trench. He commanded his foot soldiers that in their tents they should set up two bedsteads, each of them 7.5 feet high. The cavalry men should do this as well as make mangers for their horses as large as at other times. They should do the same with their weapons, horse bits and other equipment, they were leaving behind. They should make them in the same proportion and to hang them up. This was to give posterity an imaginary belief of his greatness. Concerning the inscriptions and titles of his altars, we may see more in [Philostratus, his life of Apollonius.]
     
  65. When these things were done, he returned by the same way he came to the Hydraotes River. He crossed it and came back to Acesines.
     
  66. There he found this city already built by Hephaestion whom he left to do it. Into the city he relocated as many of the neighbouring places as wanted to live there. He left his mercenary soldiers who were unfit for military service here.
     
  67. Arsaces, who ruled over all in the province bordering on the kingdom of Abisarus and the brother of Abisarus and his associates came to Alexander. They brought him presents of the most valuable items in those parts. Abisarus sent 30 elephants. They said that Abisarus would have come to him but he was sick. Alexender sent messengers to Abisarus and they confirmed his story. Thereupon he made Abisarus governor under himself of that province and made Arsaces subject to him. He appointed what tribute they should pay to him. Alexander offered sacrifices again at the Acesines River.
     
  68. He crossed the Acesines River and came to the Hydaspes River. He repaired with the help of his soldiers, whatever the flooding of that unruly river had destroyed of his two cities, Nicaea and Bucephalis recently built there. From the time that he went from there until his return, it had rained continuously with monsoon winds according to Aristobulus as cited by Strabo. [l. 15. p. (691).] The rain lasted 70 days with violent thunderstorms, as I showed before from Diodorus.
     
3678 AM, 4387 JP, 327 BC
  1. Alexander had built a large number of ships by the side of the Hydaspes River. Two of these had three banks of oars. He planned to sail down to the Indian Ocean with his cavalry and foot soldiers. For his venture, he gathered all the Phoenicians, Cypriots, Carians and Egyptians who followed his camp and put them aboard his ships.
     
  2. At the same time Coenus died who was one of his best and closest friends. He grieved his death and had him buried with all honour and sumptuousness which that time and place afforded. However, he did not forget the speech which he made in the armies behalf promising them to return home. Had he known how short a time he had to live, he would never have made so long an oration.
     
  3. He received fresh troops from Greece. These were auxiliaries and mercenary soldiers under their various commanders, that (Isaiah 30,000) foot soldiers and 6000 cavalry. This also brought rich arms for 25,000 foot soldiers and 100 talents in medicines [Diod. Sic. & Curt. l.9. c.5.] Memnon also brought him from Thracia, 6000 cavalry besides those which came from Harpalus and 7000 foot soldiers. He also brought weapons inlaid with silver and gold which Alexander distributed in the army and had the old ones burnt.
     
  4. Harpalus, who Curtius says sent the new supplies to him, was the same person whom Alexander had entrusted with the keeping of his tributes and treasure in the city and province of Babylon and whom he had left as his overseer of all that country. [Plutarch in Alexand. ] However, he gave the government of it to Mazeus who had delivered it up into his hands and when he died Ditamenes succeeded him in that charge. Although Diodorus calls Harpalus, the president of that province in his history of [year 2,113th Olympiad] in which time we are. Diodorus further tells us that Harpalus hoped that Alexander would never return alive from India and gave himself over to all kinds of intemperance and luxury, sparing no expense. First he committed of all manner of whoredom and luxury with the women of that country. Then he indulged in all sorts of unseemly and unseasonable delights and pleasures. He squandered the king's money committed to his charge. He ordered various fish to be brought to him from as far off as the Red Sea [Indian Ocean, ed.] and was so lavish in his feasting and usual diet that every man was ashamed of him. He sent for a noted strumpet, Pythonice by name from as far as Athens and when she died, he sent for another one from the same place called Glycera. Therefore Theopompus complained in his letter to Alexander telling him that Harpalus spent more than 200 talents in making two tombs for Polynice when she died, one at Athens and another at Babylon. He dedicated a grove, an alter and a temple to Pythonice by the name of Venus Pythonica. He set up Glycera's statue in brass at Tarsus in Syria and let her live in the king's palace. He commanded the people to call her by the title of a queen and reverence her as such. [Athenaus l.13. c.23.]
     
  5. Cleander, Sitacles and Heracon in Media did the like, hoping that Alexander would never return alive from India. They plundered private men's estates, pulled down temples and ravished the young virgins of the noblest families. They did many other kinds of villainies to their citizens and belongings. The very name of a Macedonian was odious to all nations for their avarice and luxury of all kinds. Worst of all, Cleander, who having first ravished a noble virgin himself, gave her later to his slave for his whore. [Curt. l.10. c.1. Arrian. l.6. p. 142.]
     
  6. Alexander prepared for his voyage into the ocean. He saw old grudges rekindled between Porus and Taxiles and made them friends again. He made them pledge friendship to each other and then sent them away to their own kingdoms. He had made Porus king of all the countries lying between Hydaspes and Acesines River as before. In addition he gave him all the free states which he had subdued between the Acesines and Hypanis River, which were various countries containing over 2000 cities. [Arrian. l.6. p. 124.] Others say that within these 15 countries were more than 5000 large cities besides towns and villages. [Plutarch in Alexand.] In fact the region lying between the Hydaspes and Hypanis River contained no more than nine countries with 5000 cities. Each city was as large as Coos in Meropis, [Strabo, from Apollodorus, who wrote of the affairs of Parthia, reports, l.15. p. 686.] Strabo thinks that his opinion is a bit outlandish. He says it seems that this number is put a little hyperbolically and therefore Pliny thinks this is the number of all the cities which he subdued in India. [l. 6. c.17.] Those who were with Alexander in his expedition report that in that part of India which he subdued there were 5000 towns and cities each as large as Coos in these 9 countries. Philippus, who was one of his company of friends with Alexander, was appointed governor of a country beyond the Indus River by Alexander.
     
  7. The cavalry of the city of Nisaea were sent back. Craterus and Hephaestion were commanded to march before him into the capital city of Sopithes' kingdom and await the arrival of his fleet. Craterus went on the right hand side of the Hydaspes with a part of the cavalry and foot soldiers. Hephaestion was on the left hand with the remainder and far greater part of the whole army and 200 elephants. The whole army at this time consisted of 120,000 men with those whom he brought from the sea coast. Those returned to him also whom he sent to levy fresh troops. They brought with them men of various nations and different weapons. [Arrian. l.6. & in his Indica. p. 181.] Plutarch says that at this time he had 20,000 foot soldiers and 15,000 cavalry.
     
  8. Curtius says that this fleet had 1000 ships. Of these, Diodorus says, 200 were open and the rest were barges propelled by oars. Arrian, [in his Indica] says he had only 800 boats, some for transporting the horses and the rest for cargo vessels grain and other provisions. In total this amounted to little less than 2000 vessels.
     
  9. The admiral of this fleet was Nearchus from Crete and Euagoras from Corinth was in charge of all the provisions. In Alexander's ship, the captain was Onisieritus from Astypula. Arrian [in his Indica], records the name of every capatin for each ship.
     
  10. When the preparations were complete, Alexander sacrificed to his native gods and to the other gods as the priests advised him to. These included, Neptune, Amphitrite and the Nereides or Sea Nymphs. Most importantly he sacrificed to the ocean, to the Hydaspes River, the Acesines River into which the Hydaspes flows and to the Indus River which receives them both. He held various sorts of games, of music and wrestling and the like with prizes for those who would enter the contests. He distributed animals to every company so they could sacrifice by themselves.
     
  11. In the morning, the army boarded the ships. This included the silver targeteers archers and such of the cavalry as were called his friends. This totalled 8000 troops and happened not many days before the setting of the Pleiades. [Strabo. l.15. from Aristobulus]. This time is about the end of our October. Alexander boarded and poured out a golden viol of wine from the prow of the ship into the river. He called on the Acesines, Hydaspes and Indus Rivers all at once. Afterward when he offered to his progenitor Hercules, to Ammon and the rest of the gods according to his accustomed manner the trumpet sounded at his command. This signal was to draw down the vessels into the water and to start the journey. This was done. The order was given how far every barge, horse carrier and ship of war should stay away from each other lest they should collide with each other. They were to keep their rank and position and not to out row each other as if this were a race.
     
  12. In this manner Alexander came on the 3rd day to the place where he had appointed Craterus and Hephaestion to meet him. He stayed there 2 days so that Philip might there catch up to him with the rest of the army. Alexander had sent him to the Acehnes River with orders to march down by the bank. He sent away Craterus and Hephaestion again with orders where to march by land.
     
  13. Alexander followed the Hydaspes River which was at least 2.5 miles farther than going by land and landed his soldiers and went to Sibarus, the country of the Sobians. These were said to be the descendents of those who along with Hercules had besieged the Rock of Aornus. When they could not take it, they were left here by him when they were not able to march with him any further. Their clothes were nothing but skins of wild beasts and their weapons nothing but clubs. Although the Greek manners and customs were long gone, yet a man might easily perceive some traces and marks of their Greek origin among them. When Alexander pitched his camp near to the chief city of their country, the principal men of them came to him and were admitted into his presence. They reminded him of their Greek origin and what reverence they had for the Greek nation. They offered him their service in whatever his pleasure was as became men of the same blood with him and his Greeks. They witnessed to this with the extra-ordinary presents they gave to him. Alexander received them very graciously and made them a free state to live according to their own laws.
     
  14. From there he rode further into the country some 30 miles and after he had wasted all the fields, he came and besieged the chief city of that country.
     
  15. The Agalassians opposed him with 4000 foot soldiers and 3000 cavalry on the bank of a river. He crossed the river and quickly routed them after killing most of them. The rest ran into the towns. When he had captured them, he slew those who were of age and sold the rest for slaves.
     
  16. Other inhabitants there took up arms also and about 20,000 gathered together into one city. He broke into the city by pure force. When they barricaded their streets and fought on them from the battlements of their houses, he was forced to retire and left many of his Macedonians dead behind him. Therefore in a rage he set fire to the houses and burnt both the city and most of the people in it with fire. When 3000 who had fled into the citadel sued for pardon, he gave it to them.
     
  17. He then returned aboard ship with his friends. He went with all speed into the countries of the Mallians and Oxydracans because he was told that they were two very populous and warlike countries. They had carried their wives and children into fortified places and planned to meet in the battle. Therefore he made the more haste, so that he might attack them while they were still making preparations and not fully ready for him.
     
  18. On the 5th day of sailing down the river, he came to the confluence of the two rivers, the Acesines and Hydaspes. They both meet in a very narrow channel. Therefore, the river runs with a most violent and rapid current making many whirlpools. Many of their ships sprung leaks and two of the largest of them ran afoul of each other, broke up and sank, drowning their passengers. Alexander's own ship, was sucked into one of these whirlpools and was in extreme danger of sinking and drowning Alexander. When they had gone a little farther, the channel became wider and the stream grew calmer. The ships came to the right hand bank and found a safe harbour to stay in behind a bank which ran out into the river. This broke the violence of the river and so they were able to draw their ships to land.
     
  19. The king set up altars on this side of the bank and sacrificed to his gods for escaping so great a danger. Then he marched about 4 miles further into the country and attacked the natives that would not submit to him. He ordered them only not to help the Mallians and returned to his ships again. He was met by Craterus, Hephaestion and Philippus who brought their armies to help him.
     
  20. The countries of the Oxydracans and Mallians lie between the place where the Hydaspes River joins the Acesines River and they both flow into the Indus River. [Arrian. in his India, p (171).] These were usually at war with each other but now united against their common enemy, Alexander. To further secure their alliance, they gave 10,000 virgins to each other to intermarry. They had 80,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 cavalry besides 700 chariots. Curtius says 900. Justin [l. 12. c.9.] and Orosius [l. 3. c.19.] call these people the Mandri or Ambri and Sabracans or Subagrans or Sugambrians. By all these names, the Malli and Oxydracans [who in Diodorus are incorrectly written Syracusions] in various editions go. They had 60,000 cavalry.
     
  21. The Macedonians thought they were past all danger and looked for an end of the fighting business. When they saw themselves engaged in a new war with more fierce and warlike countries than they had before in any part of India, they were terrified. They began again to murmur and rebel against Alexander. Alexander pacified them with a good speech and made all well again.
     
  22. Commander-in-chief of all this native army was a man of proven valour and chosen from the Oxydracans. He pitched his camp at the foot of a hill and made many fires so that he might make his army seem all the larger. They made loud shouts and noises after the manner of their country to terrify the Macedonians. The next morning Alexander was full of hope and confident of victory. He encouraged his soldiers and attacked them. Whereupon, the enemies whether for fear or some disagreement among themselves, all ran away and fled to the mountains and woods. When the Macedonians could not overtake them, they started rifling their camp.
     
  23. When Alexander had rigged his navy he sent Nearchus with it down river into the country of the Mallians. He ordered him to be there 3 days before the army. Alexander crossed the Hydaspes and ordered Craterus, who was on the right hand of the Hydaspes to take charge of the elephants, of Polysperchon's brigade, his archers on horseback and of Philip's regiment. He ordered Hephaestion to go 5 days march ahead of him. Ptolemy was to come 3 day's journey behind him. This ensured that whoever escaped from Hephaestion, would be sure to fall into the hands of one of the two of them. He ordered those that went ahead of him to go to the confluence of the Acesines and Hydraotes Rivers which was the farthest border of the Mallians, as the confluence of the Acesines and Hydaspes Rivers was border of the Oxydracans. They were to stay there and await his arrival and the armies of Craterius and Ptolemy.
     
  24. Alexander took his regiment of silver targeteers, his squadron of Agrians, Python's brigade and all his archers on horseback and one half of his fellow cavaliers. He went through a sandy dry country into the region of the Mallians to attack them before either the Oxydracans could come to help them or they could go to the Oxydracans.
     
  25. The first day he camped near a little river about 12 miles from the Acesines. When they rested for a while, he ordered every man to fill what bottles he had with water. They marched on the remainder of that day and the next night some 50 miles. On the next morning, they attacked a great many of the Mallians. They never thought that he would come over that dry wilderness and were walking abroad idly outside the city. He killed most of them and the rest fled into the gates of the city and there locked them. Alexander had his cavalry surround the walls, instead of a trench, until his foot soldiers came.
     
  26. As soon as the foot soldiers came, he sent away Perdiccas with his own troops, Clitus' cavalry and the Agrians to besiege another town of the Mallians. He understood that many of the Indians were gathered together there. He wanted to keep them in but not to make any assault until he came. This would prevent them from carrying news into other parts that he had come into the country. He began to make his approaches and to assault the city which he besieged.
     
  27. He killed many of them in the assault and the rest left the walls and fled to the citadel. When he took that, he killed 2000 men.
     
  28. When Perdiccas came to the city which he was commanded to besiege, he found all the inhabitants had fled. When he found that they had just recently escaped he followed them as fast as he could. All the ones he overtook, he killed. The rest escaped into the bogs and marshes.
     
  29. When Alexander had rested and refreshed himself and his army, he marched at the first watch of the night. At day break, they came to the Hydraotes River where he found that many of the Mallians had already crossed. He attacked and killed the rest that were crossing the river. Then he crossed the river with his army and overtook those that had crossed earlier. He killed many of them and took others prisoner. However, most of them escaped into a well fortified city.
     
  30. When his foot soldiers came up, Alexander sent Python against them with his own and two other regiments of cavalry. On the first attack, he chased them into the town and took it. All those who were not killed, were made slaves. After this Python returned to the camp.
     
  31. Alexander led his army against a city of the Brachmanni where he understood more of the Mallians had fled. As soon as he came, he besieged it all around with his squadrons very heavily. The soldiers immediately left the walls and fled to the citadels. When this was captured, some of the inhabitants, set their own houses on fire and threw themselves into it. Others died fighting. About 5000 perished and few were captured alive.
     
  32. Alexander stayed there one day to give his soldiers a rest. The next day he marched against the other towns of the Mallians. He found all the cities deserted and the inhabitants all fled to the woods and mountains. He stayed there one day.
     
  33. The next day he sent Python and Demetrius, the captain of a regiment of cavalry back to the riverside. He sent other troops and companies with them. He wanted them to deal with any that had escaped to the woods. If they did not surrender they were to be killed. A great many were killed by them.
     
  34. Alexander marched against the capital city of the Mallians into which he learned that many others had fled. When this large city heard of his coming, the inhabitants fled and crossed over the Hydraotes River. They put themselves into battle array on the high clifts of that river, as if they would stop him from crossing there. Alexander followed them immediately with his cavalry and ordered his foot soldiers to come later. When he was in the middle of the river, the Indians abandoned the place and although they were in good battle array, they fled. There were at least 50,000 of them. Alexander saw them in a strong compact body. Since his foot soldiers had not come to him, he offered to charge them from all directions. However, he did not think it wise to fight with them at that time.
     
  35. As soon as the Agrians, other well-ordered squadrons and the archers came, the main battle with the foot soldiers started. The Indians fled and all ran away to the next fortified city. Alexander pursued them and slew many of them. When they were there, Alexander presently surrounded the city with his cavalry before the foot soldiers came.
     
  36. Demophoon a soothsayer, talked with Alexander and told him that by certain signs and prodigies he observed that Alexander was in some great danger. He wanted Alexander to stop or at least to defer the siege of the place. The king reviled him with sharp words for disheartening the soldiers while they were in action. He divided his army into two parts and led one part and gave the other to Perdiccas. They both went together to scale the wall. The Indians could not endure the attack and abandoned their stations on the wall and all fled all to the citadel. Alexander with those about him broke open the first gate himself and got into the city. He began to set ladders against the citadel wall. When he saw his Macedonians not coming on so quickly as he wished, he took a ladder himself and set it against the wall and climbed onto the top of it. Pencestes, carried his shield which he borrowed out of the Temple of Minerva in Troy. In all encounters he was always ahead of Alexander but this time he was behind him. After him came Leonatus, one of the captains of his bodyguard on the same ladder. Abreas [one of the Duplarians, of that order of knights or esquires had double pay or allowance] was on another ladder. When the silver targeteers heard of the danger the king was in, they fought to set up the ladders so thickly that the ladders broke and so all came tumbling to the ground. By this they were of no use and hindered others from getting up that would help. [See Appiannus toward the end, l.2. Bell Civil.]
     
  37. Alexander was shot at on every side from the adjoining towers. No man dared come and fight hand to hand with him on the wall. Alexander leapt off the wall down into the citadel yard and put his back to a wall there and killed those that came to attack him with his own hand. He killed the captain of the Indians who came boldly to attack him. After that no one dared come near him but all shot at him from a distance.
     
  38. Meanwhile Pencestes, Leonatus and Abreas, leaped down from the wall into the yard after him and came to his rescue. Abreas was shot through his face into the head and died in there. Alexander [as Ptolemy reports] received so great a wound in the breast that his very breath came forth at it together with his blood. Pencestes, who interposed with Minerva's buckler in his hand and Leonatus, who took in his own body the blows which were meant for Alexander were likewise seriously wounded. No one wanted this but Alexander himself, who had there poured out his soul together with his blood. All agree that Pencestes defended him with his Palladian buckler. Hence Pliny calls him, [l. 34. c.8.] the preserver of Alexander the Great. Concerning the actions of Leonatus and Abreas, the Duplarian, all do not agree. Ptolemy the son of Lagus, was at the rescue of him. This is affirmed by Clitarchus and Timogenes and Pausanias in his Attica. However he denies this and says he was not. All that while he fighting with the enemy elsewhere. Curtius says that so great was the carelessness of those old historians, it is hard to know what to believe.
     
  39. The Macedonians at last broke into the citadel and killed everyone there with the sword. They did not spare man or woman, old or young. They brought the king out upon their shields, dead or alive, they knew not which. The cure of his wounds was more grievous than the wounds themselves. He endured the pain and started to recover. The army could hardly be brought to believe this. It was widely said he died from his wounds. Therefore as soon as possibly he could, he had himself carried to the river side. From there he sailed down in a barge to the place where his army camped which was at the confluence of the Hydraotis with the Acesines River. Hephaestion was here in charge of the army and Nearchus was over the navy. As soon as he came to land, he admitted the soldiers to kiss his hand and he refused his stretcher. He mounted his horse so all could see him. Then he alighted and went on foot to his pavilion.
     
  40. When the king's wounds had been healing for 7 days, he heard that the Indians were sure he was dead. He had two barges joined together and upon them he had his royal tent spread. It was open on every side so all could see he was still alive. This would put an end to the rumour of his death among the enemies. From there he went down the river and ordered, that none should come near the barge he was in, for fear of jolting his weak body with the beating of the oars. So on the 4th day, they came to a country that was deserted by the inhabitants. It had abundant provisions of grain and cattle. Since the place pleased him well, he stayed there to refresh both himself and his army.
     
  41. Nearchus the admiral, reports, that his friends blamed him for acting like a soldier rather than a king or captain in the army. When he grew angry at this remark, he showed his dislike by his looks. A certain old Baeotian pleased him again by reciting an old limerick: "He who would do any great thing, reason was he should suffer something too."
     
  42. Curtius [l. 9. c.12.] mentions a speech made to him by Craterus in the name of his friends for the same purpose. His answer to it to this end that a man can never lack an occasion to win glory by. "After the 9th year of my reign and 29th of my age, do you think it possible for me to be lacking to myself in advancing my glory which I have ever addicted and devoted myself to?"
     
  43. For so Curtius quotes him in saying this. However, the correct time of the chronology, was the 10th year of his reign [which agrees well enough with this saying] in his 30th year.
     
  44. The king stayed here many days until he was fully recovered from his wounds. He built more ships. There were about 3000 Greek soldiers who he had located in certain cities of Bactria and Sogdiana which he had built there. They grew tired of living among those barbarous people and were encouraged by the supposed news of Alexander's death. They defected from the Macedonian government and killed some of the chief of their own country men. They took up arms and seized the citadel of the city Bactra. It was not so carefully kept as it should have been. They drew the inhabitants in with them in this revolt. The leader of this conspiracy was Athenodorus. He assumed the title of a king not so much out of a desire for any kingdom but to bolster his plan to have the men follow him back to Greece. Biton or Bicon, was a Greek. From a grudge and envy against Athenodorus, he invited him to a banquet and had Boxus kill him. The next day Biton called a company together and there persuaded some that Athenodorus would have killed him. Others thought it was nothing but a mere roguery of Biton. They quickly persuaded others and they all took up arms to kill him. The leaders among them persuaded the rest and so all grew quiet again.
     
  45. When Biton had escaped this action, he started to plot the deaths of those who had saved his life. When they knew this, they laid hold on him and Boxus. Boxus was killed immediately. They planned to put Biton on the rack. All of a sudden, the Greeks, like madmen, rose up all in arms for no apparent reason. They did not rack Biton for fear of a rescue by the multitude. Although he was naked, he fled to the Greeks. When they saw what a distress he was in and ready to be racked, they changed their minds and rescued him from the danger he was in.
     
  46. Meanwhile, the Mallians that were left, sent their messengers to Alexander, to surrender their nation to his mercy. Likewise the Oxydracans surrendered. They sent the captains and chief men of every city and with them 150 of the principal men of the whole country to Alexander. He wanted them to send him 1000 of their principal men or as Curtius says, 2500 cavalry. These he would keep as hostages or as soldiers to serve him until he had ended his war with the Indians.
     
  47. Alexander invited all the principal men and petty kings of these countries to a feast where he had 100 golden beds to be set up at a reasonable distance from each other. Everyone of those beds was enclosed with curtains made of scarlet and gold. The purpose of the feast was to display whatever the old luxury the Persians had or the new extravagances of the Macedonians both mixed together could afford.
     
  48. Dioxippus the Athenian was at this feast. [Pliny l.35. c.11. Athena. l.6. c.6. Elian. l.10. c.22. & l.12. c.58. & Plut. in his book of Curiosities.] Dioxippus was a famous champion and one whom the king made much of for his great strength of body and courage. Choragus was a Macedonian of mighty strength and who had in many a fight shown his courage. When Choragus was drunk, he challenged Dioxippus to a fight. The next day Dioxippus came stark naked and all over anointed with oil with only a truncheon and a cloak for his arms. He approached the Macedonian, who came in armed with sword, buckler, pike and a javelin and laid him to the ground at his foot.
     
  49. The Macedonians and Alexander took this defeat as a disgrace on the Macedonian nation in the sight of these barbarians and there were embarrassed by it. As short time later at another feast, a golden cup disappeared. Dioxippus was suspected of taking it. This upset him so much he wrote a letter to Alexander and then killed himself.
     
  50. Alexander shipped his cavalry, 1700 of his fellow cavaliers and about 20,000 of his foot soldiers. He went not far on the Hydraotes River before he came to the confluence of it and the Acesines River. He sailed down the Acesines, and finally came to the confluence of the Acesines and Indus River. He stayed there with his navy until Perdiccas came to him with the main body of the army. On the way he subdued the Abastenians who were a free state among those Indians.
     
  51. While he stayed there, there came to him other ships of 30 oars a piece and certain cargo ships which had been recently built in the country of the Xathri. This was another free state in those parts. Ambassadors came and submitted to him from the Ossadians, another free state.
     
  52. Likewise the messengers of the Oxydracans and Mallians returned to him with presents. Among these were a small quantity of linen cloth, 1000 Indian shields and 100 talents of steel. As well they brought huge lions and tigers that were tamed, the skins of huge lizards and tortoise shells. There were also 300 chariots and 1030 horses to draw them, 4 to a chariot. [Curt. l.9. c.15.] Arrian says also that they sent him 3000 men for hostages. These were the bravest and best men they could find among them. They also sent 500 chariots with men in them to fight. This was more than what Alexander had asked of them. Arrian adds that Alexander accepted their chariots and returned their hostages again.
     
  53. Alexander commanded them to pay him such tribute as they formerly paid to the Arachosians and set Philip to be their governor. His government was to extend to the confluence of the 2 rivers, the Indus and Acesines and no further. We can hardly believe Plutarch where he says that the extent of Philip's government was three times the size of Porus' kingdom especially if it were so big, as he himself states it to have been. Alexander left him to guard that province all the Thracian cavalry and such companies of foot soldiers as he thought fit and necessary for that purpose. Moreover he had a city built at the confluence of those two rivers. He thought it would quickly grow quite large and be famous. Therefore he constructed a great number of docks for ship building.
     
  54. At that time Oxyartes, father of Roxane whom Alexander had married came to him. Alexander cleared him of all suspicion of having any hand in the revolt of the Greeks that were in Bactria. 3678c AM, 4388 JP, 326 BC
     
  55. After this Polysperchon was sent to Babylon with an army. [Justin, l.12. c.10.] Craterus was ordered to take most of the army that was left with the elephants and to march down on the left bank of the Indus River. This way was easier for the heavily armed foot soldiers and the bordering countries were no more loyal to him on either side of the river. [??] Alexander took some choice companies and sailed down the Indus River to the ocean. It is said that he went at least 75 miles a day on the river and yet the journey lasted a full five months. [Pliny, l.6. c.17.]
     
  56. In the voyage down the river, the first country Alexander came to was the Sabracans or Sambestans. This was a country as great as any in India both for population and the number of warriors. It was governed by a democratic government throughout all their cities. When they heard of the coming of the Macedonians, they armed 60,000 foot soldiers and 6000 or [as Curtius says] 8000 cavalry with 500 chariots. These were under the command of their 3 most expert captains. When the navy came to them, [For more details see Curt. l.9. c.15. & Pliny, l. 19. c.1,] they were frightened by the strangeness of the sight. They recalled the invincible glory of the Macedonians and took the advice of the old men among them. They said they should avoid so imminent a danger and should submit to the Macedonians. Thereupon they sent messengers and surrendered themselves wholly into his hands. Alexander graciously received them. They gave him many gifts and the honours befitting a demigod.
     
  57. Four days later he came to a country which lay on both sides the river which was called the Sodrans [or Sogdans, as in Arrian] and Massanians. Alexander received them as graciously as he had done to the former. At this place on the bank of the Indus River, he built another Alexandria and selected 1000 men to populate it. He made places for merchants and docks for shipping. He repaired any of his ships that were damaged. He made Oxyartes, his father-in-law and Pithon, governors of all the country from the confluence of the Acesines and Indus Rivers to the sea. He also included all the sea coast. He sailed down the river and quickly came into the country of King Musicanus and he was there before Musicanus ever heard of his coming. Not knowing what else to do, he immediately went out to meet him and presented him with the choicest gifts that India could afford and in particular with all his elephants. He surrendered himself and all his whole kingdom into his hands and asked a pardon for not doing it sooner. Alexander pardoned him and asked about the country and the city there. [For more details see, Strabo. l.15. p. 694,701. which he gathered from Aristobulus and Onesicratus] Alexander restored him to his kingdom as he was before.
     
  58. Here he heard the complaints brought against Tiriolte or Tityeste, whom he had made governor over the Parapamisadae with his accusers in person. He found him guilty of many acts of cruelty and avarice and executed him there. He gave that government to his father-in-law, Oxyartes.
     
  59. He ordered Craterus to build a citadel at the city of Musicanus. This was done before Alexander left the place. He saw that location was excellent to keep neighbouring nations in check and to keep them in order.
     
  60. From there he sailed with his archers, Agrians and all the cavalry which he had on board, he came to another country of the Indians, called Praestans. He marched against their king Porticanus or Oxycanus because the king did not come to meet him neither did he send ambassadors to him. Alexander captured two of the largest cities in the kingdom. Porticanus was in one of them which Alexander took on the 3rd day of his siege. Porticanus fled into the citadel and sent ambassadors to treat for conditions. Before they came to Alexander, two great pieces of the wall fell flat down to the ground. Through these breaches the Macedonians rushed into the citadel. Porticanus, with those few who were with him stood on their guard. They were all killed and the citadel was pulled down. All in the town were sold for slaves. Its spoil was given to the soldiers. Alexander kept only the elephants for himself.
     
  61. Diodorus says that Alexander first gave those two cities to be plundered by his soldiers and then he burned them. After that he went and took in all the rest of the cities and towns and destroyed them. By this action, he struck terror into all the neighbouring countries. When the rest of the countries heard only of his coming, they sent ambassadors and surrendered to Alexander without any resistance, as Arrian notes.
     
  62. After this, Alexander entered the country of the Brachmanes where Sambus or Sabus or Samus according to Curtius, or Sabbas according to Plutarch, or Ambigerus according to Justin, or Ambiras, according to Orosius, was king. When he heard that Alexander was coming, he fled. When Alexander came near his main city called Sindomana or Sindonalia, he found the gates open wide for him. and Sambus' servants came to meet him with presents of money and elephants. They told him that Sambus was fled not from any hostility to him. He feared Musicanus whom Alexander had let go and pardoned and they were enemies.
     
  63. Alexander took in this and many other places. He went and by force and took another city which had revolted from him and put to death many of the Brachmanes who caused the revolt. For by their instigation, Sambus, who had but recently submitted to him and the cities of his kingdom had revolted from him. Curtius says that Alexander took the city by undermining the wall and that the natives stood amazed to see men rise from the ground in the middle of the city.
     
  64. Clitarchus as by Curtius, says that there were 8000 or rather [as Diodorus with others have it] 80000 men slain in that country. A large number were sold for slaves. The Brachmanes brought these disasters on themselves. The rest who simply submitted to him and asked for his pardon were not harmed. King Sambus saved himself and got away as far as he could with 30 elephants.
     
  65. Alexander had taken over 10 men of the Gymnosophistae, who had persuaded Sambus to flee away and had caused much trouble for him and his Macedonians. He asked them some hard and obscure questions and threatened to hang every man if they did not answer those questions. Plutarch records these in his "Life of Alexander" . Plutarch says that when Alexander heard their replies, he sent them away and gave them many honours for their trouble.
     
  66. In the meantime, Musicanus revolted and Alexander sent Pithon with an army against him. He destroyed some of the cities in his kingdom and put garrisons in others. He built citadels to keep them in line. He captured Musicanus and brought him alive to Alexander who had him immediately crucified in his own kingdom along with as many of the Brachmanes who had encouraged him to revolt.
     
  67. Alexander returned to the Indus River where he had ordered his navy to wait for him. They sailed down the river again and came to a city called Harmatelia which belonged to Sambus and the Brachmanes. The inhabitants trusted in their strength and fortifications of their city and shut the gates to him. Alexander ordered 500 of his Agrians to go close under the walls with their arms. If the townsmen sallied out against them, they were to retreat. 3000 attacked the 500, who fled as they were ordered to. The enemies pursued them and came unknowingly on other companies which waited in ambush for them. Alexander waited personally for them. In the ensuing battle, 600 were killed, 1000 captured and the rest fled back into the city and stayed there. On the king's side many were grievously wounded almost to the point of death. The Indians had poisoned the heads of their weapons with a deadly poison. Ptolemy the son of Lagus was among the wounded and almost dead. It is said that Alexander in his sleep saw an herb which was a remedy for that kind of poison. The herb was squeezed into a drink and taken to neutralize the poison. Others of the wounded made use of that medicinal herb and recovered. It is most likely that someone who knew the medical value of that herb, told Alexander about it. To flatter and honour him, this fable was made up. So says Strabo, [l. 15. p. 723.] who tells this story as happening among the Oritae of whom we shall speak later.
     
  68. When Alexander started to besiege Harmotelia which was a strong and well fortified city, all the inhabitants came out to him and humbly begged his pardon. They surrendered themselves and their city to his pleasure. Thereupon he pardoned them.
     
  69. Moeris king of Patalena, its neighbouring country, came to Alexander and put himself and his kingdom wholly into his hands. When Alexander had freely restored him to his kingdom again, he ordered Moeris to provide for his army.
     
  70. Alexander commanded Craterus to take with him the regiments of Attalus, Meleager and Antigenes with some of his archers and of his allies and Macedonians which were grown unserviceable for the war. He was ordered to take them to Macedon by the way of Caramania through the countries of the Aracotti and Zarangi or Drangi. Some of the rest of the army were led by Hephaestion on the one side of the Indus River. The javelineers on horseback and the Agrians were led by Pithon on the other side. He was ordered to get inhabitants for the cities which Alexander had built. If any new revolts happened in those parts, he should put them down. When that was done, he was to come and join with the rest of the army at Patala.
     
  71. When Alexander had now sailed down the river for 3 days, he received news that Moeris with a large company of the Patalenians had left the city and fled to the mountains and woods. Thereupon, he hurried as fast as he could to get there.
     
  72. Strabo, [l. 15. p. 691.] tells us from Aristobulus that Alexander came into Patalene about the rising of the dog star [Sirius] had spent 10 full months in his trip down the river. For he set out shortly before the rising of the seven stars [Pleiades]. Alexander arrived in Patala about the end of our July after sailing since the beginning of the 10th month previously. Hence it appears that he spent 9 full months sailing down the Hydaspes, Acesines and Indus Rivers. This we determine from rising and setting of these stars. We find Plutarch's account in this matter inaccurate. He states: "that his sailing down the rivers to the sea took him up to 7 month's time."
     
  73. Alexander came to Patala and found no inhabitants in the city and country side. He found there great numbers of flocks and herds of cattle and grain in great abundance. He quickly sent his fastest soldiers to overtake those, who had fled. As they overtook them, they were to send them away to overtake the rest and to persuade them to return. They were promised peace and their belongings and home in both the city and country.
     
  74. Alexander ordered Hephastion to build a citadel at Patala. He sent others into a region of theirs which was altogether destitute of water to dig wells to make it more habitable. Some of the natives attacked and killed them. When the natives had lost many of their own in the fight, the rest fled away to the woods and mountains. When Alexander heard what had happened to his men, he sent more to help them to complete the work.
     
  75. Alexander asked Nearchus, his admiral, to select some suitable season of the year to set out from the mouth of the Indus River and to sail along until he came to the Persian Gulf and to the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. [Arrian in his Indica, reports from Nearchus' writings, p. 182.] Plutarch says Alexander made Nearchus the admiral of the fleet and Onesicritus its chief pilot. Onesicrtius in his story says of himself, that he was the navarch or admiral. Both [Arrian. l.6. p. 124. & Pliny l.6. c.22.] call him commander of the fleet. Strabo [l. 15. p. 721.] more correctly calls him the chief pilot. See [Arrian. l.7. p. 162. & in his Indica. p. 191.]
     
  76. At Patala the Indus River divides into two large branches both of which retain the name of Indus until they empty into the sea. Between these they create a triangular shaped island after which the city Patalene is called. This island is larger than the delta in Egypt. Onesicritus tells us that each side of this island (Isaiah 250) miles long. Aristobulus says that the side facing the ocean is about 125 miles long. The land is marshy where the rivers empty into the sea. Nearchus and later Arrian say that this side was 225 miles wide. Pliny says that it was 220 miles wide. [Strabo, l.15. p. 701. Pliny l.6. c.21. Arrian l.5. p. 103. & l.6. p. 135,137.]
     
  77. Alexander planned to sail down to the sea by the right hand branch. He selected his fastest ships all of two decks, all his galleys of 30 oars a piece and some fast barques. He picked guides who knew the river and so set out. He wanted Leonatus with a 1000 cavalry and 8000 foot soldiers to keep up with him along the river bank.
     
  78. The morning after he set out, there arose a mighty storm. The wind and tide crossed each other to create huge waves on the river so that his ships collided with each other. Most of them were leaking and many of the ships of 30 oars a piece broke apart before they could get to an island which was in the middle of the channel.
     
  79. Alexander was forced to stay here a long while to build new vessels to replace those that were lost. His river guides had fled and he was unable to replace them. So they were forced to go on without them. When they had gone 100 miles the pilots all agreed and told Alexander that they could smell the sea and therefore the ocean could not be far away. Therefore he sent some to go ashore and get some of the natives. He thought they might be able to confirm this. They searched for people in their cottages for a long time. At last, they found some people in them whom they asked, how far away was the sea. They replied that they did not know what the sea was nor had they ever heard of any such thing. However, if they went on for 3 days, they would come to salt water which mixed with the fresh.
     
  80. Arrian tells us that when certain Macedonians landed, they found some Indians whom Alexander used for guides on the river for the rest of the journey. They came to the place where the river widens to 25 miles, which is its greatest width. The wind blew very strongly from off the sea and they were forced again to take refuge into a creek which his guides directed him to. Curtius says that he came on the 3rd day to salt water as he was foretold. He found there another island in the river where they observed that the boats moved not as fast as they were going because of the incoming tide.
     
  81. While they lay there at anchor, some went foraging. A new danger confronted them. For there came in on them a mighty tide [which to this day is usual in Cambay where the Indus River empties into the sea] and flooded all the countryside. Only the top of some hills, like so many little islands, were above water. Those who had gone ashore, resorted to these hills. When the sea was gone out again and the land left dry as it was before, then their ships were left high and dry. Either they stuck nose first into the bank or they fell over on their side. When the next tide came in, those ships which stood upright on their keels in the mud floated again with the rising of the water and were not damaged. Those that had settled on hard ground when the sea was gone out were fallen on their sides. When the tide returned, these ships were driven against one another or beaten and broken on the shore.
     
  82. Everything was repaired as best as the time and place would permit. Alexander sent two barques down the river to view the island which the guides had told him that he must land at if he wanted to sail out into the ocean. The natives called that island Cilluta, Alexander called it, Scillustin and others Philtucin. They brought back word to him that the island was large and had in it excellent ports and lots of fresh water. He ordered the whole navy to sail to that island. Alexander took some better vessels and went further to discover whether at the mouth of the river there was no barrier but a safe passage out into the open ocean. When he had gone 50 miles, he saw yet another island lying further out in the open ocean.
     
  83. Alexander returned to the former island lying at the mouth of the river and came ashore at a certain cape in it. He offered sacrifices to certain gods he said Jupiter Ammon commanded him to sacrifice to. The next day he sailed to another island lying out in the same ocean and offered more sacrifices to other gods in the same manner he had done previously. He said that what he did was by the command of Jupiter Ammon. He sailed far out of the mouth of the Indus River into the vast ocean. There he sacrificed certain oxen he had on the ship to Neptune and threw them overboard into the sea. He also made a drink offering and first poured that into the sea. Then he threw a golden vial and various golden goblets for a thank offering after it into the ocean. He prayed that since he planned to send Nearchus into the gulf of Persia, that he might safely arrive there. [Arrian. l.6. p. 136.]
     
  84. Justin [l. 12. c.10.] states that when Alexander returned to the mouth of the Indus River, he built a new city called Barce as a memorial and erected some altars there. Curtius [l. 9. c.16.] says that at midnight he set out with a small company of ships when the tide started to go out and went far out from the mouth of the Indus River about 50 miles into the open sea. When he had done this, he sacrificed to the gods of those seas and neighbouring lands. Then he returned to the rest of his navy. Diodorus Siculus states that he went with some of his closest friends, out into the main ocean. He landed at two little inlets and offered there a magnificent sacrifice to the gods. He threw into the sea a number of very expensive golden cups and made drink offerings to the sea. When he was finished, he built some altars in honour of Tethys and Oceanus. Now that he had finished his intended voyage into the east, he returned with his navy up the river. On that journey he came to a prosperous and famous city called Hyala which government was very similar to that of Lacedemon.
     
  85. Two kings, descended from 2 houses, inherited their office from their fathers. They were in charge of military matters. Civil affairs were managed by a council of elders.
     
  86. When Alexander returned to the Patala against the stream, he found the citadel completed according to his directions. Pithon returned with his army, having completed his assigned task. Alexander planned to leave a part of his navy at Patala. The Indians of Cambais call it by this name to this very day]. Here the Indus River divides into two branches. He put Hephaestion in charge of making the ports and docks for the navy.
     
  87. Meanwhile he made another journey to the ocean by the channel on the left hand side of the same river to determine which of the two channels was the best and easiest journey to the ocean and to return again. When he was almost at the mouth of the second channel, he found a certain lake in the channel. It was made either by this river's meandering or by waters which flow in there from other parts and made the river more wide there than in other places. The lake looked like an arm of the sea. He left there Leonatus with most of his army and with all his smaller ships. Alexander went on with his ships of 30 oars a piece and of two tiers of oars. He sailed again out into the vast ocean and found that this was the more spacious channel of the two to sail for taking commerce to Patala. He went ashore with certain cavalry and made a three day journey along the sea coast. He explored the coast where he had sailed. He had wells dug in various places for fresh water for his navy if they needed it. [Arrian. l.6. p. 137.]
     
  88. The next day after his return from the ocean, Curtius [l. 9. c10.] says that he sailed up the river to a certain salt water lake. Some men went into it not knowing the nature of it. They developed an infectious scab that spread to others. However, they quickly found an oil which cured it. If this was the same lake which I mentioned before from Arrian, then in all this history concerning Alexander's last return from the ocean, no author mentions this except for Arrian.
     
  89. When Alexander returned to Patala the second time, he sent a part of his army to dig those wells by the sea side. He ordered them to return to Patala as soon as they were done. He sailed again into the lake and made there new ports and other docks for his ships. He left a garrison there and stored a 4 month supply of grain and other supplies for the coastal voyage. [Arrian. l. 6. p. 137.] Now it seems that at this lake he built the city called Potana so that he might have a good port for his navy in that part of the ocean. [Diod. Sic. l.3. p. 181. in the Greek and Latin edition, compared with Agatharchides, his Excerptions in Photius, Cod. 250. c.51] and with this place in Arrian.]
     
  90. Curtius [l. 9. c.16,17.] writes that Alexander with his army stayed on the island of Patalena awaiting the arrival of spring. During that time he built many cities there. As winter was drawing to an end, he burned his ships which were unserviceable and marched away by land. Strabo [l. 15. p. 721.] states that towards the summer season, [which according to his account always began with the spring] he left India. I think he would not have said this had he better considered what Alexander said and was later affirmed by Nearchus, who was admiral concerning this voyage. He says: "When the king was now on his way, he himself began his voyage in the autumn when the Pleiades or seven stars began to appear in the evening."
     
  91. Therefore it is obvious that in September, Alexander had sent Leonatus before him to dig wells in suitable places for the army in their overland march through a dry and desert country. He burned his ships which were leaky. He marched from Patala and came with all his army to the bank of the Arbis or Arabis. This river separates the Arbites or the Arabites and India [whom Dionysius Periegetes calls the Aribes and others call Abrite] from the Orites. For the Arbites inhabit the sea shore of India which lies between the Indus and Arbis Rivers for a distance of 125 miles according to Nearchus. [in Strabo, l.15. p. 720. & Arrianus in his Indica, p. 185. in fi.] These are the farthest Indian people to the west. [Arrian. in his Indica, p. 184. & Pliny. l.7. c.2.] They are neighbours to the Oritans [Pliny, l.6. c.23. & Arrian in his Indica, p. 185.] and speak their own language that is different from the Indians.
     
  92. These Arbites or Arabites were a free state living under their own laws. They were not strong enough to withstand Alexander nor willing to submit to him. As soon as they heard of his coming, they fled away to the woods and wildernesses.
     
  93. Alexander turned the rest of his army over to Hephaestion. He took one half of his silver targeteers, some of his archers, some regiments called Asseteri and a troop of his fellow cavaliers. From every regiment of cavalry he took one troop and all his archers on horseback. He kept the ocean on his left and journeyed westward. He ordered a number of wells dug along the seaside to supply his navy with fresh water when they passed by on their way to the Gulf of Persia.
     
  94. As soon as Alexander left, the Patalenians were inspired with fresh courage and the desire for liberty. They attacked Nearchus and the army that was left with him and forced him to flee to his ships. He had no wind to sail with. [Strabo from Nearchus l.15. p. 721.] For before the beginning of winter, which began with the rising of the Pleiades in the month of our November in those parts, it was a poor time for sailing. [Arrian. l.6. p. 137.]
     
3679 AM, 4388 JP, 326 BC
  1. Therefore as soon as the etesian or trade winds were ended Nearchus prepared for the voyage. These winds blew all summer long from the sea to land and made all navigation along that coast impossible. When Nearchus sacrificed to Jupiter the deliverer and held certain gymnastic games, he set sail from there in the 11th year of Alexander's reign. This was the time when Cephisodorus was the archon of Athens. He left on the 20th day of the month Boedromion or October 1st according to the Julian Calendar. [This I have already showed in my discourse of the solar year among the Macedonians c.2.] [Arrian. his Indica.] Now we had the name of Cephisidorus 4 years earlier in year 3 of the 113Olympiad and also 3 years later in year 2 of the 114th Olympiad. This was the year following Alexander's death according to the tables of the archons of Athens. If this name was correctly recorded by Arrian in this place, then this Cephisidorus may be the same person because of the closeness of the times. Then the following differences will happen in the 4th year of the 113th Olympiad for the names of the archons of Athens between Diodorus Sicilus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Arrian: Olympiad 113Year Diodorus Dionysius Arrian 1Euthycritus Euthycritus Hegemon 2Chremes Hegemon Chremes 3Anticles Chremes Cephisodorus 4Sosicles Anticles Anticles
     
  2. Pliny tells us that Alexander built a city at the place where Nearchus and Onesicratus started on their intended voyage. It is the same city we find called, Xulinopolis. [l. 6. c.23.] It is amazing that in the same place, he adds that no man can farm there on that river. For where should it be, but on the island of Patalene, where they were left by Alexander to wait for a suitable season to begin their voyage. Where else but on the Indus River where the navy sailed and along which that fleet passed when it sailed down to the ocean. [Arrian from Nearchus, in his Indica, p. 183.]
     
  3. The 1st day after they sailed from the port of Xulinopolis to go down the Indus River, they came to a good deep channel called Stura about 12.5 miles from the port. They anchored here for 2 days.
     
  4. The 3rd day they sailed and came to another channel about 3.75 miles downstream. They found the water a little brackish. The tide had come up that far and mixed with the fresh water. This left a taste of salt in the place even at low tide. The name of the place was Caumana.
     
  5. From there they parted and came to a place 2.5 miles farther down on the river called Coreatis.
     
  6. They sailed again and had not gone far when they spied a rocky reef just at the place of the Indus River's mouth. It stretched to the shore which was also very rocky. They put in with the tide where the ground was softer and better to land ships at. They made a ditch 5/8 of a mile long as a breakwater between them and the sea.
     
  7. They sailed on for another 19 miles and came to a sandy island called Crocala and stayed there another day. Near the island on the mainland lived the Indian tribe called the Arabii from the Arabius River. This river divides them, as was said before, from the Oritans.
     
  8. Their journey is described in detail by Arrian from Nearchus' accounts [l. 6. p. 143.] and later by Jo. Ramusius, in his Navigations. [l. 1. fol. 169.] The high points of the voyage are described by Pliny [l. 6. c.23.] as gathered from Onesicritus by King Juba. Those words from him show this where he says: "It is fit I should here set down what Onesicritus records of this voyage, wherein he was by the command of Alexander, sailed from India into the very Mediterranean parts of Persia. From him again the story is related by King Juba."
     
  9. From this we may also understand those next words of Pliny: "The voyage of Nearchus and Onesicritus, had neither names of places where they landed nor distances from one place to another."
     
  10. That is, as it is described by Juba or Onesicritus himself. For that both were told by Nearchus, as from Arrian noting from his account and has recorded both the one and the other.
     
  11. When Alexander had crossed the Arbis or Arabius River, the next night he marched through a great part of the sandy country and came the next morning into places that were well inhabited and cultured. He left the foot soldiers to follow in good array. He went on horseback with several troops and squadrons in very good order. They were widely spread out that they might take in and clear all the country before them. They were attacked by the Oritans. Many of them were killed or taken prisoner. Then they came to the bank of a small river and camped there.
     
  12. Alexander divided his company into three brigades. He gave one to Ptolemy to lead along by the coast, the second to Leonatus to pass through the middle of the country and its plain. Alexander took the third brigade and marched into the hill and mountainous country of that region. He wasted all that he found whereby the soldiers enriched themselves and slew many 10,000's of men.
     
  13. When Hephaestion, who had the greater part of the whole army under his command, came to Alexander, he marched forward to Rambacia. This was the principal division of all that country. When he found a place by the seaside, safe from all wind and weather, he presently ordered Hephaestion to build a city there. When it was finished it was called Alexanderia. He relocated the Arachosians to live there.
     
  14. Alexander took half of his silver targeteers, Agrians, a squadron of cavalry and archers on horseback. He marched away to the borders of the Oritans and Gediosians where he was told there was a narrow pass which separated the two countries. Both countries were camped there with their armies to keep the pass. No sooner had they heard of his coming but most of them abandoned the place and fled. Thereupon the chief of the Oritans went to him and submitted themselves and their whole country to him. The only charge which he laid upon them was to call home their country men to their homes. They were to assure them that in so doing all would be well with them and they would receive no harm.
     
  15. Alexander made Apollophanes joint governor of the Oritans with Leonatus, a captain of his bodyguard. He left Leonatus all his Agrians and some of his archers. He ordered the Oritans to await the coming of the fleet into those parts. In the meantime they were to go and help with the building of a new city and to order all matters there for the benefit of the people.
     
  16. He then marched with most of his army [for now Hephaestion had come to him] into the country of the Gedrosians which was mostly abandoned by the inhabitants. In this desert, Aristobulus says the Phoenicians which followed the army, bought what was sold there. They loaded their camels with myrrh and spikenard. Such spices and apothecary ware grew in abundance there. The whole army used it for coverings and beds to lie on. The spikenard which they walked over, gave off a most sweet smell that spread afar off. [Arrian. l.6. p. 138. & Strabo, l.15. p. 721.]
     
  17. He sent Craterus before him with a part of the army into the midland countries. He was to subdue Arimania [all the regions to the west of India even as far as Carmania were called this] and to go into those places which Alexander planned to go through. Craterus marched through the countries of the Aracotti and the Drangae. He subdued by force the country of Choarma which refused to submit. [Strabo, l.15. p. 721,725.] When Ozines [whom Arian calls Ordones] and Tariaspes who were two Persian nobles, revolted in Persia, Craterus subdued them by force and laid them in irons. [Curt. l.9. c.18.]
     
  18. Alexander with another part of the army went through the country of Gedrosia about 60 miles from the sea. Sometimes they camped near the sea. They marched through a barren, craggy, dry and desolate country. Alexander wanted to go by the sea coast all along so that he might discover what places there were in those parts fit to make ports in and make provision for his fleet. It was to come that way by his orders and for that purpose, he had wells dug and made ports for his navy. [Strabo, l.15. p. 721. & Arrian. 16. p. 139.]
     
  19. For this purpose, he sent before him Thoantes with a competent company of cavalry to scout the sea coast. He was to see whether there were any good landing places or fresh water near the shore or other suitable provisions for them. When he returned to Alexander, he told him that he found there some poor fishermen. They lived in little cottages built and covered over with shells of fishes and the backbones of them serving for rafters. The men used little water and they had to dig for it in the sand and the water was not very sweet.
     
  20. Alexander finally came into a country of the Gedrosians where there was a supply of grain. He seized it all and sealed the sacks with his own signet. He placed it on wagons and sent it all away to the seaside. While he went to the next ports, the soldiers, broke the seals, opened the sacks and ate all the grain to satisfy their extreme hunger. Those who were the leaders in this matter were the ones entrusted with keeping it. When Alexander understood that it was done because of their hunger, he overlooked it. He sent all over the country to get more grain and had Cretheus carry it away to the seaside to supply the fleet and the army. The fleet at that very time landed in those parts. Alexander ordered the natives to go farther up into the country and from there to bring as much flour, dates and cattle as they possibly could. They were to carry it to be sold at the seaside to the army. He sent Telephus one of his friends to get more provisions of flour. He found some quantity of it although not much and carried it to another port according to his orders.
     
  21. Meanwhile some of the Oritans who dwelt in the mountains attacked Leonatus' brigade and killed a great number of them and then retired to safety again, according to Diodorus. Then the whole country of the Oritans joined with other neighbouring countries and made an army of some 8000 foot soldiers and 400 cavalry and made a general revolt. Leonatus attacked them and killed 6000 of their foot soldiers but he died in that fight. Apollophanes was the governor of that country and was appointed by Alexander, as we noted before. [Curt. l.9. c.18. Arrian. l.7. p. (149). and in his Indica, p. 184.]
     
  22. Nearchus landed at this place with his fleet and loaded provisions of grain provided by Alexander. This would serve his army on board for 10 days. He repaired his ships that were leaky. He left any unfit sailors with Leonatus to serve on land and took others in their place from his companies. [Arrian. in his Indica, p. 185.]
     
  23. Philippus, whom Alexander had made governor over the Oxydracans and Mallians, was attacked and murdered by his own mercenary troops. The murderers were attacked by the Macedonians who were his guard. They shortly were taken and hewed in pieces for their deeds.
     
  24. It is said that Alexander endured more hardships and suffered more losses in the country of the Gedrosians than he did in all Asia. Of that army which he went into India, he scarcely brought a quarter of them out of Gedrosia. They endured grievous diseases, poor diet, burning heat, deep sands, shortages of water and famine. Nearchus says that Alexander knew of the difficulties of going that way. Purely from selfwilled ambition which reigned or rather raged in him, he was determined to force his way through. Someone had told him that Semiramis and Cyrus had gone that way into India. Therefore he was determined to return the same way out of it although it was told him that she was forced to save herself by fleeing from there with only 20 men in her company and Cyrus with only 7. Alexander thought to enhance his reputation if when they suffered there so much, he would be able to get out with his army safe and sound. Therefore Nearchus says that this desire to return home this way was partly from this ambition and partly to favour and relieve his navy which he had appointed to meet him in those parts. His guides lost their way through those vast sands because the wind had covered all the tracks which lead through the desert. Alexander had a hunch that the way must be on the left hand. He took a small company of cavalry with him and went to see whether he could find the sea shore. Their horses were all exhausted except for 5 by the length and heat of the journey. He left them behind and went with those 5 and came to the sea coast. He dug for a while and found fresh water to drink. Presently he sent back for his whole army to come there to him. When they came, he marched forward for 7 days along the sea coast and found plenty of fresh water all the way. When his guides recognised the way again, they led him up into the midland countries, as he wanted. [Strabo, l.15. p. 722. Arrian. p. 142.]
     
  25. After 2 months he left the country of the Oritans and came to the chief city of the Gedrosians, called Pura. He rested his army there and refreshed them with feasting, as was very fitting and a good time for him to do so. [Strabo, l.15. p. 723. Arrian. p. 140,142. & Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  26. From there he sent away the swiftest couriers that he could possibly find to Phrataphernes whom he had left governor of Parthia and to the two governors of the provinces of Drangia and Aria which lay at the foot of the Taurus Mountain. They were ordered to assemble as many camels, dromedaries and others with all sorts of beasts of burden as they possibly could. They were all to be loaded with supplies of all sorts and sent immediately to meet him when he first entered into the country of Carmania. These letters were speedily carried to them and obeyed. When he came into Carmania he found there all kinds of provisions ready for him and his army at the appointed place.
     
  27. Menon, the governor of the Arachosians, recently died. Alexander appointed Sibyrtius as governor of both Arachosia and Gedrosia.
     
  28. As Alexander was marching towards Carmania, he received news of the death of Philippus, the governor of the Oxydracans and Mallians. Thereupon he wrote to Eudemus and Taxilas and in his letters he gave them the charge of these two provinces until he would send a governor to replace Philip.
     
  29. As soon as he entered Carmania, Asaspes the governor of that province met him. He was suspected that he would have revolted from Alexander while he was in India. Alexander concealed the grudge he had toward him and received him very graciously. He treated him according to his rank and station. Meanwhile, Alexander tried to determine if the charges were true.
     
  30. Craterus came to Alexander with the rest of the army and the elephants. He brought with him Ordones or Ozines and Zariaspes whom he had taken into custody for trying to revolt in Persia. Stasanor, the governor of the provinces of Parthia and Hircania came to him with the captains and commanders of all those forces which he had formerly left with Parmenion in the province of Media. That is Cleander, Sitalces, Heracon and Agetho who brought him 5000 foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry.
     
  31. Various governors in the parts of India sent him a huge number of horses and other beasts of burden. Some were for pack animals and others for military use. These came from every country of his dominions in India. Stasanor and Phrataphernes brought him a huge number of draft horses and camels. Alexander distributed them all among those that wanted them to carry their goods with. He gave some to select captains and the rest he distributed among the soldiers, by troops and companies, as he saw was needed. He also armed his soldiers with new weapons. The reason was they now drew near to Persia. It was a peaceful and very wealthy country.
     
  32. Alexander [as Arrian reports from Aristobulus] offered a sacrifice of thanksgiving to his gods for his victory over the Indians and for the safe journey of his army from Gedrosia. He entertained his armies with sports of music, wrestlings and such like. Moreover he made Pencestes, who covered him with his shield in the country of the Mallians, to be the chief captain of his bodyguard. At that time, only 7 men had this honour, Leonatus, Hephaestion, Lysimachus, Aristonus [all born in Pella], Perdiccas a Macedonian, Ptolemy the son of Lagus and Pithon. The 8th man was Pencestes for his bravery in saving the king from the Mallians. Other writers, including Diodorus, Curtius and Plutarch, state that Alexander imitated Bacchus. In a drunken manner, he with his army spent 7 days crossing through Carmania. [Diod. Sic. & Plutarch in the life of Alexander and in the book of his good fortune & Curt. l.9. c.18. l.3. c.9, (24). l.8. c.19.] Arrian thinks this was unlikely since neither Ptolemy, Aristobulus nor any other credible writer mentions it.
     
  33. Aspastes the governor of Carmania, was put to death and was replaced by Tlepolemus. [Curt. l.9. c.18. Arrian. l.6. p. 142. & in his Indica, p. 193.]
     
  34. Cleander and Sitalces who slew Parmenion by Alexander's orders, were accused to Alexander for many villainies [which I mentioned before] which they had done along with their subordinates and the army. Their act of killing Parmenion could not atone for such a number of villainies and gross misbehaviour as they were charged with. Therefore Alexander put them in chains to be executed when he thought fit. However, Alexander executed the 700 private soldiers whom they had used as to perform their villainies. At the same time Alexander had Ozines and Zariaspes executed whom Craterus had brought as prisoners for attempting to rebel in Persia as we noted before.
     
  35. Meanwhile Nearchus had sailed along the coast of the Arabians, the Oritans, the Gedrosians and the Icthyophagians [so called because they lived only upon fish] and arrived in the Gulf of Persia. He came to Harmozia or Armusia [which is now called Orus or Ormusa] and there drew up his ships. He went overland with a small retinue to Alexander. A Greek from Alexander's army told Nearchus that Alexander was not more than a 5 day journey from there. He found Alexander in a sea town called Salmus, busy making a stage play there and sitting in the open theatre.
     
  36. Alexander sacrificed there to Jupiter, by the name of a deliverer and to Hercules and Apollo, the deliverer from evil and Neptune for bringing his army safely across the ocean. He held sports, games of music and other gymnastic exercises. He had a pageant that was led by Nearchus. All the army worked to get flowers and garlands to bestow on him.
     
  37. When Alexander had heard the entire story of the voyage, he sent Nearchus back to the fleet with a small army to escort him. The whole country which he was to pass through was thought to be friendly. Alexander wanted him to sail up as far as the mouth of the Euphrates and be ready to row up to Babylon when ordered to.
     
  38. Tlepolemus was barely governor of Carmania, when the natives rebelled and took over the principal and strongest places of that country. These also attacked Nearchus on his return in various places so that he was often forced to flee 2 or 3 times in a day. After much trouble, he came safely to the sea side. He sacrificed to Jupiter his deliverer and held games of dancing, running, wrestling and the like. Then he sailed from Ormuse and followed the coast of the Persian Gulf. He finally came to the mouth of the Euphrates River. [Arrian. in his Indica from Nearchus]
     
  39. When Alexander received letters from Porcus and Taxiles that Abisarus was dead, he gave his kingdom to his son. He sent Eudemon or Eudemus who was commander of the Thracians to take over the government of the Oxydracans and Mallians and replace Philip who was killed.
     
  40. Alexander sent Hephaestion with the larger part of the army and with the wagons and elephants to go from Carmania to Persia by sea. The Persian Sea in the winter is always calm and there was abundant supplies in those parts.
     
  41. Stasanor was sent back to his government. Alexander with the choicest of his foot soldiers, the cavalry of his confederates and some of his archers marched to Pasargadas in Persia. He gave money to the women as was the custom of the Persian kings. Whenever they came into Persia, they gave to every woman there a piece of gold.
     
  42. As soon as he entered Persia, Orsines or Orxines met him. After the death of Phrasaortes, he was appointed governor there since Alexander was away far off in India. By Orsines' authority, the Persians were kept in subjection and in allegiance to Alexander until he ordered another governor to replace the dead one. Orsines was descended from one of the seven princes of Persia and traced his lineage from Cyrus. He came and met Alexander. He presented him and all his friends with rich gifts. He gave nothing to Bagoas the eunuch and the king's other homosexual lovers. He said it was not the Persian custom to show any respect to men who allowed themselves to be sexually used as women. This proved later to be the reason of his death. [Curt. l.4. c.27. & l.10. c.3. Arrian. l.6.]
     
  43. While he was at Pasargadas there Atropates, the governor of Media arrived bringing with him the prisoner Baryaxes a Median who had worn his turban upright and called himself king of the Medes and Persians. Therefore he brought him as a prisoner to the king along with all those who had been part of the conspiracy. Alexander had them all executed immediately.
     
  44. Alexander was most of all offended at that vandalism of Cyrus' monument. He found it all broken down and spoiled. All the precious things which he had previously seen there except for a lector and a golden urn in which his body was placed, was stolen. The urn was broken and the covering of the urn taken off and his very body tumbled from it by those sacrilegious thieves. They had also tried to hew in pieces and batter the urn or coffin so they could carry it away in pieces more easily. This they were unable to do and they left it behind. Alexander ordered Aristobulus to rebuild his sepulchre as it was before. The parts of his body which were left were to be placed into the urn again and a new cover made for it. He was to restore everything as it was before. Then he was to seal the door which led into the chapel where the body lay with lime and stone and place the impression of the king's seal upon it. [Strabo from Aristobulus, l.5. p. (173). & Arrian l.6. fin.]
     
  45. After this Alexander commanded the magi who guarded the sepulchre to be racked to make them confess who did this sacrilege. When they told him nothing they were let go. However, Plutarch says that Polymachus a Pellaean noble was put to death by Alexander for opening and looking into the sepulchre.
     
  46. From Pasargada, Alexander marched to Persepolis the royal seat of the kings of Persia. On his previous visit he had set it on fire and burned it to the very ground. However on his return there, he blamed himself for doing this. Orsines the governor there was falsely accused of many misdeeds. He is said to have spoiled and robbed the king's houses and sepulchres of the dead and executed many of the Persian nobility. In particular, Bagoas the eunuch put it into the king's head that perhaps it was Orsines that had robbed the sepulchre of Cyrus too. For he said that he had heard Darius say there were 3000 talents stored there. Bagoas persisted so far with the king that he immediately caused the noblest person of all the Persian nation and Alexander's most affectionate servant to be crucified. Hence Bagoas got revenge against Orsines because he disapproved of Bagoas' homosexual lifestyle.
     
  47. At the same time, Phradtes, who had been formerly governor of the Hircanains, Mardians and Tapyrians was suspected of making himself a king and was executed. [Curt. l.8. c.8. & l. 10. c.4.]
     
  48. Alexander made Pencestes governor of Persia. He had proved his worth many times over especially in that danger of his among the Mallians. Of all the Macedonians, only Pencestes adopted Median clothes and started to learn the Persian language and began to order all matters after the Persian attire. Alexander commended him greatly for this and the Persians were glad to see him use the Persian rather than the Macedonian attire.
     
  49. A new fancy struck Alexander. He wanted go down the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers to see the Persian Sea and how those rivers entered into the Ocean. This he had done at the Indus River's mouth. Also, he planned to sail around the coast of Arabia first and then of all Africa. He would return into the Mediterranean Sea and to Macedon by the way of Hercules' Pillars. [Arrian. l.7.] When he was in this frame of mind, he ordered the governors of Mesopotamia to buy timber in Lebanon and to carry it to Thapsacus a city in Syria. They were to make keels for huge ships to be built on. They were not all of seven banks of oars high, as Curtius says. Some were of one size and some of another as we shall see shortly from Aristobulus. They were all to be brought overland to Babylon. The kings of Cyprus were ordered to provide brass, equipment and sails for this fleet, [Curt. l.10. c.2.]
     
  50. Nearchus and Onesicritus arrived with the fleet at the mouth of the Euphrates and anchored at Diridoris which is the chief market town of the whole province of Babylon. The merchants of Arabia sold their frankincense and spices here. When they heard that Alexander wanted to go to Susa, they went back and over to the mouth of the Pasitigris River. They rowed up that river and came to a country well inhabited and with plentiful provisions. When they had rowed about 19 miles, they came to an harbour there. They stayed there and waited for the return of those whom Nearchus had sent to find out where the king was. Meanwhile Nearchus sacrificed there to the gods, his deliverers and held games. All sailors were involved in this pastime and merriment. [Arrian. in his Indica.]
     
  51. Calanus was an Indian and of the Gymnosophista or the sect of Philosophers who went naked. In all his 73 years he had never felt an ache in his bones or other sickness in his body. He happened now to become illwith his first sickness at Pasargadas. He began to feel sick and he grew weaker every day. When he came to the borders of Susa, [for there it was that this happened according to Diodorus and not in a suburb of the city of Babylon according to Elian. l. 5. Varia. Histor. c.6.] he asked Alexander if he would make a large pile of wood. When he climbed on top of it, he wanted some of his servants to set it on fire. At first the king endeavoured to dissuade him from his plan. When he could not, the man told him he would die some other way. Alexander ordered a pile of wood made as he desired. He had Ptolemy the son of Lagus take care of this. [Diod. Sic. l.17. Strabo, l.15. p. 686,717. & Arrian. l.7.] As he was going to the pile of wood, he greeted and kissed the hands and bade farewell to all the rest of his friends. He would not kiss Alexander's hand for he said that he would meet with him at Babylon and would have lots of time to kiss it there. He meant that Alexander would die at Babylon and predicted his death there. [Arrian. l.7. p. 160. Plut. in Alex. Cic. l.1. De Divinat. Valer. Max. l. 1. c.8.]
     
  52. Nearchus tells us that as soon as the fire was started, Alexander had the trumpets sound. All the army that were there gave a shout as if they had been ready to join in a battle. Also at the same time the elephants made a noise like they used to do when they entered into a battle. It was as if all had planned to honour the funeral of Calanus. [Arrian.]
     
  53. Chares of Mitylene, adds that Alexander to honour his funeral proclaimed a prize for the musicians and wrestlers. To please the Indian nation, he held a drinking match which was their custom. He awarded a talent to him who could drink the most, 30 pounds for second prize and 20 for the third prize. Alexander held a feast for his friends and captains. At that feast, Promachus drank the most. He drank 4 gallons and one bottle and was awarded first prize. He died three days later. 35 of the rest were chilled by the event. 6 others died shortly thereafter in their tents. [Athenaus, l.10. c.12. Plutarch in Alexander. Elian, Varia. Histor. l.2. c.42.]
     
  54. Nearchus and Onesicritus with their naval forces continued their course up the Pasitigris River and came to a recently built bridge over which Alexander with his army was to pass. They sailed into Susa and laid anchor. [Arrian. in his Indica, p. 197.] Pliny [l. 6. c.23.] says they found him at Susa observing a holiday. This was 7 months after he left them at Patala and in the 3rd month after they set sail from there. This really was in the sixth month since we have already shown that they left Patalene in the next month after he left them at the city Patala.
     
  55. When the naval and land forces came together, Alexander offered sacrifices again for both his navy's and army's preservation. He held plays and games for it. Wherever Nearchus went through the camp, every man scattered flowers and placed garlands on him. [Arrian. in his Indica, p. 197.]
     
  56. After Alexander had sent away Attopates to his province, he marched to Susa. Abulites who had made no preparation at all for his entertainment, only presented him with 3000 talents of silver. Alexander ordered him to lay it before his horses. When they would not do it Alexander asked for what purpose then is this money? Plutarch says that Alexander laid Abulites in irons and ran his son Oxathres or Oxyartes through with a javelin. Arrian says that he put both the father and son to death for their bad behaviour in the government at Susa.
     
  57. Many of the people of the countries which he had conquered, came in and complained about their governors. The governors never even dreamed that Alexander would ever return alive from India. Therefore they committed many and monstrous outrages on the temples of their gods, the sepulchres of the dead and the on their subjects and property. Alexander ordered all of those governors to be executed in the view of those who came to complain against them without any respect of nobility, favour or service which they had done. He executed Cleander and Sitalees whom he had condemned while he was yet in Carmania because they were as guilty as the rest. Heracon who up until now had escaped scot free, was now accused by the men of Susa for robbing and ransacking their temple. He was convicted and executed. Alexander was ready to listen to even a slight accusation about trivial matters and to punish it with death and torment. He did this even for small offences because he thought that they who acted improperly on small matters intended greater evils in their mind.
     
  58. When the fame of Alexander's severity against his officials spread, many feared what would become of them knowing how they had behaved. Some got all the money they could and fled to parts unknown. Others who commanded mercenary troops, openly revolted from Alexander. Thereupon Alexander sent letters to all the governors of the countries throughout all Asia to disband and send away all mercenary troops. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 113.]
     
  59. No sooner then were the mercenary troops discharged, then they wandered over all Asia with no work. They lived from the spoil of the country until at length they all came into one body at Tenarus in Laconia. Likewise all the commanders and governors of the Persians who were left, gathered together what men and money they could and came to Tenarus. They all joined their forces together there. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 113. & year 2. Olymp. 114.]
     
  60. Alexander married Statira, the eldest daughter of Darius, and according to Aristobulus, Parysaris, the youngest daughter of Ochus. He gave Drypates, the youngest daughter of Darius and his own wife's sister in marriage to Hephaestion. He gave to Craterus, Amestris, the daughter of Oxyarta or Oxathra, a daughter of Oxathres, the brother of Darius. Perdiccas married the daughter of Attopates the governor of Media. Nearchus married the daughter of Spitamenes the Bactrian. He gave to Ptolemy the son of Lagus, the captain of his bodyguard and to Eumenes the two daughters of Artabazus and sisters to Barsina. By whom, though not in lawful wedlock, Alexander had a son called Hercules. Ptolemy's wife was called Artacama or Apama. Eumenes married Artonis. Note that the name "Barsine" in Arrian, [l. 7. p. 148.] is written for "Statira". However, in Plutarch, in the beginning of the Life of Eumenes, he so names his wife instead of "Artonis".
     
  61. To all the rest of his friends, Alexander gave wives, from the most illustrious families that were of the Medes and Persians. The number according to Arrian was 80 or 90 according to Elian or 92 according to Chares, or 100 according to Plutarch in his discourse of the Fortune of Alexander. These marriages of Alexander and his friends were all made and solemnised at the same time. The king bestowed a dowry for each one of them. For 5 days they celebrated these marriages with pomp, magnificent feasts and parties according to Elian. [l. 8. c.7. Var. Hist. & by Atheneus, Deipnosoph. l.12. c.18. from Chares of Mytylene, l.10 of his History of Alexander.] To each of the 9000 guests, he gave a golden vial to sacrifice a drink offering with. To the rest of the 10,000 Macedonians who had formerly married wives from Asia he gave each man wedding gifts.
     
  62. Moreover, he thought it fitting at this time to pay every one of his soldiers' debts from his own funds. He ordered that each one should submit a ticket of what he owed and they would be given the money to pay their debt. At first very few gave in their tickets for they feared that this was but a scheme of the king's to find out who they were that could not live on their pay because of their riotous living. Among those who submitted a ticket was Antigenes. He had only one eye and had lost the other under Philip at the siege of Perinthis by an arrow from the wall. He pretended to be more in debt than indeed he was and brought a man to the pay master who affirmed that he had lent Antigenes so much money. Thereupon Antigenes received the money he asked for. The king was later informed of this abuse and was very angry. Alexander forbade him from ever coming within his court and removed him from his office. Antigenes took this ignominy to heart and thought to commit suicide. When Alexander knew of this, he forgave him and allowed him to enjoy his money.
     
  63. When Alexander heard that many who were truly in debt would not turn in their names to be given money to pay their debts, he publicly blamed them for being so distrustful of him. He said that a king should only be honest with his subjects just as the subjects should think the king was totally honest and fair to them. Then he had tables to be set out in various places of the camp with money on them. Whoever brought in his ticket of what he owed, received his money immediately without being asked so much as what his name was. Then they began to believe that Alexander was a man of his word.
     
  64. The money he distributed among his soldiers amounted to about 20,000 talents, according to Justin and Arrian. Diodorus is likely more accurate when he says it was less than 10,000 talents. Curtius and Plutarch say that of 10,000 talents brought, there were only 130 left after all were paid. Curtius says: "So that army the conqueror of so many nations, brought yet more honour and glory then spoil and riches from Asia."
     
  65. Alexander gave other gifts at that time to various men in the army either according to degree and quality or in regard of some memorable service which they had done. For those who excelled in this bravery, he gave in addition crowns of gold to wear. The first one was given to Pencestes who protected him with his shield against the Mallians. The next he gave to Leonatus, who at the same time also fought most courageously in his defence and had on occasion behaved most bravely in the country of the Oritans. The third he gave to Nearchus who had brought his navy and army on ships safely from India through the ocean. The fourth crown was given to Onesicritus, the pilot of the king's ships. Hephaestion and other captains of his bodyguard received crowns also.
     
  66. Meanwhile the governors of various cities which he had built and various provinces he had subdued, brought 30,000 troops to him at Susa from Persia and other nations. [See note on 3676 AM.] These were all good strong young men. These were selected by the king's command and trained in the Macedonian military manner. They were all gloriously armed and camped before the walls of Susa. When they had proven their readiness and skill in military discipline before the king, the king highly reward them. He called them the Epigoni, that is, of a later troop replacing those who in feats of chivalry and conquering the world had gone before them.
     
  67. Alexander had turned over most of his land army to Hephaestion to be led to the coast of the Persian Gulf. He had ordered his navy to come to the country of Susa. He sailed there with his silver targeteers, his phalanx or main squadron and part of his fellow cavalliers. They sailed down the Ulay River into the Persian Gulf. Before he came there, he left many of his ships which were leaky or damaged. With the rest he sailed from the mouth of that river by sea to the Tigris River. The rest he sent up the channel connecting the Tigris with the Ulay River and so they all came to the Tigris River.
     
  68. Alexander sailed along the shore of the Persian Gulf which lies between the mouth of the Ulay and Tigris Rivers and came to his camp. Hephaestion with the army was waiting for his arrival. He returned again to the city of Opis on the bank of the Tigris River. As he went on, he had all the dams, locks and sluices removed which the Persians had made on that river to hinder enemy access by the sea to Babylon. He said they were devises of little worth. [Arrian. l.7. with Strabo. l.16. p. 740.]
     
  69. As soon as he came to Opis, he called all his army together and declared to them what his plans were. He wanted to discharge all who through age or otherwise found themselves unfit for military service. These would be free to return home. He promised to make the conditions of those who stayed so wonderful and to bestow such gifts upon them as to make their eyes ache of those who were idle at home. This would encourage the rest of the Macedonians to come and share with them in their fortunes.
     
  70. He did this planning to honour the Macedonians. However, they took it as if he was ashambed of them and counted them no better than a company of useless men for his wars. They seemed anxious to recall all other grievances and occasions of discontent he had done to them. He was wearing a Median robe and that all those marriages that he made were all solemnized after the Persian manner. Pencestes his governor of Persia had turned completely Persian both in clothing and language. Alexander delighted too much in these new customs and foreign fashions. The Bactrians, Sogdians, Arachosians, Zarangians, Arians, Parthians and Persian cavalry who were called Euaca were mixed with and counted among his fellow cavaliers. There was a 5th Brigade of cavalry set up. It was not composed completely of foreigners but yet an increasing the number of his cavalry were from foreign countries. Cophes the son of Artabazus, Hydarves and Artiboles, the two sons of Mazaeus, Itanes the son of Oxyartes and brother to Roxane, Alexander's wife, Aegobares and his brother Mithrobaeus were in this new regiment. Hydaspes a Bactrian, was the commander over that regiment. Instead of the Macedonian spear, they used a javelin, after the custom of the foreign nations. He had created a new company of young foreigners and called them Epigoni and armed them after the Macedonian manner. Finally, in all things he despised and scorned the Macedonian discipline and customs and even the Macedonians themselves. Therefore they all cried out and desired to be discharged and to serve no longer in the wars. They bid him and his father Hammon to go and fight after this if they wanted to since he grew weary of and cared no more for his own soldiers who had previously fought for him.
     
  71. In this revolt, Alexander, enraged as he was, leaped off the place where he stood speaking to them. With such captains as were around him, he flew in among them and took 13 of the principal rebels who had stirred up this sedition among the rest. He delivered them to the serjeants to be bound hand and foot and thrown into the Tigris River. So great was either the dread of the king on them or the resolution of the king himself in executing them according to marshal discipline that they took their death so patiently as they did. Then Alexander accompanied by only his friends and captians of his bodyguard, went to his lodging. He neither ate nor slept nor allowed any man to come into his presence all that day nor the one following.
     
  72. On the 3rd day, he ordered the Macedonians to stay in their tents and called his foreign soldiers together. When they came, he spoke to them by an interpreter and ordered their perpetual loyalty to himself and to their former kings. He recalled all the many favours and honours which he had conferred upon them how he had never used them as conquered persons but as fellow soldiers and partners in all his conquests. He had mixed the conquered with the conquerors by intermarriage. He said: "Therefore, count not yourselves as made, but born my soldiers. The kingdoms of Asia and Europe are become all one. What was novelty before is now grown natural by long use and custom and you are no less my country men than you are my soldiers."
     
  73. After this he chose from them 1000 tall young men and appointed them for his personal bodyguards. He gave the chief commands of the army to the Persians and called the various troops and companies by Macedonian names. These he also called his kinfolk and friends. He only allowed them the privilege to be admitted to kiss his hand. [See Polyanus Stratag. 4. in Alexander (Numbers 7).]
     
  74. The Macedonians saw the king come out guarded only with Persians and that all the serjeants and other attendants were Persions. Only Persians were promoted to all the places of dignity and honour and the Macedonians were set aside with scorn and infamy. Their courage failed and they conferred a while among themselves. Then they ran all together to the king's lodging and cast off all their clothes to their very waist coats. They threw down their arms at the court gates and stood outside and begged to be admitted. They offered to turn over every author of that rebellion and desired the king to be satisfied with their deaths rather than their disgraces. Although Alexander was no longer angry, he would not let them in. On the contrary they would not go away but continued there crying and howling two whole days and nights. They called on him by the name of lord and master and promised never to leave his gate until he had mercy on them. On the 3rd day he came out to them. He saw their humiliation and dejection before him with their genuine sorrow. He heard their pitiful complaint and lamentation which they made and was moved with compassion for them. He wept a long time over them. He stood a good while as if he would speak to them but could not and they continued all that time on their knees before him.
     
  75. Callines, a man venerable for his age and of great esteem in the regiment of his fellow cavaliers, spoke to him. "This is what O king which grieves your Macedonians that now you have made some of the Persians your cousins and these you have received to kiss your hand and have deprived your Macedonians of this honour,"
     
  76. When he would have proceeded, Alexander interrupted him, and said: "I now make you all my cousins and from henceforth will call you by that name."
     
  77. When he had said this, Callines stepped out and went and kissed his hand and so did as many others who wanted to. Every man took up his arms again and they all returned with joy and triumph into the camp.
     
  78. Then the king went and sacrificed to the gods as he was accustomed to do. He made a general feast for all the army. He sat down first. Then his Macedonians were seated and then the Persians. After them, the rest according to their various ranks and stations in the army. Then Alexander took from the bowl and drank. So it went round among the Macedonians. The Greek prophets and Persian priests poured forth their prayers. Among all the favours they asked from their gods for him, was to grant a concord and unity of empire between the Macedonian and Persian kingdoms. It is said that there were 9000 guests who sat at this feast and that they all pledged this concord and sang the same Paeana, or song of joy and gladness to Apollo as they used to do when they returned from a victory to their camp.
     
  79. Alexander passed over the Tigris River and camped in a country called Cares. When he crossed the region called Sitacene in a 4 day march, he came to Sambana. He camped here 7 days and then after a 3 day journey, he arrived at Celovae. Before this, Xerxes had made a colony of those whom he brought from Baeotia. Then turning aside from the way to Babylon, he went to see Bagisthenes, a country abounding with fruit and all other commodities that are good for one's health and pleasure.
     
  80. Meanwhile, Harpalus a Macedonian who was the chief baron and treasurer of all the king's money in Babylon and revenues of that whole province, knew well of his wastefulness and bad conduct in that office. He also knew what Alexander had done to many other governors when complaints were made about them by their subjects. He got 5000 talents of silver and 6000 mercenaries and fled from Asia and came with them to Taenarus in Laconia. He left them there. [Others who could not stay in Asia had already exciled themselves here, as I said before] He went to Athens in a humble manner. When Antipater and Olympias demanded him from their hands, he so dealt with the people of Athens by seeing Demosthenes and other orators there that he escaped and returned safely to his company at Taenarus. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 113. Pausanias in his Attica, Plurtarch in the lives of Demosthenes and Phocyon,] In Arrian there is a blank left, [l. 7. p. 155.] where the flight of Harpalus from Babylon should have been recorded with that journey of Alexander's after, [as appears by Photius in his Biblioth, c.91.] There was an action brought against Harpalus for bribes he received according to Dionysius Halicarnassaeus, in the end of his Epistle to Ammaeus concerning Demosthens when Anticles was archon at Athens. This was, as I said before, in this 4th year of the 113th Olympiad, according to his account.
     
  81. Hephaestion and Eumenes had an argument about a certain gift and exchanged many harsh words. Alexander settled the difference and made them friends again. Hephaestion was unwilling at first and Alexander had to threaten him. However, Eumenes was content with the settlement. [Plut. in Eumenes. Arrian. l.7. p. 155.]
     
3680 AM, 4389 JP, 325 BC
  1. Alexander went from there into a country, where great herds of horses of the Persian kings grazed. In this place, called the Nicean Country, there were used to be kept 150,000 or 160,000 of the king's horses. When Alexander came there, he found about 50,000 horses. [Arrian] Diodorus Sicilus states there were about 60,000 horses. Most of the horses had been stolen.
     
  2. When Alexander had camped here 30 days, he marched again and 7 days later came to Ecbatane, the chief city of all Media. Its circumference was over 31 miles. As his custom was after any good success, he offered sacrifices and held games of music, gymnastics and exercises in honour of his gods. He feasted with his friends. When he had ordered matters there, he returned again to see his stage players and actors play their parts. He instituted certain feasts because 3000 cooks and their helpers had come to him from Greece.
     
  3. Apollodorus of Amphipolis was a friend of Alexander and whom he had made general of that army which he had left with Mazaeus when he made him governor of the city and province of Babylon. When he heard what had happened to other governors Alexander had placed over his kingdom, he was afraid just as his friend Harpalus was before him. Apollodorus had a brother called Pythagoras, who was a soothsayer. He consulted him by letters to find out what was likely to happen to him. Pythagoras sent back letters and desired to know whom he feared that he wanted his fortune told? He replied that it was for fear of Alexander and Hephaestion. Thereupon Pythagoras looked into the entrails of a beast for Hephaestion. When he found that its liver had no fibres, he wrote back again to his brother from Babylon to Ecbatane. He told him not to fear Hephaestion for he would soon die. Aristobulus states this letter was written the very day before Hephaestion died. [Arrian. l.7. with Apian, toward the end of his second book De Bell. Civi.]
     
  4. Hephaestion loved wine too much and became sick because of it. He was a young soldier who would not keep any diet he was told to follow. While his physician Glaucias was away for a time, he ate dinner as he did at other times. He had a roasted guinea fowl and took a huge draught of chilled wine after it. He became sick and died 7 days later from this.
     
  5. On the same day there were gymnastic games performed before the king by the pages of the court. When he was told of Hephaestion's illness, he suddenly arose from the games and went to see Hephaestion. When he came, he found him dead. Thereupon he did not eat for 3 days nor take care of himself. He lay all that while either sullenly silent or impatiently lamenting the loss of his Haphaestion. Afterwards he changed his attire and shaved himself. He ordered all the soldiers and even the horses and mules to be all shorn. He had the pinnacles taken from the walls in Ecbatane and all other cities and towns around there. He wanted them to look poorly so they would appear to lament and bewail his death. He crucified his poor physician who could not help him. He ordered that there be no sound of pipe or flute heard in all the camp and ordered a general mourning among all provinces for Hephaestion. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. (113). & Plut. in his Alex. & Peloprdas, Arrian. l.7. & on Epistetus, l.2. c.22. & Elian Var. Hist. l.7. c.8.]
     
  6. Alexander gave his body to Perdiccas to be carried to Babylon. He intended to give him a most magnificent funeral. He often spoke with the principal architects around him about making a most splendid monument for him. He spoke most with Stasicrates who knew of rare inventions used for creating and erecting vast buildings.
     
  7. Eumenes feared lest Alexander might think that he was glad for Hephaestion's death. He encouraged Alexander all the more on this project and suggested to him new ways to honour Hephaestion. He devoted himself and his arms to Hephaestion. Various others of Alexander's friends followed Eumenes' example and did likewise. [Plutarch in the life of Eumenes, & Arrian. l.7.]
     
  8. Moreover since Hephaestion was the colonel of the regiment of the king's fellow cavaliers, Alexander did not replace him lest the name of Hephaestion should be forgotten among them. He named that regiment, Hephaestion's regiment as he called the cornet after him which he gave to go before them whenever they went to battle. [??]
     
  9. At last to lift his spirits, Alexander started a needless war. He divided his army with Ptolemy and went hunting men and to clear the country as he would clear a forest of wild beasts. He attacked the Cossaeans, a people bordering on the Uxians who lived in the mountainous parts of Media. The Persian kings could never bring them under their subjection. Nor were these people in all these wars ever discouraged or thought that the Macedonians were such great warriors as to be afraid of them. First he took the passes leading through the mountains into their country and wasted their borders. Then he went further on and routed them in various conflicts. He destroyed them wherever he came without mercy and called that Hephaestion's funeral feast. As well Nearchus according to Arrian, tells us that Alexander attacked these Cossaeans in the depths of winter, when they little dreamed of any enemy coming upon them. [Strabo. l.11. p. (524). Arrian. l.7. p. 157. & in his Indica, p. 196. See also Polyanus, Stratag. l.4. in Alexan. num. (31).]
     
  10. The Cossaeans saw they were being badly defeated and were grieved to see what large numbers of them were taken prisoners. They were forced to redeem their fellow's lives with their own slavery. They surrendered entirely to Alexander's will and pleasure. He granted peace to them on these conditions. They would always obey the king and do whatever he commanded. So Alexander returned with his army after he subdued all that country within 40 days time. He built various cities on the most difficult passes of the country.
     
  11. Alexander sent Heraclides, with certain shipwrights into Hircania to cut timber there for building ships. They were all to be "men of war", some with decks some without after the Greek design. He had a great desire to see the Caspian Sea and to know to whom it belonged.
     
  12. When he had crossed with his army over the Tigris River, he marched straight towards Babylon. He made many camps along the way and rested his army in various places. When he moved at any time, he made easy marches. When he was about 40 miles from Babylon, he was met by the Chaldean priests and prophets. They were sent to him by one of their own company, called Bellephantes. They advised him that under no conditions should he go to Babylon for if he did, he would die there.
     
  13. When Alexander was told by Nearchus, [for he dared not talk with Bellephantes] what the Chaldean's message was, he sent many of his friends there. He turned aside from Babylon and would not go into it. He camped about 25 miles from it at a place called Bursia. This perhaps is the same place which Ptolemy calls Bersita, a city long since destroyed.
     
  14. There Anaxarchus and other Greeks persuaded him not to regard those predictions of the priests and magicians but rather to reject and despise them as vain and false. Thereupon he quoted that iambic verse of Euripades: "Who best can guess, he the best prophet is."
     
  15. Then the Chaldeans desired him that if he would enter that city that at least he would not enter it with his face toward the west. He should take the trouble to go about it and come into it looking toward the east. Aristobulus tells us, that he listened to this. On the first day he marched as far as to the Euphrates River. On the next day, he had the river on his right hand and marched along its bank. He wanted to pass by that part of the city which looked toward the west so that he might come in looking toward the east. When he found that way marshy and hard for his army to pass over, he neglected that very point of their counsel also. He entered Babylon with his face toward the west. [See Appian. toward the end of his second book, De Bello Civi. and Seneca, Suasor. 4.]
     
  16. When Alexander came to the walls of the city, he looked and saw a flock of crows, fighting and killing one another. Some fell down dead close to him. Apollodorus told him that he had a brother in that city called Pythagoras who was skilled in soothsaying by looking into the bowels of beasts that were offered for sacrifice. He had already consulted the gods that way concerning Alexander. He immediately sent for him and asked him what he found out concerning him. He told Alexander that he found the liver of the beast without any fibres. Alexander asked what that meant. Pythagoras replied that some great evil hangs over your head. [Appian has it that you shall shortly die.] Alexander was not offended by him. Indeed from that time on, Alexander consulted him the more because of his candour in dealing with him. This much Aristobulus relates that he learned directly from Pythagoras.
     
  17. The Babylonians entertained his army in a very courteous manner as they did the last time he was there. They indulged in ease and luxury. There was no lack of anything there that the heart would desire. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  18. While Alexander resided at Babylon, there came ambassadors to him from all the parts and nations of the world. For besides those that came out of Asia, from cities, princes and countries there, many came from other countries in Europe and Africa. From Africa came the Ethiopians who lived near the temple of Hammon and from the Carthaginians and other Punic countries bordering all along the sea coast from as far as the Pillars of Hercules and the western sea. From Europe came ambassadors from various cities of Greece, Macedon, Thracians, Illyrians and Scythians. The Brutians, Lucanians and Etruscians came from Italy along with the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. They also came from Spain and France whose very names and countries the Macedonians had never heard of before.
     
  19. Alexander had a list made of them and appointed who of them should see him first until he would have heard them all. He decided to see those who came about religious matters first. After that he would see those who brought him presents. Next he would see those who came about wars which they had with their neighbouring countries. Next he would see those who came about their particular and private interests. Lastly he would see those who came to show why they did not restore any Greeks whom they had banished from their cities or countries to their homes and estates again. In order to hear them, he had a throne of gold to be set up in the garden there and placed seats of silver for his friends. He took his place with his friends to hear these ambassadors. [Athenaus l.12. c.18. from Ephippius Olynthius] His main purpose was that after he heard them, to answer them so they would be content and to send every man away satisfied and well pleased.
     
  20. The first ones to see him were those who came from the city Elis. After he saw those who came from the temple and city of Ammon, from Delphi, from Corinth, Epidaurus and others. He heard each of them in order of the dignity and fame of the temples rather than of the cities from where they came from.
     
  21. When he had heard the ambassadors from Epidaurus and granted their request, he sent a present and oblation by them to their god Eseulapius. He added these words: "that Esculapius had dealt but unfavourably with him, in recently taking away from him, a friend, whom he loved as his own life."
     
  22. He took all the statues of the illustrious persons or images of the gods or any other consecrated thing that Xerxes had before taken from Greece. He had set them up or otherwise placed them in Babylon, Susa, Pasargada and elsewhere in all Asia. Alexander ordered the ambassadors of Greece to take and carry these statues home again with them. Among the rest, he had the brass statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton to be returned to Athens with the image of Diana Cercaea.
     
  23. Concerning the restitution of the exiles of Greece, he sent this short epistle by Nicanor, a native of the city Stagyra, to be read and proclaimed at the next Olympic games. King Alexander, to the outcasts of Greece sends greeting: "We were not the reason that you were banished but we will take care to see you are all restored to your former estates except such as are banished for outrageous crimes. Concerning these things we have written to Antipater and ordered him to proceed by way of force, against all such as shall oppose your restitution." [Diod. Sic. l.17. year 2. Olymp. 113. & l.18. year 2. Olymp. (114).]
     
  24. When he had taken care of all the ambassadors, he started to prepare for Hephaestion's funeral. He ordered all the cities in the region to contribute whatever they possibly could to the funeral. Moreover he expressly ordered all the cities and countries of Asia to put out the fire which the Persians called the "Holy Fire", until after the funeral. This was the custom in the funerals of the kings of Persia. This action was taken as an illomen to the king himself and as portending his death.
     
  25. Thereupon all his chief commanders and friends made medallions of Hephaestion, carved from ivory or cast in gold or some other costly metal. Alexander called together the best workmen that were to be had. A large number of them broke down the wall of Babylon for about 1.25 miles. They took its brick and first levelled the place. They built on the location a square funeral pyre about 200 feet [130 cubits] high about 210 yards long. The body was to be burned on this. This work Diodorus describes in detail giving the total cost of this splendid funeral. The mourners, the soldiers, ambassadors and natives of the country tried to outdo each other in giving to this project. More than 12,000 talents was collected. [Justin l.12. c.12.] Plutarch and Arrian say it was about 10,000 talents.
     
  26. Alexander first threw Hephaeston's weapons into the fire and then threw in the gold and silver along with a robe of great value and esteem among the Persians. [Elia. Var., Histor. l.7. c. 8.] Besides this, Alexander held games of gymnastics and music far beyond all that he had ever done before. The number of the winners and value of the prizes was greater than anything before. It is said, that there were no less than 3000 who entered the games for the prizes of all kinds. [Arrian. l.7.]
     
  27. It happened that Philip, one of the king's friends returned to him from the temple of Hammon where he had been sent. He brought word from the oracle there that Hephaestion might be sacrificed to as a demigod. This greatly pleased Alexander. First of all, Alexander offered to him after that custom and then sacrificed to him 10,000 beasts of all kinds. He made a magnificent feast for all the people. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 114. & Arrian. l.7. p. 157. 164.] He ordered Cleomenes the governor of Egypt [See note on 3673a AM] a lewd man, to erect temples in Hephaestion's name. He also ordered that no written contract would be good or valid if Hephaestion's name was not subscribed to it. He added this also in the letter which he wrote to him about this matter: "For if I shall find that you have duly erected temples to Hephaestion in Egypt as to a demigod, I will not only pardon you of all your past offences which you have committed in your government but whatever you shall do after this shall never be laid to your charge by me."
     
  28. Thereupon many cities started building temples and shrines to Hephaestion. They erected altars, offered sacrifices and observed holidays in his name. The most religious oath that a man could take was if he swore by Hephaestion, "it is true or false". Death was the reward for any man who faltered or failed in his devotion to him. Many dreams were said to have been of him and that his ghost appeared to many. Many words were recorded which his ghost had spoken and the answers which it made. Sacrifices were offered to him as to a tutelar god and a revenger of all evil. Therefore Alexander at the very first was wonderfully pleased with such fancies in other men but after a while, he began to believe them himself. He bragged that he himself was not only Jove's son but also that he could make gods of other men. At which time also, one Agathocles, a Samian and one of Alexander's best captains was in extreme danger for his life. He was accused that when he passed by Hephaestion's tomb, he was seen to weep. He would have undoubtedly died for it had not Perdiccas helped him out by a lie of his own making and swore to it by Hephaestion. He said that Hephaestion appeared to him as he was hunting and told him that Agathocles wept for him indeed but not as for one that was dead and now vainly called upon and worshipped as a god. He wept only in a due remembrance of the former intimacy and familiarity that was between the two of them. Except for this tale, Agathocles a great soldier and loyal to the king, would have died for being so kind to his deceased friend. [Lucian. in his book of false accusing.]
     
  29. The 114th Olympiad was celebrated at Elis. All agree that Alexander died in that year. [Josephus l.1. cont. Apio.] This was the time when Hagesias or Hegesias was archon at Athens. [Diod. Sic. l.17.] This is confirmed by Arrian in his 7th book of the deeds of Alexander that Alexander died toward the end of his year of archonship, in this very Olympiad year. This shall be noted by the month when he died.
     
  30. At the general assembly of all Greece at the Olympic games Alexander's letter for the restoring of all exiled persons to their homes and estates again was read publicly by the one who announced the winners in any game. Nevertheless, the Athenians and Etonans protested against it. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 113. Justin, l.13. c.5.]
     
  31. While he was at Babylon, Alexander received his fleet according to Aristobulus. Part of it sailed down the Euphrates into the Persian Sea under the command of Nearchus. Some of the ships had been built in Phoenicia and Cyprus. 2 of the Phoenician ships had 5 tiers of oars and 3 ships had 4 tiers high and 12 were 3 tiers high. 30 vessels had 30 oars each. All these ships had been taken apart in pieces and carried overland to the city Thapsaca and there reassembled. They sailed on the Euphrates to Babylon. Alexander had some other ships also to be built at Babylon from those Cypress trees which he found in their gardens there. There was no other timber in those parts fit for ship building. Moreover there was brought to him at Babylon, all other provisions for shipping from Phoenicia and other cities that were along the sea coasts in Asia. Also shipwrights and mariners of all types came to him. [Strabo, l.16. p. 741. Arrian. l.7, p. 161. from Aristobulus.]
     
  32. Alexander had a port made at Babylon that was large enough to receive 1000 warships. He had built galleries and docks there and sent Maccalus a Clazomentan, with 500 talents into Phoenicia and Syria. He was to persuade or hire as many seamen as he possibly could to come and serve him. Alexander planned to make several colonies on the Persian Gulf and assured them that those places would be as lavish to dwell in as any places in Phoenicia. [Arrian, l.7. p. (161).]
     
  33. All these naval preparations were made to attack the Arabians, under the pretence that among all other nations only they sent no ambassadors to him and showed no respect to him. The real reason was he had an inordinate desire to be sovereign over all. He had heard that they worshipped only two gods Jove and Bacchus. Alexander thought himself worthy to be worshipped as a third god among them if he could overcome them and restore to them, as he had done to the Indians, their pristine liberty. [Strabo l.16. p. 741. & Arrian. l.7. p. 161.]
     
  34. Alexander was told that Arabia that bordered on the sea coast, was as large as all India and had many islands lying near their coast. He sent Archias and Androsthenes [that is that Androsthenes of Thasus of whom Strabo, l.16. p. 766. and Theophrastus, l.2. of Plants, c.7. mention.] and Hieron of Solos with 3 ships of 30 oars apiece. They were to sail from Babylon with orders to sail around Chersonese or the peninsula of Arabia. They were to find out what they could about all the ports in that region. Concerning these ports, Arcmas brought him word that there were two islands which lay out in the sea at the mouth of the Euphrates River. The smaller one he consecrated to Diana and was 15 miles offshore. Alexander, according to Aristobulus, named the island Learus. The larger island was a day and night's sailing from the shore in the same latitude called Tylus. However Hieron who went further than any of the rest, brought him word that the Chersonse was of a vast size and had a cape which ran far out into the ocean. Those who came with Nearchus by sea from India, described it to be not far off before they arrived at the mouth of the Euphrates River. [Arrian, l.7. & in the end also of his Indica.]
     
  35. While his ships of war were being built and a harbour was being dug at Babylon, Alexander sailed down the Euphrates River 100 miles from Babylon to the mouth of the Pallacopa River. They rowed up and down and according to Aristobulus, he sometimes steered his own boat. He saw some ditches which he had scoured by those that were with him. They dammed up the mouths of some and opened others. They saw one dike among the rest on the Arabian side toward its marshy places. The outlet was difficult to dam because of the weakness of the soil. Alexander opened a new mouth some 4 miles from the other in somewhat more firm and hard ground and forced the water course in that direction. He saw there many monuments of the old Assyrian kings and princes who lay buried in that marshy country and in the middle of those lakes. [Strabo, l.16. p. 741. Arrian. l.7.]
     
  36. They sailed through those lakes into the body of Arabia. Alexander built a walled city there and planted there a colony of mercenary Greeks, volunteers and such as through age or otherwise were grown unfit for the war. [Arrian. l.7.]
     
  37. He began to laugh and scoff at the Chaldeans and their predictions. He had entered Babylon and left it safely with his fleet. Therefore he sailed the more boldy through those lakes of Arabia, having Babylon on his left hand. [Arrian. l.7. Appian. toward the end, l.2. De Bell. Civil.]
     
  38. When a part of his army wandered up and down in those parts and were lost for lack of a pilot, Alexander sent them one who brought them into the right channel again. Then there arose a mighty wind which separated Alexander's ship from the rest of the fleet and hurled the king's hood off from his head into the water. His turban or diadem which was fastened to it, was rent from it and driven by the wind onto a large reed which grew close to a sepulchre of one of the kings who was buried there, as I said before. One of the mariners saw it and swam to it. He took it up and put it on his own head on his return for fear of getting it wet. Aristobulus says that the mariner who did it, was a Phoenician and that he was well scourged for presuming to put the king's turban on his head. After this accident Alexander consulted a wizard and was advised to offer a magnificent sacrifice to the gods and to be very diligent and devout in it. [Diod. Sic. see Appian, in his Syriaca, p. 124. in the Greek and Latin edition.]
     
  39. When Alexander was told that the Athenians and Etolians would not obey his edict concerning the restoring of their exiles, he ordered 1000 warships to be built. He planned to make a war in the west and to begin it with the destruction of Athens but died before he could do this. [Justin l.13. c.5. & Curtius l.10. c.4.]
     
3681 AM, 4390 JP, 324 BC
  1. When Alexander returned to Babylon, he indulged in its luxuries. He was so addicted to gluttony and drunkenness that in the diaries that were kept by Eumenes Cardianus and Diodorus Erythraeus, it is often found that such and such a day or night Alexander was carried drunk to bed. [Athena. l.10 c.11. with Phillinus in Plut. l.1. Sympos. c.6.] One example of this is cited by Elian. [l. 3. Var. Histor. l.23.] from Eumenes. I thought it good here to insert, so that may appear that some use may be made of my treatise of the Macedonian year compared with the days of our Julian Calendar. I first corrected that place in Elian where it is written without any sense and making it the month called Dios as thus: "On the 5th of the month Dios [our Sept. 28.] he drank himself drunk at Eumaus' house. He did nothing all that day but rose and ordered his captains where they should march tomorrow. He told them that he would be going very early. On the 7th day [our September 30] he dined with Perdiccas and started drinking again. On the 8th [our October 1st] he slept all day and upon the 15th of the same month [our October 8th] he was drinking again. The next day [our October 9th.] he slept off all day according to his custom. Upon the 24th [our October 17th.] he ate at Bagoas' lodging which was 1.25 miles from the king's palace. Then on the 3rd [or rather the 5th] he slept it off again."
     
  2. When Alexander saw Babylon excel both in greatness and all other things, he planned to embellish it all that he could and to make it the place of his residence for the rest of his life. [Strabo. l.15. p. 731.] He resolved to rebuild the temple of Belus and raise it from its ruin. Some say he planned to make it more magnificent than ever it was before. In his absence the Babylonians went on more slowly in the work than he would have liked. Therefore he intended to have all his army work on it. The work would require much labour and lots of time. Therefore he was not able to go through with it as he wanted to because he died soon after this. [Strabo. l. 16. p. 738. & Arrian l.6. p. 159.]
     
  3. Alexander dreamed that Cassander killed him. He had never seen the man in all his life and shortly after this when he happened to see him, he recalled his dream. At first this alarmed him but when he understood that he was a son of Antipater, he cast out any fear of any harm from him especially of poison. This was at that time being prepared for him. He merrily utterred a certain Greek verse purporting that: "So many dreams, So many lies."
     
  4. or something to that effect.
     
  5. When Cassander saw the foreign people prostrating themselves when they came to him and since he had never seen this done before he started to snicker. Alexander was furious and wrapped both his hands in his long hair and he beat his head against the wall. [Plut. in Alexand.]
     
  6. A rumour was circulated that Antipater had sent a poison by Cassander to deliver it to his brother, Iolla, the cupbearer to the king. Iolla was supposed to have poisoned Alexander's last drink. It was also said that at the same time Alexander had sent Craterus with a company of old soldiers to succeed Antipater. [Curt. l.10. c.10.] Concerning the poison of which Alexander is said to have died, see Andraeas Schottus, and his collections on it made from various authors in the comparison which he makes, of the lives of Aristotle and Demosthenes. [to the 1st year of the 114th Olymp. and Mathaus Raderus, on Curt. l.10. c.7.] As for Craterus and his old soldiers that were sent away with him into Macedon, although Justin, Arrian and Plutarch report this event happening before the death of Hephaestion. However, it ought have happened at this time and not before as appears by many other arguments. In particular that at the time of Alexander's death, Craterus with his old maimed soldiers had not come into Macedonia but was still in Cilicia.
     
  7. Those who wanted to of the Macedonians who found themselves disabled through age or other weaknesses of body to follow the war any longer were dismissed by Alexander to return into their own country. The number of them at this time, came to 10,000. [Diod. Sic. l.17. year (2). Olymp. 113] Justin [l. 12. c.12.] states that it was 11,000. To each he not only gave their full pay for the time of service but also money for the journey home. If any of them had children from Asian wives, Alexander asked them to leave them with him. He feared lest that half breeds might in time stir up some rebellion in Macedon in contending with the wives and children who lived there. He promised that when the children were grown up, they would be trained in marshal discipline after the Macedonian custom. Then they would have them sent home to them. Justin says that those who returned, had their full pay for the time of their journey. Plutarch states that the children of the deceased, continued to receive their father's pay. He further adds that Alexander wrote to Antipater that they who returned should have the best places given to them in the theatres and should sit there with garlands on their heads. When they parted, they all wept including the king.
     
  8. Together with these, various friends were sent home according to Clytus, Gorgias and Polysperchon. If Claterus should happen to die on the way, as he was at that time quite weak and sickly, they would have a noble commander to lead them. He ordered Craterus to take the government of Macedon, Thrace, Thessaly and of free Greece in Antipater's place. Antipater was to come to Alexander and to bring with him an army of young lusty Macedonians to replace the old ones which he had sent home to him.
     
  9. When Craterus was sent to lead some old worn out soldiers into Cilicia, he received written orders from Alexander. Diodorus Siculus using the king's own commentaries states the main points were these. He should have 1000 war ships of 3 tiers of oars built that would be a little larger than ships of that size. These were to be constructed in Phoenicia, Syria, Cilicia and Cyprus for his wars against the Carthaginians and others bordering on the sea coasts of Africa, Spain and the islands as far as Sicily. He was to give orders that his way along the sea coast of Africa as far as Hercules' Pillars was to be ready for him. To set aside 1500 talents to build 6 magnificent temples. He was to make ports in various places suitable to receive that large fleet. He was to take men from Europe into Asia and likewise from Asia into Europe to live in such new cities as he would build in either continent. Alexander hoped that by inter-marriages he might establish a peace between the two main continents of the world. These were his plans of which Lucan speaks in this manner. [l. 10.] His purpose was the Atlantic Sea to sail; Nor fire, nor water, nor the Lybian sand. Nor Ammons Syrts could bound his vast desires. He would into the western clime wave gone, Where the sun stoops to fall into Tethis lap; And to have marched quite round about the poles, And drunk Nile's water, where it first doth rise, Had not death met him and his journey stayed. Nothing but nature could a period bring, To the vast projects of this mad-cap king.
     
  10. A little before his death, ambassadors came to him from Greece to acknowledge him as a god. They wore crowns of gold and placed them on his head.
     
  11. Pencestes returned from Persia with about 20,000 Persians and also brought a large company of Cossaeans and Tapurians along with them to Babylon for his service. These nations bordered on Persia and were reckoned the most warlike of any other nation. Philoxenus came with an army from Caria and Menander with another army from Lydia and Menidas with an army of cavalry. Alexander commended the devotion of the Persian nation and especially Pencestes for his just discreet government among them. He ranked both them and also those who came from the sea side with Philoxemus and Menander with his Macedonian squadrons. He had frequent naval exercises in which there were often sea fights between the ships of 3 and those of 4 tiers of oars on the Euphrates River. As well the mariners and the commanders in these exercises worked hard to outdo their opponents. Alexander always bestowed crowns and honoured those that did the best.
     
  12. Once when he was ordering those companies who came with Philoxenus and Menander among his Macedonian squadrons, he happened to be thirsty [Arrian l.7. from Aristobulus] He left his throne and some of his friends on the thrones next to his left to attend him. It happened that a certain lowly man, [some say that he was committed to custody but without irons on him] came through the middle of all the bodyguards and other officers, who stood closely around the throne and sat down on the king's throne. The bodyguards dared not pull him off the throne because there was a Persian law to the contrary. They rent their clothes, beat their faces and pounded their breasts. They took this as an exceedingly ominous omen against the king. When Alexander heard this, he caused the man to be racked to know whether he had done it with any plot with others or not and for what purpose. When he answered that what he had done was only from a light humour and fantasy which came into his head, the wizards told him that it was by so much the worse sign. Diodorus says that by their advice the poor fellow was killed for this act. They hoped that if there were any bad luck in this, it might happen on him not to Alexander. Plutarch states the same adding that when he was on the rack and asked his name he replied that it was Dionysius, a Messenian.
     
  13. A few days later the king sacrificed to his gods in thanksgiving for his good successes. This time he added more to the sacrifices than normal by the advise of the priests. After that he started feasting with his nobles and sat up doing this until late into the night. He also distributed beasts for sacrifices among the soldiers and gave them wine to drink. When he was leaving the feast, he was told that Medius a Thessalian had prepared a banquet and had invited him and all his company to it. At the banquet 20 guests sat. Alexander drank to their health and they the like to him again according to Athenaeus from certain memorials, commonly attributed to Nicobulus. [l. 10. c.11. & l.12. c.18.]
     
  14. Alexander had called for a cup containing 9 quarts [2.25 gallons] according to Ephippius, in a book which he wrote of the death and burial of Alexander and Hephaestion as reported by Athenaeus. [l. 10. c.11.] He ordered Proteas a Macedonian to drink to him. Proteas cried to let it come and he spoke many words greatly honouring the king. He took the cup and drank from it with such grace that all the table commended him highly for it. After a while, Proteas called for the same cup again and drank it to the king. Alexander took it and pledged him a great draught but could not drink it but let the cup fall from his hand. He lay along on the cushion and presently fell sick and died. This was that Herculean fatal cup to Alexander of which besides Diodorus and Plutarch, [Seneca also in his 83Epistle,] mention. Compare this with what Athenaeus states. [l. 11. c.17. & Macrobius, l.5. Saturnal. c.21.]
     
  15. Aristobulus says that when he grew light headed with his fever and very thirsty, he called for a draught of wine and that cast him into a frenzy. So on the 30th day of the month Dasius, that is on the 24th of our May, Alexander died. Others say that he died on the 6th day of the month Thargelion with the Athenians as Elian has it. [l. 2. Var. Histor. c.25.] This would be on May 18th. In the diaries that were kept of the kings actions it is said that he died the 28th day of the month Daesius or 22nd of our May. Therefore it is sure that he died in the month Daesius according to the Macedonian account and in our month of May although the writers disagree on the day of the month.
     
  16. From the diaries, Arrian and Plutach describe in detail the events that happened during his last sickness. No one can tell us who wrote those diaries of what he did. Whether Eumenes Cardianus or Diodorus Erythreus or Strattis Olynthius did this, we do not know. He wrote a diary of his deed in 4 books and one particular book of Alexander's death according to Duidas. Whoever's diaries they were, they contain the clearest account of what happened. Therefore have I thought it good to include what I found in Plutarch from these diaries. I compared them with the days of the Macedonian month of Daesius and our month of May using my own discourse of the Macedonian year. "The 18th of the month Dasin's [May 12th] he slept in a bath for his fever. The next day [May 13th] after he had washed, he went to his chamber and spent that day there playing dice with Medius and then washed again. Toward the evening after his devotions, he ate his supper somewhat greedily and the next night had a grievous bout of a fever. On the 20th day [May 14th] when he had walked, he offered sacrifices very solemnly again. While lying along in a bath, he listened to Nearchus as he told him what things as had happened to him on his voyage and what wonders he had seen in the ocean. [May 15th] When he did the same this day, his fever increased. The next day [May 16th] his fever grew very sharply and he was carried to lie in a chamber near the great pool or swimming place. Here he talked with his commanders of putting approved men in places of office when offices needed to be filled. On the 24th [May 18th] his sickness grew worse and he offered sacrifice to which he was carried. He ordered the chief commanders and captains who were then in the court to stay with him but the centurions and corporals to serve outside and watch. He was carried into the innermost lodgings of the court. On the 25th day [May 19th] he had a little relief but his fever did not leave him. When the captains came to him, he did not speak to them at all and likewise on the 26th. [May 20th] Thereupon the Macedonians thought that he had been dead and came flocking with a great noise to the chamber door and threatened his friends who were there if they would not let them in. The doors were opened and every common soldier passed by his bedside. The same day Pithon and Selencus who were sent to Serapis' temple to learn whether Alexander should be moved there or not. They brought back the answer from the oracle that he should stay where he was. On the 28th day [May 22nd.] in the evening he died."
     
  17. Now whereas I said that all the Macedonians passed by the king's bedside, it is to be understood that they came in at one door and went out another. [Lucian in Psendons.] Although he had grown weak and faint with the severity of his sickness, yet he raised himself upon his elbow and gave everyone of them his hand to kiss as he passed by. [Valer. Max. l.5. c.1.] This may seem more incredible in itself considering the posture he put himself in. He stayed in that position from the first until the last man of the army had passed by and kissed his hand. [Curt. l. 10. c.7.]
     
  18. When the soldiers were gone, he then turned to his friends and asked them whether they thought they should find a king like him or not? When no man answered that question, then again he said that as he could not answer that either. Therefore he foresaw how much Macedonian blood would be shed before this matter would be settled and with what great slaughters and shedding of blood they would solemnise his funeral and sacrifice to his ghost when he was gone. He ordered his body to be carried to the temple of Ammon and there to be buried. [Justin l.12. c.15.] When his friends asked him to whom he would leave his kingdom, his answer was, "To the strongest". Then he took off his signet and gave it to Perdiccas. By this they all conceived that his meaning was to commend the government of his kingdom to his care and trust until his children should come of age. [Emil. Probus in Eumene.] Again, when Perdiccas asked him when he would have divine honours performed to him, he replied that when they were all grown happy.
     
  19. Eratosthenes in his Canons, [mentioned by Clemens Alexanderinus l.1. Srom.] says that 12 years passed between the death of Philip and the change, i.e.the death of Alexander. This is the very number given him in [/APC (1 Maccabees 1:7) and in the Chronicles of the Jews and also in Jertullian. [lib. cont. Judaos. c.8. in Porphyrie, cited by Euseb. p. 124 in Scaliger's Greek edition of him, in Rufinus, in Josephus' Antiquities l.12. c.2. in Orosius, l.3. in Jerome and Theodoret on Daniel (Daniel 11)] Although A. Gellins, [l. 17. c.21.] allows him only 11 years. Julius Africanus and from him Eusebius say it was 12 years and 6 months, Diodorus Sic. says 12 years and 7 months, Livy and after him Emil. Probus in Eumene say 13 years.
     
  20. There are just as many differences among writers concerning the years of his life as there are of this reign. Cicero in his 5th Philippic speaking, says: "What shall I say of Alexander the Macedonian when he set himself on great achievements from his very youth and was he not taken off them until by death in the 33rd year of his life. A consul must by our law be ten years older than that."
     
  21. Justin [in the last chapter of his 12th book] says that he died at the age of 33 years and one month. However [Philostratus, l.2. de Vita. Sophista: in Herodes, Euseb. in Chron. and in his first book, de Vita Constants. and Jerome, on (Daniel 8) 11:1-45] and various other writers follow Eusebius, [in Chron.] and say he lived no more than 32 years. All which are nevertheless to be reduced to that rule given by Arrian. [l. 7. p. 167.] He lived 32 years and took up 8 months of the 33rd year as Aristobulus says. However he reigned 12 years and 8 months.
     
  22. Immediately after Alexander's death, there arose such a dispute between the cavalry and foot soldiers of the army concerning the settling of the present state of things. They were ready to fight and to take up arms about it. Yet by the advice of the friends and commanders the matter was settled. It was agreed that the supreme authority or rather a bare name and shadow of it should be committed to Aridaeus the brother of Alexander and son to his father Philip. He was the son of Philinna of Larissa, a common dancer. [Athenaus, l.13. c.13.] states this from Ptolemy son of Agesarchus in his History of Philoptaer.] She was a whore. [Justin. l.13. c.2. & Plutarch in the end of his Alexan.] When by common consent he was proclaimed king, they called him by the name of Philip. Along with him was the son that Roxane would bare. She was 8 months pregnant with Alexander's son according to Justin. Curtius, [l. 10. c.10.] says she was 6 months pregnant. No consideration was given to his son Hercules who then lived at Pergamus because he was born by Barsine who was never married to Alexander. Since Aridaeus was a weak spirited man but not through any natural infirmity of his own as Plutarch notes in the end of the life of Alexander. This was his normal nature. Therefore Perdiccas, to whom Alexander delivered his signet in the hour of his death, was made Lord Protector or Steward and in effect absolute king. The charge of the army and of all its affairs was committed to Meleager the son of Neoptolemus, with or under Perdiccas. The command of the cavalry which was the most honourable position in all the army and which after Hephaestion's death was given to Perdiccas, was now assigned to Seleucus, the son of Antiochus, yet with or under Perdiccas as the other was. The oversight also of the kingdom, and its treasure was commended to Craterus' trust. [Diod. in the beginning of his 18th book, Justin. l.13. c.1-4. Curt. l.10. c.10-12. Plutarch, in Eumene and Alexan. Dioxippus and Arrian. in their books written of what passed after the death of Alexander, in Phot. Bibliot. cod. 82. and 92. Appian. in his Syriaca. p. 120. 124.]
     
  23. Censorinus in his discourse, "De die natali", notes that the years of Philip are to be reckoned from the death of Alexander and always start from the 1st day of that month which the Egyptians call Thoth. For the Egyptian astronomers apply this calculation of times for ease of calculations to their own account. They make its start to be the 1st day of Thoth in the beginning of the 425th year of Nabonasar. That is on the 12th of November, in 4390 JP. This is in the 7th month before the true time of Alexander's death. From the beginning of that month Thoth it is that Ptolemy in his Manual Canons of Astronomy [not yet published] deduces the epoch or risings of all the stars of which he in his Preface "Ad Syrus" says: "Here are fixed the epochs or start of all accounts according to the meridian of Alexandria which is in Egypt from the first day of the Egyptian month Thoth of the first year of Philip who succeeded Alexander, the founder of this city."
     
  24. This is not Philip the father of Alexander, [as some have imagined] but of Philip, brother and next successor to Alexander. The Alexandrians for honours sake call Alexander their founder as he indeed was. It is added: "For from the 1st day of his [meaning Philippus Aridaeus] reign, the times of the Manual Canons of Ptolemy, [who in them follows the common account or calendar of the Egyptians] are taken."
     
  25. According to the rectifying of the Egyptian year [reduced to the Alexandrian account which Theon also used in his canon] are calculated. This we find also in the Greek collections published by Scaliger in his Eusebian Fragments. [p. 48.] Hence it is also that in the Epistle to Apollophanes [falsely attributed to Dionysius Areopagita: found in Hilduinus, in his Areopagatica] these astronomical tables are called, "The Canon of Philippus Aridaus."
     
  26. The dead body of Alexander had lain 7 days on his throne according to Justin. [Elian says 30 days, Var. Histor. l.12. c.64.] All the while men's thoughts were taken up about the settling of the present state and did not give Alexander a proper burial. Yet was there not in all that time found any putrification or the least discolouring of the flesh of his body. The very vigour of his countenance which is the proper effect of the spirit that is in a man, continued still the same. Therefore the Chaldeans and Egyptians were commanded to take care of the body. When they came to do it, at first they dared not approach to touch him for he looked alive. After saying their prayers that it might be no sin to them being but mortals to lay their hands on so divine a body, they started to work and dissected him. The golden throne where he lay, was all stuffed with spices and hung about with pennants and banners and other emblems of his high estate and fortune. [Curt. l.10. in fi.]
     
  27. Aridaeus was in charge of his funeral and of providing a chariot to carry the body into the temple of Ammon. We do not know whether this was Alexander's brother, as Justin has it, [l. 13. c.4.] and Dexippus, as we find in Scaliger's Greek fragments of Eusebius, [p. 84.] or some other Aridaeus of whom we shall see more later. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114.] He spent two whole years in preparation. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 114.] When Olympias, his mother, saw him lie so long unburied in great grief of heart cried out and uttered these words: "O my son, you that would needs be counted among the gods and was in earnest about it. Could you not now have that which every poor man has, a little earth and burial." Elian. Varia. Histor. l.13. c.30.]
     
  28. Meanwhile when Sisygambes the mother of Darius, heard of his death, she was very sorrowful and covered herself with mourning attire. When her niece and nephew, Drypetis and Oxathres, came and fell at her knees, she looked away from them and would neither eat nor see the light any more. So on the 5th day after this, she died of hunger. [Diod. l.17. in fi. Curt. l.10. cap. 8.]
     
  29. Roxane who great with child, was favoured by the Macedonian army. She grew envious of Statira, the eldest daughter to Darius and she was one of Alexander's wives also. She sent letters and invited her to come to see her. As soon as she came, Roxane had both her and her sister Drypetis, Hephaestion's widow, murdered. She threw both their carcases into a well and cast earth upon them. Perdiccas knew of this and helped her. [Plut. in the end of the life of Alex.]
     
  30. Later Roxane gave birth to a son whom they named Alexander and the common soldiers proclaimed him king. [Arrian. in Biblioth. Plotis, c.92., with Pausanias in his Attica and Dexippus in Scaliger's Greek fragments of Eusebius, p. 48.]
     
  31. Perdiccas ordered the purification of cleansing for the whole army by a solemn sacrifice. Since the death of the king, there were many disputes among them. The Macedonian manner of cleansing the army was like this. They cut a dog in two and laid the one half on the one side and the other on the other of the field where the army was to come. The army was to pass solemnly in procession between the parts. As the army passed, Perdiccas had some 300 soldiers thrown among the elephants to be trampled to death. These had followed Meleager when at the first assembly of the Macedonians after the death of Alexander, he arose and in a rebellous manner left them. All this was done in the plain sight of the army and in the presence of Aridaeus. Meleager had Aridaeus wrapped in purple clothes like a child and put on the royal throne. [Plutarch l.2. de fortuna Alexandri] Meleager did not move for the present because no violence threatened him. However when he saw they were after his life, he fled to a temple and was there taken and slain. [Justin. l.13. c.4. Curt. l.10. c.12. Arrian. in Photius.]
     
  32. Diodorus [l. 2. year 4. Olymp. 18.] affirms that Alexander made his last will and testament and left it to be kept at Rhodes. Ammia, [Marcellinus, l.23.] seems to say that in his will he wanted to leave all in the hands and power of one man. Curtius states: "Some have the opinion that a distribution of the provinces was made by Alexander in his last will and testament. However, we have found that this was but an idle report although stated by various writers." [l. 10. c.13.]
     
  33. Nevertheless, the writer of the first book of Maccabees seems to be of the first opinion as reported and believed by so many writers. They say that Alexander in his own lifetime, divided his kingdom among his most illustrious and noble officers. The chronologer of Alexandria [from whom, those barbarous and broken Latin fragments published by Scaliger, p. 58,59. are taken] affirms that the division of the provinces, which Justin [l. 13. c.4. Curt. l.10. c.13. Arrian in Phitii Biblioth. c.92. Dexeippus ibid. c.82.] and other writers report to have been made by Perdiccas. This was based on his will and was in this manner.
     
  34. In Europe all Thrace with the Chersonese and other nations bordering upon Thrace as far as Salmydessus, a city standing upon the Euxin Sea, was committed to Bysimachus, the son of Agathocles, a Pellaean. The region which lay beyond Thrace belonging to the Illyrians, Triballi, Agrians, Macedon and Epirus, stretching as far as the Ceraunian mountains with all Greece, was assigned to Antipater and Craterus. This was the division of Europe.
     
  35. In Africa, all Egypt and whatever else Alexander had captured in Cyrene or Libya with all that part of Arabia which borders on Egypt, was allotted to Ptolemy, the son of Lagus. Pausanias in his Attica says he was by those of Rhodes honoured with the surname of a Deliverer. The truth is that the Macedonians always believed that Ptolemy was a bastard son of Philip, Alexander's father. For his mother Arsinoe was pregnant by Philip and was cast off by him and she married a poor fellow of Macedon called Lagus. Thereupon it was that when after a while, [as Plutarch in a discourse of his, "De ira cohibenda", i.e."Of suppressing a man's anger", says that Ptolemy to mock a poor school-master, would needs ask him: "who was Peleius' father?"
     
  36. he asked him again, "and I pray sir, who was Lagus' father?"
     
  37. He intimating by this the baseness of his birth on the father's side. [Curt. l.9. c.1., Pausanias in his Attica. p. 5. in the Greek edition of his at Fraeford, & Suidus on the word Lagus.]
     
  38. Cleomenes, who was left by Alexander, to gather up the tributes and other incomes of those parts, was ordered to turn over that province to Ptolemy and to hold his office as under him. Ptolemy entered that province shortly after the death of Alexander and died about 40 years later. Hence it is that Lucian, in his discourse of long lived men and in the fragments of Eusebius, published by Scaliger, [p. 49. and Porphyrie, ibid, p. 225. and Clemens Alexan. Stromat. 1. and Euseb. in Chron. and Epiphanius in his books of weights and measures] and others say that he reigned 40 years in Egypt. After him, his posterity down to Cleopatra held that kingdom under the title and name of Ptolemy.
     
  39. In the Asia Minor, Eumenes Cardianus was assigned all Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, and all the regions lying upon the Euxin Sea as far as Trapezond, a colony of the Sinopenses. Alexander did not subdue these people because he was involved in a major war against Darius. Eumenes Cardianus was ordered to make war on Ariarathes who only of these peoples resisted Alexander. Antigonus was made governor of Pamphylia, Lycia, Lycaonia, and Phrygia the Great. The lesser Phrygia, which lies on the Hellespont, was committed to Leonatus. The government of Lydia, both the inland country and the parts on the sea coast taking in Eolia and Ionia, was given to Maenander. He had it formerly by grant from Alexander. [Arrian, l.3. p. 56.] The name of Meleager, is miswritten by Diodorus. Caria was given to Cassander the son of Antipater and Cilicia and Isauria, to Philotas.
     
  40. In the upper and greater Asia, all Syria and Phoenicia was committed to Laomedon, a Mitylenaean. The petty kings of the isle of Cyprus ruled as it had been granted to them by Alexander. Neoptolemus was set over Armenia, Arcesilaus over Mesopotamia and governor over the province of Babylon. Atropates, father-in-law to Perdiccas, was left governor of Media by Alexander himself. In this division, Justin [l. 13. c.4.] and Orosius [l. 3. c.23.] say that Atropates was made governor of Media the greater and Perdiccas' father-in-law of the lesser. He forgot that Atropates and Perdiccas' father-in-law were the same person. When Antipater had later better considered the matter, he made a second distribution in Triparadiso. He acknowledges that Media was assigned to Pithon. [l. 15. p. 660.] Nor is it likely that the son-inlaw would in anyway diminish the authority of his father. The rule and government of the nearer Bactria and Sogdiana was put into the hands of Philippus. Oropius was joined with him in the government of Sogdiana. Dexippus says that after Orpius had received that kingdom of Alexander's bounty, he was put from it again for treason. The government of Persia, Pencestes of Hircania and Parthia, [for they went together, as Strabo, l.11. p. 514 states] was given to Phrataphernes. In Carmania, Tlepolemeus, in the further Bactria and Parapamisus, the government was given to Olyartes or Oxathres, the father of Roxane, Alexander's wife. In Aria and Drangiana, bordering on Taurus, the government was given to Stasanor of Solos. In the provinces of Susa, Scynus, Arachosia, Gedrosia, and Sibyrtius continued with the governors that Alexander had assigned. All the coast of India from Paropamisus and from the place where the Acesines and Indus meet, down to the ocean, was given to Pithon the son of Agenor. The Oxydracans and Mallians was given to Eudemus or Eudemon, the commander of the Thracian companies. The rest of India was given to king Porus, Taxiles and to the son of Abisarus. These ruled the same territories Alexander had assigned to them.
     
  41. When this division was made, every man had his share as if it were allotted to him from heaven. They used the opportunity to increase their power and their pleasure. For not long after, they behaved more like kings than governors. They added to their kingdom and left it to their posterity. [Justin. l.13. c.4.] Immediately upon the death of Alexander, that vast empire and name of the Macedonians was divided into several kingdoms. [Livius l.45.] However, no man assumed the title of a king as long as any of Alexander's children lived because of the great respect they had for him. Although they had the power of a king, they willingly refrained from using the title as long as Alexander had a lawful heir from his body living to succeed him. [Justin. l.15. c.2,] All of this was foretold long before by the Holy Ghost. (Daniel 11:4).
     
  42. Concerning the instructions given by Alexander to Craterus, Perdiccas referred the consideration of them to the general assembly of the Macedonians. Although they did not disapprove of them, yet because they were exceedingly grand and difficult to do, they ordered by a general consent that none of them should be done. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114.]
     
  43. The old Greek soldiers whom Alexander had left in garrisons and colonies in the upper Asia and various provinces became homesick and desired to see their native country. For they saw themselves as it were ejected and cast out into a far remote corner of the world. Therefore they joined together and revolted from the Macedonian state. They chose Philo an Enian, to head up this conspiracy. They assembled 20,000 foot soldiers and 3000 cavalry, all of them were old proven and expert soldiers. Against these, Perdiccas sent Pithon who had been one of the captains of the bodyguard of Alexander. He was a man of a high spirit and well versed in the art of war. He had 3000 Macedonian foot soldiers and 800 cavalry who were chosen by lot. He went with letters and instructions to the governors in all those parts, to furnish him with an additional 10,000 foot soldiers and 8000 cavalry. Pithon planned to win over to him by all possible means those old Greeks. He hoped that with their help and his forces, he might be the better able to establish himself and subdue all those upper provinces. When Perdiccas perceived this he tried to thwart his plan. He ordered Pithon that when he had overcome those rebels, he was to kill them all and divide their spoil among his soldiers. However Pithon had obtained secret information with Lipodorus, who commanded a rebel brigade of 3000 men. He defeated the rebels and did not kill them. He gave them permission to return to their own places. However the rest of the Macedonians remembered the order Perdiccas gave them and killed every one of them and shared their spoil. So Pithon failed in his scheme and returned with his Macedonians to Perdiccas. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114. & Prolog. Trogi, l.13.]
     
  44. When Ptolemy had quietly taken possession of Egypt, he acted fairly in all things toward the people of the land. He used 8000 talents to hire a mercenary army and pay those who came to him when they saw how fairly he administered Egypt. When he was told that Perdiccas planned to take over Egypt, he leagued himself firmly with Antipater. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. (114).] By favours and good deeds he made the neighbouring kings and princes loyal to him. [Justin l.13. c.16.] When he found that Cleomenes, whom Perdiccas had given to him for a lieutenant, was a spy, he cut his throat and placed strong garrisons of his own all over Egypt. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 5. in the Greek and Latin edition.]
     
3682 AM, 4391 JP, 323 BC
  1. Leonatus and Antigonus were commanded to use force to make Eumenes governor of Cappadocia and Paphlaginia. However Antigonus, was proud and wanted the position for himself and refused to obey Perdiccas' command. In contrast Leonatus came down with his army from the upper provinces and promised Eumenes to help him. Nevertheless when Hecataeus, tyrant of the Cadians, came to Leonatus, he advised him rather for the present time to go and help Antipater and relieve the Macedonians who were besieged in Lamia. Leonatus resolved to sail to Macedonia. He wanted Eumenes to go with him and planned to fight with Hecataeus. When Eumenes would not go and alleged that he feared Antipater, Leonatus believed him and kept nothing from him. When he could not win him over he planned secretly to murder Eumenes. Eumenes found out about this and escaped by night with his carriages. He had with him only 300 cavalry, 200 of his bodyguard and 5000 talents in gold, after the rate of silver. When he came to Perdiccas, he told him all Leonatus' plans. Thereupon Perdiccas took him in for a loyal friend and vouched for him in the council. [Plut. and Emil. Pro. in Eumene.]
     
  2. When Leonatus came to help Antipater, he was killed in a fight by the Greeks. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114. Justin, l.13. c.5. Plutarch in Phocion, Arrian in Photius.]
     
  3. When Thimbron captured Harpalus in Crete in a battle, he killed him. Harpalus had fled there from Asia and carried all the king's money with him. Thimbron got all the treasure, his army and fleet. He left Cydonia, a city in Crete, and with 6000 men or [as Diodorus has it] 7000 and sailed to the country of Cyrene. He was invited there by the exciles of the Cyrenians and the Barcenses, [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114, Arrian in Photius, Strabo, l.17. c.837.]
     
  4. In a battle against the Cyrenians, Thimbron slaughtered them and took many prisoners. He then seized their port and prepared to take the city itself. He agreed to peace if they would pay him 5000 talents of coined money and give him half their chariots equipped for service. He sent ambassadors to the other neighbouring cities to join with him, pretending that he would make war on Libya and subdue it. Moreover he laid hold on all the merchants' goods that were in the port and gave them to the soldiers to scramble for. By this he made them more eager to follow him. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114.]
     
  5. Mnasicles, a man of Crete and one of Thimbron's captains had a fiery disposition. He defected from Thimbron to the Cyrenians. By showing Thimbron's cruelty and unfaithfulness, he persuaded them to break their covenant with him and to fight for their former freedom. Thereupon, when they had payed only 600 of the 5000 talents, they would pay no more. Thimbron planned to destroy them and seized 800 of their men whom he found in the port. He came with his own men, the Barcenses and Hesperitans, before the walls of the city. They did what they could to take it but failed and retired to the port. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114.]
     
  6. The Cyrenians left sufficient troops to keep the town and went with the rest foraging into the neighbouring parts. When these sent to Thimbron for help, he presently went with all the troops that he could take to relieve them against the Cyrenians. When Mnasicles saw that there were few or no soldiers left in the port, he had those who were left in the city, to sally out and attack the port. Those of the city were easily persuaded to do this and followed him and attacked the port. Because Thimbron and most of his men were not there, they easily took it. Any goods as they there found there that belonged to the merchants, were faithfully restored to the owners. Mnasicles started to fortify the port against Thimbron in case he should return. Things went badly on Thimbron's side. For he had not only lost the port but with it all his provisions that were in it. However when he captured another town called Taricha, he raised his hopes again. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114.]
     
  7. Thimbron's mariners and sea soldiers were expelled from the port. They had no food and were forced to plunder the country for it. They were daily forced to do this. At last the men of the country found out their camps and laid wait for them. They slaughtered many and took as many prisoners as they had killed. They that survived, escaped to their ships and sailed toward other confederate places. On their way, there arose a violent storm which sunk many of the ships. Of those who escaped, some were driven ashore in Egypt and some in the Isle of Cyprus. Those who had encouraged the Cyrenians now fought against Thimbron and killed many of his men. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114.]
     
  8. Craterus departed from Cilicia with 6000 of those old soldiers who first came with Alexander into Asia. On the way he got 4000 troops besides 1000 Persian archers and slingers and 1500 cavalry. He hurried to the help Antipater and came into Thessaly. He yielded authority to Antipater and they both camped on the bank of the Peneus River. In the month of Munichion [our April], they fought a battle with the Greeks and defeated them. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. (114). with Arrian. and Plut. in the lives of Phocion and Demosthenes.]
     
  9. After Jaddus, his son Onias succeeded him in the priesthood at Jerusalem [Joseph. Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 7] and there held the position for 21 years. [Scalig. in Grec. Eusebius, p. 50.]
     
  10. Thimbron had hired new soldiers from Taenarus in Laconia. These soldiers wandered around Laconia and were out of pay. He started a new war with the Cyrenians. They asked help from the Africans and Carthaginians. Together they assembled an army of 30,000 men. After a long and bloody battle, they lost many men and Thimbron won. The Cyrenians lost all their own commanders and made Mnasicles their general. Thimbron grew proud of this victory and attacked and captured the port of Cyrene. Every day he assaulted the city. As the siege continued and with shortages of provisions, the Cyrenians began to fight among themselves. The common people carried the day and expelled the rich from the city. Some of those who were expelled defected to Thimbron and others went into Egypt. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114.]
     
  11. Those who fled into Egypt asked Ptolemy to restore them to their country. With his help, they returned with an army and naval forces under the command of Ophellas a Macedonian. When those who had defected to Thimbron heard this, they prepared to defect to Ophellas. When Thimbron heard of their intentions, he executed them. When the leaders of the common people of Cyrene were frightened by the return of their exiles, they made peace with Thimbron and joined with him. In a main battle they were all utterly vanquished by Ophellas. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 114.]
     
  12. In his escape, Thimbron was attacked by some African Carters, who took and carried him to Epicides. He held the town of Teuchira in those regions under Ophellas. The men of that place, with Ophellas' permission, first scourged him with whips and then sent him to be crucified at the port of Cyrene. Since many of the Cyrenians still continued fighting among themselves, Ptolemy made a journey there by sea. When he had settled all matters there, he returned by sea the same way he went. [Arrian, in Phot. Biblio.]
     
  13. When Perdiccas had Philip and the royal army at his command, he went against Ariarathes, the petty king of Cappadocia. He had not accepted Eumenes as governor there as he was ordered to. At that time, Ariarathes gathered a large army of 30,000 foot soldiers and 15,000 cavalry. In two battles, Peridiccas killed 4000 men and took 6000 prisoners including Ariarathes himself. He first tortured him and all that were allied to him and then crucified them. He pardoned the rest. When he had settled all matters in Cappadocia, he committed the government of it to Eumenes, according to the first establishment. [Diod. Sic. with Arrian. and Plut. in Eumene, and Appian in his Mithridatica, p. 175.]
     
  14. Eumenes committed the various cities of his government to his most trusty friends and gave them garrisons. Without imposing on Perdiccas, he appointed judges and tax collectors as he saw fit. When this was done, he returned with Perdiccas out of respect to him and so that he might not be a stranger at court. [Plut.]
     
  15. Perdiccas and King Philip left Cappadocia and went into Pisidia. They planned to destroy two cities, one of the Larandaeans, the other of the Isaurians. In Alexander's lifetime, these cities had slain Balacrus the son of Nicanor whom he had placed over them. They took Laranda on the first assault and killed all that were of age and sold the rest for slaves. They laid the city level with the ground. When those of Isaurus saw they were besieged, they set the city on fire planning to kill themselves and destroy the city. However the soldiers, to whom Perdiccas had given the spoil of the city, quenched the fire and found a large accumulation of silver and gold there. [Diod. Sic. year. 2. Olymp. 114.] Justin says that this was done by the Cappadocians when they saw Ariarathes taken. [l. 13. c.6.] Orosius says the same. [l. 3. c.ult.]
     
  16. Jollas, the son of Antipater and Archias came to Perdiccas from Macedon. He brought them Nicaea, Antipater's daughter to be his wife. Long before this when his affairs were more unsettled, Perdiccas had betrothed her hoping to secure Antipater's loyalty. Now that he had gotten the royal army and administration of the kingdom quietly into his hands, he planned to marry Cleopatra, daughter of Philip, the father of Alexander and Alexander's sister. Eumenes urged him to marry Nicaea so that he might the more easily have a supply of the Macedonian youth and that he might not have Antipater for an opponent in his undertakings. Therefore he married Nicaea when she came. He did this mainly by the advise his brother Alcetes. [Diod. Sic. and Arrian. with Justin, l.13. c.6.]
     
  17. Cinna was another daughter of Philip's, and sister of Alexander but not by the same mother and brought her daughter Adea. She was called later Euridice and was to be married to Philippus Aridaeus. However Perdiccas and his brother Alcetes had her taken care of. Thereupon the Macedonians became enraged and Perdiccas to quiet them, was forced to give her mother in marriage to Arideus. [Arrian. in Photius.] There she is named, not Cynna, but Cynane. Yet in the same Arrian, [l. 1. deeds of Alex. p. 5.] she is called Cyna. Diodorus [year 1. Olymp. 116.] and Athena. [l. 13. c.2.] call her Cynna.
     
  18. Perdiccas sent away Eumenes from Cilicia, under the pretence of taking care of his own government in Cappadocia. His real reason was that he might have control of the government of Armenia. Neoptolemus planned to make some changes there. However, Eumenes by flattery prevailed so much with him that although he was of an high and an intemperate spirit, Eumenes kept him in control. [Plut. in Eumen.]
     
  19. When Eumenes found that the Macedonian squadron had grown insolent and hostile, he raised an army of cavalry from the provinces in those parts. He remitted to them all payment of tribute and granted them other immunities. He furnished cavalry to those whom he most trusted and put them under his command. He encouraged their loyalty to him with his generousity and bounteous favours he bestowed on them. He kept them in shape by continual labours and journeys which he had them do. In a short time he had 6360 cavalry troops. [Plut. in Eumen]
     
3683 AM, 4392 JP, 322 BC
  1. Antipater and Craterus in Greece made war on the Aetolians. When Craterus' old soldiers were compelled by continual battles to lie abroad in the snow in the winter, they were ready to perish for want of supplies. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  2. Eumenes carried Perdiccas' presents to Cleopatra at Sardis. Perdiccas was now resolved to rid get rid of Nicaea, Antipater's daughter and to take Cleopatra to be his wife. Menander, the governor of Lydia told this to Antigonus, who was an intimate friend of Antipater. [Arrian] Perdiccas daily made false charges against Antigonus and tried to have him unjustly executed. Antigonus let on that he was coming to the hearing but secretly sailed in an Athenian ship with his son Demetrius and some other of his friends. They fled to Europe and there joined with Antipater. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  3. Aristander, a soothsayer of Telmessa proclaimed that it was revealed to him by the gods that the land where Alexander's body should rest would be the most happy of all others and forever free from all foreign invasions. Hence there was much strife among the leaders of Macedon about who should get the body. The main disagreement was between Perdiccas and Ptolemy the son of Lagus. [Elian. l.12. c.64.] Perdiccas arranged with his friends to have it carried to Eugos. [Pausan. in his Attica, p. 5.]
     
  4. However, Aridaeus who had custody of the body, crossed Perdiccas and carried it to Ptolemy as he was journeying from Babylon by Damascus to Egypt. And although he met with many impediments from Polemon, a good friend of Perdiccas, yet he carried it into Egypt as he planned to. [Arrian. in Phot.]
     
  5. He spent two full years in preparations for this funeral and its magnificence is recorded in detail by Diodorus. Finally, he moved the body from Babylon with a very large number of workmen to open and level the ways where needed. Many others attended the funeral and followed him. Ptolemy with his whole army, went as far as into Syria to meet him. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 114.] He took the corpse and buried it first at Memphis with all rites and ceremonies after the Macedonian custom. [Pausan. in his Attica. p. 5.] A few years later, it was moved to Alexandria, [Curt. l.10. c.ult.] by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus and not by the father, [as Pausanias intimates in his Attica, p. 5. of which, see more in Strabo, l.17. p. 794.]
     
  6. Perdiccas called a council of captains and friends in Cappadocia and asked them whether he should march with his army first into Macedon against Antipater or into Egypt against Ptolemy. Some were of the opinion to go first into Macedonia but it was resolved that it was best to begin with Ptolemy in Egypt. Otherwise when Perdiccas was engaged in Europe, Ptolemy might come and take over Asia. Therefore Perdiccas gave to Eumenes, in addition to what he had already, the provinces of Caria, Lycia and Phrygia with the government of all that part of Asia which lies between the mountain of Taurus and the Hellespont. Eumenes was ordered to take charge of all the garrisons in Cappadocia and Armenia. He was to use them to check the actions of Antipater and Craterus, to fortify all places upon the Hellespont and to prevent their landing in case they pass through the sea in those parts. Moreover Perdiccas ordered his brother Alceres and Neoptolemus that they obey Eumenes in all things. He wanted Eumenes to do things as he would think best for the present using his discretion. Cilicia was taken from Philotas and committed to Philoxenus. Perdiccas left Damasens to better conceal his actions. He took Aridaeus and Alexander the son of Alexander the great by Roxane along with him. He marched toward Egypt to fight with Ptolemy. [Diod. Sic. Justin. l.13. c.6. Arrian. Plut. Emil. Probus, in Eumene, Pausan. in his Attica. c.5.]
     
  7. Antipater and Craterus were told by Antigonus that Perdiccas had married Cleopatra and planned to invade Macedon and set himself up as absolute king to remove them from their governments. They made peace with the Eolians and left Polysperchon to manage all matters in Greece and Macedon. They hurried into the Hellespont on the Asian side and kept those who were appointed to keep that passage busy by sending daily embassies to them. They also sent ambassadors to Ptolemy who was otherwise a deadly enemy to Perdiccas as they were also. They desired him to join with them. They also sent to Eumenes and Neoptolemus both who were at that time in good standing with Perdiccas. They had Neoptolemus defect from Perdiccas and join them but could not win over Eumenes. [Diod. Sic. Justin, ut sup. and Arrian.]
     
  8. Alcetes, Perdiccas' brother, flatly refused to bear arms against Antipater and Craterus. Neoptolemus envied the power of Eumenes, and secretly joined with them but also plotted to kill Eumenes and betray all his army into their hands. When Eumenes discovered this, he was forced to fight it out with the traitor in a battle. He made a great slaughter of Neoptolemus' men, took all his baggage and won over the rest of his troops to his side. Eumenes became stronger with the addition of so many good Macedonian soldiers to his former army. Neoptolemus escaped with 300 cavalry only and fled to Antipater and Craterus. They again sent ambassadors to Eumenes to win him over and promised that he should not only hold what he had but also have more provinces given to him. When he replied that he would rather loose his life than break his word to Perdiccas, they divided their army in two. Antipater marched with one into Cilicia from there to Egypt to join forces with Ptolemy against Perdiccas. The other stayed behind with Craterus to fight with Eumenes.
     
  9. When Eumenes saw the enemy coming on, he feared least his soldiers, knowing against whom he was to fight with would not go with him but disband and flee from him. Therefore he led them about by an unfamiliar way where they might not easily hear how the matters went. There was already rumours buzzing among them, that Neoptolemus was recruited and he came on together with Pigris with an army of Cappadocian and Paphlagonian cavalry. Eumenes arranged it by carefully choosing his ground everywhere he went so that he could force the enemy to fight with the cavalry and not foot soldiers. Eumenes had a much stronger cavalry and was weaker than the enemy in foot soldiers. He had 20,000 foot soldiers from various nations and some 5000 cavalry. He trusted the latter to carry the day. Craterus had a little more than 2000 cavalry and as many foot soldiers as Eumenes. However, his soldiers were all old veteran Macedonians who had proved their valour and he trusted that they would secure the victory for him.
     
  10. These met in Cappadocia. Craterus had the right wing and Neoptolemus the left. Eumenes put none of his Macedonians to fight against Craterus but only two regiments of foreign cavalry led by Pharnabazus, the son of Arabazus and by Tenedius of Phoenicia. He wanted them without any shouting or words to attack the enemy quickly. Eumenes, with a company of 300 cavalry attacked like lightening on Neoptolemus. Craterus acted very bravely and valiantly. However his horse stumbled and a certain Thracian, or rather an Arrian, a Paphlagonian, put a lance through his side and knocked him to the ground. In the fall, one of Eumenes' captains recognised him and did what he could to save him. However he died from his wound. Meanwhile, Eumenes and Neoptolemus met and fought with each other. Both got off their horses to the ground so that each man might easily see with how deadly a hatred they encountered each other and that their spirits were more hostile than their bodies could be. Eumenes wounded Neoptolemus in one of his hamstring muscles. Although his hamstrings were cut and he fell, yet his courage bore him up and he raised himself up on his knees. He continued fighting and gave Eumenes three wounds, one in his arm and the other two in his thigh. None of them was mortal. After the second blow, Eumenes made a full blow at him and struck off his head. This was about ten days after the former victory which he had over him. [Diod. Sic. Justin, ut sup. and Arrian.]
     
  11. When Eumenes saw Craterus brought half dead from the battle, he did what he possibly could to save his life. When he died, he wept bitterly over him and with outstretched arms lamented his fate. He had held a high position and the two liked each other very much. He gave him an honourable burial and sent his bones home into Macedon to his wife and children. [Plut. and Emil. Pro. in Eumene.]
     
  12. Both the leaders were slain and many others especially of the better troops were taken prisoner. The rest of the cavalry fled back to the main squadron of the foot soldiers as to a more sure defence. Eumenes was content with what he had done, sounded a retreat and set up a monument on the place and buried his dead. The enemy foot soldiers were trapped and could not escape without Eumenes' permission and desired peace. They swore oaths of loyalty to him and had permission to buy food in the adjoining places. However, as soon as they had gotten food and recovered their strength, they broke their oath and returned to Antipater. [Diod. with Arrian. and Emil. Probus.]
     
  13. Perdiccas, with the two kings, Aridaens, and the young child Alexander came with his army into Egypt and camped near Pelusium. While he was busy in clearing an old ditch, an extraordinary flood of the Nile destroyed all his works. Although Ptolemy had cleared himself to the world of all those crimes which Perdiccas charged him with and the army was not enthused but this campaign, Perdiccas was determined to make a war on him. [Diod. Sic. and Arrian.]
     
  14. When Perdiccas at last saw that many of his friends abandoned him and fled over to Ptolemy, he assembled all his commanders and captains. He tried to win them over with gifts, generous promises, fair words and his good behaviour toward them. Then moving his camp without any noise, in the night and camped on the bank of the Nile River not for from a certain citadel called Murus Camelorum, i.e.a Wall of Camels. At day break, he crossed the river with his army and elephants and attacked the citadel but was valiantly repulsed by Ptolemy and gladly retreated into his camp again. The next night, he moved as quietly as possible and came to a place opposite Memphis. Here the river parted and made an island suitable to camp on. In crossing the river to the island he lost more than 2000 men. At least 1000 who were for a long time tossed up and down in the water, were devoured by the crocodiles and other large animals in the river. Ptolemy took these bodies as were cast ashore on his side of the river and gave them a proper funeral. He sent their bones to their friends and kinsmen in the army. Thereupon, the minds of the soldiers grew much more enraged against Perdiccas, and were more inclined to Ptolemy than ever before. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  15. Then arose a rebellion in the camp in which about 100 of the chief commanders including Pithon defected from Perdiccas. Pithon was a very brave man and noted for his virtue and valour. He was held in high esteem among all Alexander's friends. Some of the cavalry conspired secretly together and went to Perdiccas' pavilion and killed him. He had now held that government 3 full years, at least, the third year running. [Diod. Sic. with Arrian and Justin. l.13. c.8. Pausan. in Attic. p. 5. and Emil. Prob. in Eumenes.]
     
  16. The next day when the whole army was called together, Ptolemy crossed the river and came to the two kings. He presented both them and other of the nobles with expensive gifts and behaved himself fairly and in a humble manner to them all. When he had excused himself for what he had done, he found that the army was destitute of provisions. He supplied them with plenty of grain and all other necessities. He made it publicly to appear that he was heartily sorry and bemoaned the present state and condition of Perdiccas' friends. If he saw any Macedonian in any distress or danger, he did what he possibly could to relieve and help him. By so gracious behaviour, he might easily have gotten to be the guardian of the two kings, as Perdiccas had been. Yet he persuaded them to make Pithon and Aridaeus the guardians of the two kings, Aridaeus and the young child, Alexander. This they all agreed to. Pithon was the man that had formerly quieted the disturbances of the Greeks in upper Asia. Aridaeus had formerly the duty of convoying the body of Alexander from Babylon. They had supreme power over all the armies as Perdiccas had, according to the first establishment. [Diod. Sic & Arrian.]
     
  17. Two days after the death of Perdiccas, news arrived of Eumenes' victory in Cappadocia and of the death of Neoptolemus and Craterus. If this had come 2 days earlier, it would have no doubt saved Perdiccas' life. For who, after that success, would have dared stirred against him? The Macedonians were enraged for the death of Craterus and declared Eumenes a public enemy along with 50 of his friends. Pitho Illyrius, [for so I read them, in Justin, as also in Arrian's Indica, p. 185. Pithon, the son of Craterus, of Alcomene; which in Stephanus' de Urbibus, is a city in Illyria] and Alcetas the brother of Perdiccas were on the list. The generals who were against them were Antigonus and Antipater. For this purpose was Antigonus sent for from Cyprus and commanded together with Antipater to come to the two kings in all haste. [Diod. Sic. and Arrian. with Just. l.13. c.8. and Plut. in Eumene.]
     
  18. In Egypt all that had any association with Perdiccas were executed including his sister Atalanta whom Attalus the admiral of Perdiccas with the fleet at Pelusium, had married. When he heard of the death of his wife and of Perdiccas, he weighed anchor and sailed to Tyre. Archelaus a Macedonian and governor of the place entertained him with all respect and love. He surrendered the city and gave the 800 talents which Perdiccas had deposited there to him.
     
  19. Attalus stayed at Tyre and received and helped all of Perdiccas' friends who escaped from the camp at Memphis. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  20. Euridice, the wife of King Aridaeus, did not want the two guardians to make any important decisions without her. First they declined to do this. Later they told her plainly that she had nothing to do with matters of state and they would have care of her only until Antigonus and Antipater came. [Arrian.]
     
  21. Pithon and Aridaeus, the two guardians left the Nile River with the two kings and the army and came to Triparadisus in upper Syria. Euridice was meddling in matters of state and would many times cross the guardians. Pithon was offended by this all the more when he saw the Macedonians were inclined to obey her commands. He called the Macedonians together and before them all resigned his guardianship. Thereupon they chose Antipater to be the guardian in his place with all the sovereign power going with it. [Diod.]
     
  22. The army now demanded of Antipater all those rewards for their long labour in the wars which Alexander had made them serve in. When Antipater had nothing to give them at that time, he told them that their demands were just and reasonable and that he would shortly look into the king's treasure and find out whatever he had laid up. This speech gave the army little satisfaction. Thereupon when Euridice also helped forment discontent with him, the minds of the common soldiers were stirred up to rebel against him. At the same time Euridice made a public declamation against him. It was read by Asclepiodorus, her secretary, to the people. Attalus agreed and made a speech of his own. So that Antipater barely escaped alive out of their hands. However, Antigonus and Seleucus stood up in his defence and by this risked their own lives also.
     
  23. Therefore when Antipater had escaped to his own army, the chief commanders of the cavalry came together. After much adieu, they pacified the multitude and so Antipater was sent for again and asked to resume the sovereign power and use it as formerly he had done. [Diod.]
     
  24. After this, Antipater made a new distribution of the governments of the provinces in Triparadisus. He partly ratified what had formerly been done in that region and made some alterations as required. He left Ptolemy what he had, for it was hard to remove him to any other government since he was firmly entrenched in Egypt. Mesopotamia and the country of Arbela were assigned to Amphimachus, the king's brother. Babylon went to Seleucus, Parthia to Philippuis, Aria and Drangiana to Atasander of Cyprus. Bactria and Sogdiana went to Stasanor of Solos from the same land. Media, as far as to the Caspian Gates, was taken from Atropates, the son-in-law of the deceased Perdiccas and given to Pithon the son of Crateas or Cratenas. Thereupon Atropates, called the lesser Media from his own name Atroperia and revolted from the Macedonian government and made himself absolute king of it. His posterity held it down until the time of Strabo. [Strabo. l.11. p. 523.] Antigenes, [for whom Antigonus is incorrectly written in Diodorus] captain of the silver targeteers was given the province of Susa because he was the first that went against Perdiccas. 3000 of the most active Macedonians in the recent sedition were given to him. The rest of the provinces of the upper Asia were left in the hands of such as had them before except for Patala. It was the greatest city of all India and was by this settlement assigned to King Porus, according Arrian. This we can hardly believe.
     
  25. In the lesser Asia, Cappadocia and Paphlagonia were taken from Eumenes and given to Nicanor. Lydia, [not Lycia as it is read in Diodorus] was given to Clytus. Phrygia the lesser as far as to Hellespont, went to Aridaeus. Caria with Phrygia the Greater, Lycaonia, Pamphylia, and Lycia, went to Cassander to govern as he did before. In Diodorus, it is written Cilicia instead of Lycia. A little before this he says Cilicia was given to Philoxenus. More correctly as Arrian has it, the province was confirmed to him. For I showed a little before from [Justin. l.13. c.6.] that Perdiccas had taken that province from Philotas and given it to Philoxenus.
     
  26. Antigonus was nick-named, the cyclops because he had only one eye. [Elian. l.12. Var. Hist. c.14.] Antipater made him general of the king's army and commander of those forces in particular which Perdiccas had. He committed to him also the care of the two kings and sent him to make war on Eumenes which he was anxious to do. Based on this, Appianus [in his Syriaca, p. 121.] says that Antipater made him overseer of all Asia. Diodorus [l. 18. p. 626.] calls him absolute commander of all Asia but joined with him his own son Cassander, the governor of Caria, as his general of the cavalry. He did this so that if Antigonus should go about to establish himself, he might have someone to keep an eye on him. [Diod. Sic. & Arrian.]
     
  27. At the same time Antipater made Autolychus, the son of Agathocles, Amyntas, the son of Alexander and brother to Pencesta, Ptolemy the son of Ptolemy and Alexander the son of Polyspercon, captains of the bodyguard to the two kings. [Arrian.] He received great applause among all the men for his well ordering and due administration of things in his guardianship. Then he journeyed with the two kings to Macedon. [Arian. & Diod.]
     
  28. When Eumenes heard that he was declared an enemy by the Macedonians and that Antigonus was sent against him, he voluntarily declared the matter to the army. He feared least perhaps the news of it coming otherwise to them might make matters worse than they were or the surprise of it would dampen their courage. At least by this he would find how his army took the news and their attitude toward him. He told them plainly that if any one was afraid because of this news, he was free to leave and go wherever he wished. With these words he so won and secured the loyalty of the men to him that they all bade him be of good cheer. They said that they would cut that decree of the Macedonians in pieces with their swords. [Justin. l.14. c.1.]
     
  29. Moreover when news of that decree came to Alcetas the brother of Perdiccas, he fled and ingratiated himself with the Pisidians. For while he was among them, whenever he got plunder from the enemy, he gave them half of it. He was always friendly and courteous to them in his speech. He often invited the principal men of them to feasts and honoured them with gifts and presents,. By this he won their hearts to him. [Diod. Sic. p. 623.]
     
  30. Attalus, who was the chief admiral of the navy and who was with the first of them that defected from Antipater, fled and banded himself with the rest of the exiles. He got together an army of 10,000 foot soldiers and 800 cavalry. With these troops he went to capture Cnidus, Caunus, and Rhodes. However Demaratus the admiral of Rhodes valiantly held him off. [Arrian.]
     
3684 AM, 4394 JP, 320 BC
  1. Eumenes took as many horses as he wanted from the king's herd which was on Mount Ida: When he sent an account of them in writing to the king's officers of the revenue, Antipater laughed at it. He said that he wondered to see Eumenes so cautious as to think that either he himself would ever be accountable to them of the king's goods or look for an accounting of them from others.
     
  2. From there he marched with his army. He did not go into Etolia, as it is in the printed copies of Justin but as a manuscript copy has it, into Etulia or Etulane. This is a part of Armenia the lesser in Cappadocia. [This is according to Isaacus Vossius, a most learned young man and my very good friend, who observed this from Ptolemy.] Here he levied money of the cities in those parts. If any refused to pay their contribution, he plundered them as though they were enemies. From there again, he went to Sardis and to Cleopatra, the sister to Alexander the Great. He hoped that by her presence as royalty by his side, it would strengthen the loyalty of the officers of his army to him. [Justin. l.14. c.1.] When it happened that Antipater also took Sardis on his way to Macedon, Eumenes was planning to fight in the fields of Lydia. He was the stronger in the cavalry and he was desirous to let Cleopatra see of what metal he was made. However Cleopatra feared lest Antipater and the Macedonians might charge her with being the author of this war against them and persuaded Eumenes to leave Sardis. [Plutarch & Arrian.] Nevertheless when Antipater came, he rebuked her for having any association with Eumenes and Perdiccas. She stood her ground and defended her actions and blamed Antipater for this state of things. Finally, they parted on good terms with each other. [Arrian.]
     
  3. Therefore Eumenes left the country of Lydia and marched away into upper Phrygia. He made his winter quarters in Celaene [Plut.] and sent to Alcetas and his associates. He advised them to assemble their forces into one body and to make a united attack on a common enemy. When they could not agree among themselves, nothing was done. [Arrian.] Alcetas and Polemon and Docimus could not agree about who should be the leader. Thereupon Eumenes noted the old proverb and said: "There is no fence against destruction." [Plutarch.]
     
  4. Eumenes promised to pay his army within three days and sold all the towns and cities of that country which was filled with men and cattle. Thereupon the captains and commanders took them off his hands and received battering rams from him. They went and entered by force into the towns and sold all and fully paid each man. [Plutarch.]
     
  5. Antipater did not dare fight with Eumenes yet. He sent Cassander to fight with Alcetas and Attalus. They fought and departed on equal terms but Cassander had the worse of the battle. [Arrian.]
     
  6. Cassander became unfriendly to Antigonus but his father Antipater persuaded him to befriend him again. When Cassander met with his father in Phrygia, he advised him, not to go too far away from the kings nor to rely too much upon Antigonus. However, Antigonus by his temperate and discreet behaviour on all occasions, did what he could to make Antipater trust him. Thereupon Antipater set aside his displeasure towards him and turned over to him the forces which he had brought with him from Asia. These were 8500 Macedonians and as many cavalry of his confederates with some 70 of his elephants. Antigonus was to use these forces to war against Eumenes. Antigonus accepted the task and Antipater with the kings, journeyed to Macedon, [Arrian.]
     
  7. The whole army cried out for their wages and Antipater promised them pay when he came to Abydus. He told them that perhaps he would give them the whole amount which Alexander had promised and if not at least most of it. Encouraging them with this hope, he quietly marched to Abydus. When he came there, he with the two kings in his company stole away by night and crossed over the Hellespont to Lysimachus. On the next day, they followed him without any further demands for their pay. So says Arrian [in Biblio. Photh. c.92.] and here Arrian ends his ten books which he wrote of the deeds of Alexander.
     
  8. Antigonus assembled all his forces from their winter quarters, to march against Eumenes and to subdue him. Eumenes was at that time in Cappodicia. [Diod. Sic.] There were signs everywhere in Eumenes' camp, promising 100 talents, good conditions and offices besides, to the one who would bring Eumenes head to Antigonus. [Justin l.14. c.1. Plut. in Eumene.] When Eumenes knew of this, he immediately called all the soldiers together and first thanked them all that in so large a number, there was no one that would break his oath with Eumenes for the sake of a reward. Eumenes cleverly intimated to them that these signs were his own and he used them to determine their loyalty to him. Hence if the enemy should do the same later, the army would imagine it was just another ploy by Eumenes to determine their loyalty. Thereupon they all cried out and vowed their service to protect his life. [Justin.] They decreed among themselves that there should be chosen from the main part of the army, 1000 men for his daily guard. They would watch every night in turn about him. Those who were chosen, were glad for the service and willingly received from Eumenes such gifts as the Macedonian kings normally bestow on their friends. For Eumenes gave them scarlet hats and robes which among the Macedonians was always esteemed a great favour from their kings. [Plut.] However one of his chief commanders, Perdiccas along with 3000 foot soldiers and 500 cavalry defected from him. When he journeyed 3 days, Eumenes sent Tenedius a Phoenician, with 4000 select foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry to overtake them. This he did and attacked them by surprise at night while they were all asleep. He took Perdiccas prisoner and brought back all his soldiers to Eumenes. He picked out the chief instigators of that revolt and executed them. The rest were distributed in small numbers among his other companies. He spoke well to them and used them courteously, thereby winning their affections to him again. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  9. After this Antigonus dealt by a secret messenger with Apollonides, one of the commanders of the cavalry under Eumenes. By making generous promises, he had him betray Eumenes and in the middle of the fight to forsake and turn against him. Eumenes at this time camped in the country of Orcynia in Cappadocia. This was a place suitable for the cavalry to fight in. Antigonus went there with his army and took over all the upper ground near the foot of the mountains. His army had 10,000 foot soldiers who were mainly Macedonians and men of admirable strength and courage. He also had 2000 cavalry and 30 elephants. In Eumenes' army were at least 20,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. The battle began very fiercely and Eumenes' side was winning. When Appolonides with his regiment of cavalry defected to the enemy, Antigonus won. In that fight, Eumenes lost 8000 men and all his wagons. [Plut.]
     
  10. Eumenes did not allow the traitor to escape. While he was in the act of that villany, he took him and hung him up. Eumenes fled by a the opposite way from which they that pursued him took. He turned back shortly and passed by the enemy and came to the place where the battle was fought. Here he camped and gathered together the bodies of his slain. Since the place lacked firewood he took the doors and gates of the towns and villages in the area. He had them broken and made piles to burn his dead on. The captains were burned separately from the common soldiers. When Antigonus returned to the place later he was amazed at this bold act of his and the undauntedness of his high courage. [Plut.]
     
  11. Eumenes found by chance Antigonus' wagons. Although he might have taken many prisoners and many slaves with many goods, he did not. He feared lest his men having gotten so much wealth would grow less anxious to fight and to move quickly because of all the goods they picked up. Eumenes ordered that each man should feed his horse well and refresh himself. Then they should be ready to attack the enemy. Meanwhile he secretly sent to Menander, who was set to guard the enemies luggage, to move immediately from the plain to the foot of the mountain. He feared lest Menander would be suddenly surrounded by the enemies' cavalry. When Menander saw the potential danger, he moved quickly. The enemy said that they were very much indebted to Eumenes for sparing their children from slavery and their wives from rapine. However, Antigonus told them that Eumenes did it not for their sakes, but so as not to burden his troops with useless goods in their flight. [Plut.]
     
  12. Eumenes went from there and secretly persuaded a great many of his men to leave him for the present. This was either from an honest concern for them or because they were now grown too few to oppose the enemy and yet were too many to conceal with him in his flight. He came to Nora, which was a strong citadel and which Strabo, [l. 12.] says in his time was called Neroassus and located near Cappadocia and Lycaonia. He had 500 cavalry and 200 foot soldiers with him. [Although Diodorus says that there were not more than 500 in total.] As many of his friends as desired his permission to leave, he embraced each one of them in a fair and courteous manner and sent them away. They wanted to leave either because of the desolateness of the place or the scarcity of provisions. He freely gave them the food that they found there. The place was not more than about 400 yards in size and there was in it provision enough of grain, salt and water. There was no supply of fresh food to be had. [Strabo. with Diodorus, and Justin. l.14. c. 2.]
     
  13. Antigonus came to the place. Before he besieged it, he sent to Eumenes to come to a talk. When he required hostages, Antigonus refused but asked him to come out to his superior. Eumenes sent him word again that: "As long as he wore a sword by his side, he would acknowledge no superior."
     
  14. Thereupon, when Antigonus sent him his own brother's son, called Ptolemy, as was required, Eumenes came out and they embraced each other very lovingly and in all familiar manner. They had discussed various matters. Antigonus noticed he never mentioned anything of his own security or pardon but still demanded his former governments to be confirmed and to be recompensed for his losses. The bystanders stood amazed at it and wondered at the constancy of his courage and magnanimity that was in him. Antigonus told him that concerning these matters, he would talk with Antipater. So, with much adieu, he returned again to his citadel safe from the violence of the crowd. Antigonus built a double wall with trenches around the citadel and left enough men to maintain the siege. He then moved his camp. [Strabo. with Diodorus, and Justin. l.14. c.2.]
     
  15. After a while Eumenes sent messengers to Antipater to make peace. One of them was Hieronymus the historian who was born in Cardia, as Eumenes was. [Diod. Sic. & Justin, l.14. c.2.] In the meant time, he provided food for his company and though his provisions were short, yet he cheerfully accepted what he had. He had them all in their turn to his table where he entertained them with pleasant discourses and good speeches instead of better food. [Diod. Sic. and Plut.] As often as he wanted to, he would sally forth and either burn or destroy Antigonus' works. [Emil. Prob.]
     
  16. He feared that he might lose all his horses from lack of exercise and since they were always confined to one place. He ordered every day to prop up his horses with their fore feet above ground and made them stand on their hind feet. So that with striving and much struggling, they might get exercise and sweat. He gave them boiled barley to eat, that they might more easily digest it. When at last he came out of the citadel, everyone wondered to see his horses so fat and sleek, as if they had been all the while kept in the best pasture of the country. [Diod. Sic. Jul. Fronti. Stratag. l.4. c.7. Plut. and Emil. Prob. in Eumene.]
     
  17. Ptolemy the son of Lagus, knew that Phoenicia, and Coelosyria would be very advantageous to him for the defence of Egypt and also for the capture of Cyprus. He thought much on how he could take them over. Therefore he tried to persuade Laomedon, who was made governor of those two provinces, first by Perdiccas and later Antipater, to turn them over to him. He offered him a vast sum of money for it. When this did not work, he raised a large army and made his trusted friend Nicanor the general of it. He sent him to take this area by force. Nicanor marched into Syria and took Laomedon prisoner. However, he bribed his keepers and to Alcetus in Caria. Nicanor in a short time subdued all Phoenicia and Syria. He put garrisons in them and he returned to Egypt. [Diod. Sic. with Appia. in Syriac. p. 121. & Pausan, in his Attica. p. 5.]
     
  18. Ptolemy attacked the parts of Phoenicia and Syria. When he had captured Jerusalem by deceit, he carried from there 100,000 men into Egypt. Of these he selected 30,000 of the ablest of them whom he armed and took into his army with greater than normal pay. He committed his garrison towns and citadels in Egypt into their trust. The rest he sold away for slaves among his soldiers. This was not necessarily of Ptolemy's doing but from the desire of the soldiers. They wanted the Jews more than any other people to help to do the menial tasks related to war. [Aristeos, in l.(Deuteronomy 70). interpret. with Ptol. Philadel, his epistle, cod. lib. Joseph. Antiq. l.12. c.1. Euseb. 2. in Chron.]
     
  19. Concerning the capture of Jerusalem, Agatharchides Cnidus describes it in his book of the successors of Alexander the Great, in Josephus [l. 1. cont. Apion. p. 1050. with l.12. Antiq, c. 1.] "They who are called Jews, live in a most fortified city which the natives call Jerusalem. They keep every 7th day as a holiday. They do not involve themselves in war, husbandry or any other type of work on this day. They only hold up their hands in hallowed places and stay there praying until the evening with outstretched hands. When Ptolemy, the son of Lagus entered their city with his army, all men observed the folly of them that were observing the Sabbath. So the country became enslaved under a bitter master and their law was found to be nothing else but a foolish custom."
     
  20. Appian adds, that Ptolemy demolished the walls of the city. When he had left garrisons in Syria, he returned to Egypt by sea. [in Syriac. p. 119,121.]
     
  21. Concerning this Jewish deportation into Egypt, Josephus write: [l. 12. Antiq. c.1.] "Ptolemy carried away many captives from the hill country of Judaea, the places bordering on Jerusalem, from Samaria and from Mount Gerizim into Egypt. He made them to dwell there. He found that they of Jerusalem kept their oaths from the reply which they made to Alexander's messengers after the last defeat of Darius. Therefore he decided to put many of them in his garrisons and citadels. When he had settled many of them in Alexandria, he gave them the same privileges which the Macedonians had. He bound them all with an oath to be true liege men to his posterity because he had bestowed such large favours on them."
     
  22. Again in his [2nd book cont. Apio. p. 1063.] "Ptolemy Lagus committed all his citadels and places of strength to his Alexandrian Jews. He thought they would be kept most safely in their hands because of their fidelity and integrity. So that he might reign most securely in Cyrene and other parts of Lybia, he sent many of those Jews to live in that country."
     
  23. From these Jews, descended Jason of Cyrene from whose writings was collected the second book of the Maccabees, /APC (2 Maccabees 2:23) and Simon of Cyrene, who bore the cross of Christ, (Matthew 27:32) and of whom mention is made in: (Acts 2:10; Acts 6:9).
     
3685 AM, 4394 JP, 320 BC
  1. While Eumenes was trapped in Nora, Antigonus besieged it with a double wall around him. He marched with his army against Alcetas and Attalus. He first went into Pisidia where Alcetas with his forces were. In 7 days he marched over 310 miles to the city called, "The City of the Cretenses". Because he came so fast and suddenly upon them, he took over some suitable hills and places of advantage there. In his army besides his elephants, were 40,000 foot soldiers and 7000 cavalry. However, Alcetas dared to meet him in the open field with only 16,000 foot soldiers and 900 cavalry of his friends in his army. Antigonus had the advantage of the ground and had a much stronger force. He routed him and took both Attalus, Docinius and Polemon, and many other chief captains as prisoners. He showed them his mercy and used great clemency and humanity toward them. He distributed the rest among his own companies and thereby greatly increased his own army.
     
  2. Alcetas, with his bodyguard, his sons and other Pisidians who served him, fled to Telmessus, a city of Pisidia. The Pisidians numbered about 6000 and were all very strong and valiant men. They promised never to forsake him. Therefore when Antigonus with all his army came before the walls of Telmessus and demanded Alcetas to be delivered to him, the older men wanted to turn him over. However, the younger men met together at night and swore an oath not to forsake him in spite of any danger that might come. In spite of this, the elders of the city sent a messenger secretly to Antigonus to let him know that they would deliver Alcetes into his hands dead or alive. The condition was that he would send the soldiers to a skirmish and pretend to flee and retreat to a reasonable distance from the walls of their city. This was done and drew the young men out of the city. In the meantime, the elders attacked Alcetas with their men. He killed himself rather than fall into the hands of the enemy. His body was placed on a funeral bier and wrapped in a vile cloth. While the young men were fighting, his body was sent to Antigonus. For 3 days he exposed it to all the contumelies and indignities that could be imagined and at last had it cast out unburied. When the young men returned from the fight and heard what had happened in their absence, they were enraged with the elders. They seized part of the city and resolved at first to set it all on fire. However, they changed their minds and started plundering and wasting the enemies' country in the area. When they learned that Antigonus had left the corpse of Alcetas behind him, they took it up and gave it an honourable burial. [2nd book cont. Apio. p. 1063.]
     
  3. Antipater became sick and before his death he made Polysperchon to be the guardian of the kings and sovereign commander in his place. Polysperchon was almost the oldest man of all that served under Alexander. He was held in very great esteem among the Macedonians. However, Cassander, Antipater's son, was not content with his office of general of the cavalry. He was enraged to see that Polysperchon was preferred before him as the guardian and sovereign of the realm. He began to plot with his friends to get the kingdom into his own hands. He sent secretly his agents to Ptolemy and renewed his former friendship with him. He desired that he would make an alliance with him and come away with his fleet from Phoenicia into Hellespont. He did likewise with the other commanders and cities and urged them to join forces with him. [2nd book cont. Apio. p. 1063. with Plutarch in Phoecio.]
     
  4. When Antigonus returned with his army from Pisidia into Phrigia, to the city of the Cretenses, he was there notified of all these matters by Aristodemus of Miletum. This pleased him well for he aspired to supreme sovereignty also. [Diodorus, with Plutarch in Eumene.] He was left as sole and absolute commander of all Asia by Antipater and had a larger army there than anyone else. He planned to seize all the king's treasure there while there was none to oppose him. He had then in his army, 60,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 cavalry and 30 elephants. He saw that he had the means to increase, if needed, his army at his pleasure. He could get troops from foreign countries and Asia was well able to feed and pay them all abundantly. Therefore he called a council of his friends. He declared to them that his purpose was for the good of them all. Thereupon he assigned his friends to various offices and commands. He secured them with generous promises to be loyal to him and help him do what he planned. He resolved to go through all Asia and to put out the governors and replace them with ones of his own choosing. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  5. When Aridaeus who had the government of Phrygia on the Hellespont, knew what Antigonus was up to, he went and attacked the large city of Cizycum. This city would be most suitable for his needs. He had at army of more than 10,000 mercenary foot soldiers, 1000 Macedonians, 500 Persian archers and slingers and 800 cavalry. With these he had all types of battering rams. The men of Cizycum, under the pretence of a treaty for peace, obtained a truce for a time. They dragged out the discussions for the surrender while they secretly sent to Byzantium for help and supplies of men and equipment of all kinds for their defence. As they sailed along their own coasts with their warships, they gathered men from the country and put them in the city along with any supplies they brought with them. Aridaeus was fooled by the men of Cyzicum, as he later found out and had to return to his own government again. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  6. When Antigonus was at Celenae, he hurried away with 20,000 select foot soldiers and 3000 cavalry to relieve Cizycum. He hoped to ingratiate the city to him. However, he came too late. He sent messengers to Aridaeus to rebuke him for his actions. He required Aridaeus to give up his government and to live after that as a private citizen. He would have the revenue of only one city to live on. When Aridaeus refused to do this, he placed guards about the gates and on the walls and other places of the city where he was. Then he sent away a part of his army with a commander over them to side with Eumenes. They were to raise the siege from the Nora Citadel and help Eumenes out of that danger. This was to help him make a league with Eumenes against Antigonus. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  7. Emil. Probus tells us that Eumenes toward the beginning of the spring, under pretence of submitting himself to Antigonus and entreated of conditions daily, at last tricked him. He and all his people escaped from the citadel. [in Eumene.] However, Justin, [l. 4. c2.] says that Antigonus raised the seige when he found that Antipater had sent relief to Eumenes. Diodorus and Plutarch state that Eumenes by the mediation of Hieronymus Cardianus, his countryman and true friend, was allowed to come out on his word and thus it was.
     
  8. Antigonus was wondering how to get everything under his control. He sent for Hieronymus the historian, to come to him. He used him to send a message to Eumenes to cut a deal. He wished to forget what had happened between them in the fight at Cappadocia. He would now be pleased to join with him in a firm league of love and friendship and association of arms. He offered to give him far more wealth than he had lost and a better province than he ever had before. He would make him the best of all his friends and partaker of all his designs and fortunes. [Diod. Sic.] When Antigonus had drawn up this in the form of an oath to bind each other to strict observance of the conditions, he sent it to Eumenes. Eumenes took it and amended it in some points. Then he asked those Macedonian captains who were in the siege against him to judge which of the two was the better and less ambitious. Among other things, Antigonus made mention of the kings in a formal manner but in the performance of all services and conditions, he referred only to himself and these were made in his own name. Whereas Eumenes, in his draught, first mentioned Olympias with the two kings. Secondly he arranged the oath on such terms, as purported that he would reckon them all friends and foes, as were friends and foes, not to Antigonus but to Olympias and the two kings. When this seemed to be the more reasonable of the two, Eumenes took his oath. For taking the oath, they presently raised their siege and sent to Antigonus and asked him to bind himself to the same oath as Eumenes had. Meanwhile, Eumenes, sent whatever hostages he had of the Cappadocians, back home again. Antigonus wrote back a sharp and a taunting letter to those Macedonians for presuming to amend anything in the form of the oath which he had prescribed for Eumenes to take and wanted them to besiege him again. This reply came too late. [Plut.]
     
  9. When Eumenes had escaped after a year's close siege, beyond his expectations, he stayed for awhile in Cappadocia. He gathered together his old friends and soldiers who were now scattered about the country. [Diod. Sic.] He started all over again from nothing. The friends of those hostages whom he had restored, lent him horses wagons and tents. In a short time, about 1000 cavalry from the old regiments which foraged up and down the country, came to him. [Plut.] Eumenes was a most active and industrious man and there were others there who were also just as devoted to the state as he was. Hence it happened that great number of soldiers came flocking to him. Within a few days, in addition to the 500 friends who were with him in the citadel, he had gotten 2000 men who were all ready to serve him. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  10. Antagonus sent some of his forces to besiege Aridaeus, the governor of lesser Phrygia. He marched himself with most of the army into Lydia to expel Clitus from his government. However, Clitus was forewarned and presently packed every town of his and place of defence with a strong garrison. He went into Macedon to acquaint the kings and Polysperchon the guardian of the kings, of Antigonus' doings and his planned revolt from the Macedonian government. He asked for help against him. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  11. Antigonus took in Ephesus at his first coming. Some within the city betrayed the city into his hands. Later, Escylus of Rhodes came there. He brought 4 ships with 600 men from Cilicia and 400 talents. These were to be sent to the kings in Macedon. Antigonus seized on it all for his own use and said that he had need of it to raise and pay foreign soldiers with. By this act, he plainly showed his intention to be independent and to rebel against the kings. When this was done, he proceeded to take the rest of the cities. Some he took by force, others by fair words. [Diod. Sic.] From this revolt, it is that Dexippus, Porphyrie and Eusebius calculate the 18 years of his rule in Scaliger's Graeca Eusebiana [p. 48. 164,226.]
     
  12. When Cassander crossed the Hellespont, he went to Antigonus in Asia. He wanted his help and assured him of Ptolemy's agreement about it. Antigonus was glad of his coming and presently offered to help him by land and sea. This he did under a pretence, as if he would help him for his father Antipater's sake. His main purpose was to embroil Cassander in as many wars and troubles as possibly he could in Europe so that he might more freely move about and take over Asia and make himself king there. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  13. Polysperchon, the guardian of the kings and curate of the Macedonian empire, sent letters to Eumenes, in the two kings' names, requiring him to be loyal to the kings and fight against Antigonus as he had done before. He gave Eumenes the choice of coming into Macedon and there, jointly with him, be a guardian of the two king's or would stay in Asia. If he stayed, he would receive supplies of men, money and equipment to oppose Antigonus who had now openly declared himself a rebel against the kings. If he needed greater forces, Polysperchon would be ready with the kings and all the power that the kingdom of Macedon could muster to cross the seas and to come into Asia to join forces with him. Similar letters were sent to the treasurers in Cilicia, requiring them from the money which was at Quindi [where the kings' treasure for Asia was kept, according to Strabo l.14. p. 72.] to immediately pay him 500 talents toward his recent losses. From the rest of the kings' money, they were to give him as much as he should ask, to hire and pay for foreign soldiers. He also wrote letters to Antigenes and Tentamus, who between them commanded 3000 silver targeteers under Antigonus, that they defect to Eumenes and help him all they could. Polysperchon did this as the man that was made absolute commander and governor of all Asia under the kings. Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, did her part and wrote similar letters requiring all men to come and aid both herself and the kings., [Diod. Sic. with Plut. and Emil. Prob. in Eumene.]
     
  14. Eumenes left Cappadocia with only 500 cavalry and 2000 foot soldiers. He could not wait for their arrival who had promised to enlist themselves under him but had not come yet. Menander was coming with a large army and would not allow him to stay in Cappadocia since he proclaimed himself to be a public enemy to Antagonus. Those who were left behind, followed Eumenes for three days. When they saw they could not possibly overtake him, they returned into Cappadocia. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  15. Eumenes made long marches and passed Mount Taurus and came into Cilicia. He was met by Antigenes and Tentamus, captains of the silver targeteers, with their friends. They obeyed the command of the kings. They congratulated his fortunate escape from so many and great dangers. They offered him their service and promised to stand by him in his utmost dangers. Then came the regiment of about 3000 silver targeteers, all Macedonians to him and pledged their loyalty to him. [Diod. Sic.]
     
3686 AM, 4396 JP, 318 BC
  1. Eumenes, feared the envy of the Macedonians since he was alian born in Cardia in the Chersonese of Thracia, if he should assume absolute governor of the place. First he waived the receipt of the 500 talents which were given to him for his losses. He said that he did not need so great a sum since he assumed no government there. [Diod. Sic. & Plutarch.] Then he pitched his tent in the name of Alexander and called it Alexander's pavilion. He pretended that he was warned to do so by a vision in a dream. He had a golden throne placed there with a sceptre and a diadem. They met there every day to consult about matters and he hoped to minimize any envy toward him if he seemed to administer all things under the majesty and title of Alexander. [Diod. Sic. Plutarch, Emil. Prob. Polyanus, l.4. Stratag.] Therefore, by this means he behaved in all the meetings as an ordinary man and spoke to every man with good, courteous language and removed all thoughts of envy toward him. He behaved like this toward the silver targeteers who were all Macedonians. He was highly esteemed by them and so much so that every man said that he was of all men most worthy to have the guardianship of the kings. [Diod. Sic.] He was so fair in his speech. He did not hesitate to call them, his fellow soldiers or his masters and companions of his in those eastern wars. He told them that they were the only men who conquered the east. They were the only men who outdid Bacchus and Hercules with their victories. They were the men who made Alexander, great. By them, he attained divine honours and immortal glory in the world. Eumenes desired that they would not look on him as their commander but as their fellow soldier and a man of their own company. [Justin. l.14. c.2.]
     
  2. Eumenes selected certain choice men from his friends. He gave them much money and sent them to hire soldiers promising a generous pay. Thereupon some went into Pisidia, Lycia and the places bordering them. Others went into Cilicia, Coelosyria, Phoenicia and the isle of Cyprus. They did their best to hire as many soldiers as they could. When many Greeks saw what generous pay was being offered, they came also. In a short time, they had gathered 10,000 foot soldiers and 2000 cavalry besides the silver targeteers and those which Eumenes brought with him from Cappadocia. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  3. Ptolemy came with his navy to a port called Zaphyrium in Cilicia and sent some of his agents to solicit the silver targeteers to defect from Eumenes, since he was proclaimed as an enemy with the death sentence awaiting him. He sent also to the chief officers at Quindi and advised them not to issue any money to Eumenes. No one listened to Ptolemy because the kings, their governor Polysperchon and Olympias, Alexander's mother, had written to them. They required them to be obedient in all things to Eumenes as to the commander-in-chief and general of the kingdom. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  4. After this Antigonus sent one of his good friends Philotas with 30 Macedonians in his company to the silver targeteers to feel them out. They first asked their captains and main soldiers if by money they could be induced to kill Eumenes now that he was in their hands. They found no man agreeable to their desires except for Tentamus who was one of the captains of the silver targeteers. He agreed and tried to win over Antigenes his colleague, to help in this foul deed. Antigenes was not at all interested and prevailed with Tentamus to abandon his plan. He showed him that there were better things and better reasons for trusting Eumenes, a man of a moderate fortune and a limited power than from Antigonus who was already grown too powerful. Antigonus would cast them aside once he had gotten all into his hands and replace them with his own friends. Then Philotas sent to the chief captains Antigonus' letters that was directed to the soldiers in general. It required them to kill Eumenes on sight. It threatening them that if they did not do it, Antigonus would come shortly and attack them with his army and make examples of them for their disobedience. This terrified the soldiers. However, Eumenes came to them and persuaded them to follow the orders of their kings and not listen to the words of a man who had now proclaimed himself an open rebel. After speaking many things, Eumenes saved himself from imminent danger and made the troops more loyal to him than ever. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  5. Eumenes ordered them to march into Phoenicia. There he assembled all the ships he could from all the sea towns and made a strong navy. He planned that Polysperchon with a fleet at his command, might at any time sail with his forces from Macedon to Asia to fight against Antigonus. Therefore for this reason, he stayed even longer in Phoenicia. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  6. Meanwhile, Polysperchon made Clitus, the governor of Lydia, admiral of the fleet and sent him into the Hellespont. He ordered him to stay there and to ensure that no ships passed that way from Asia into Europe. He wanted him to help Aridaeus, the governor of lesser Phrygia. He had fled with such men as he had into the city of the Cyonians for fear of Antigonus. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  7. Clitus came into the Hellespont to protect the cities of Propontis. He had joined Aridaeus' army with his own. Then Nicanor, the captain of the garrison of Munychia welcomed Cassander who had put all his navy to sea. He took with him Antigonus' fleet so that he had more than 100 ships in his fleet. In a sea battle not far from the city of Byzantium, Clitus won and sunk 17 of the enemies' ships and captured at least 40 more with all the men in them. [Diod. Sic.] Clitus was overjoyed. A little before he had taken 3 or 4 ships of the Greeks near the Isle of Amorgus, one of the Cyclades. He allowed himself to be called Neptune and bare a trident in his hand. [Plut. l.2. Dr. fortu. Alexan.]
     
  8. When Antigonus heard of the loss of his navy at sea, he sent for some ships from Byzantium and put in them archers, slingers, targeteers and such lightly armed men, as many as he thought would fit. They landed on the European side and these attacked Clitus' men who had gone ashore and were busy in making their camp. They frightened and forced them to retreat to their ships again. They lost their baggage and many men were taken prisoner. In the meantime Antigonus procured other ships of war into which he put many of his best soldiers. He sent them to the same place with a strict charge to valiantly attack their enemies and they would no doubt overcome them. These came by night under the command of Nicanor their captain and attacked at the break of day. He routed them on the very first assault and bilging some of their ships with the prows of their ships. They captured other ships with the men in them who surrendered. At last, they took all the rest of the ships and men except only for Clitus. He abandoned his ship and fled to land and hoped to get into Macedonia. On the way he was attacked by Lysimachus' soldiers, who killed him. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  9. When Antigonus had given the enemy this great defeat, he became master of the sea. He hurried to make himself absolute monarch of all Asia. Therefore, he selected the best 20,000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry from his army and marched toward Cilicia. He planned to scatter those companies of Eumenes which were there before his whole army came together. [Diod. Sic.]
     
3687 AM, 4396 JP, 318 BC
  1. Jubilee 23.
     
  2. When Eumenes knew of Antigonus' plans, he tried to persuade Phoenicia where he then was, to obey the kings. At that time it was unjustly occupied by Ptolemy. When he failed to do this, he left and went through Coelosyria. He hoped to get into those parts, which are called the upper provinces. [Diod. Sic. l.18.] He had the silver targeteers with him including their captain Antigenes. They had wintered in a country of Babylonia, called Cares. [Diod. Sic. l.19.]
     
  3. Eumenes sent from there to Seleucus the governor of Babylonia and to Pithon the governor of Media to come and with himself to help the kings against Antigonus who had rebelled against them. Seleucus sent him word that he would do what he could for the kings. He would not help Eumenes, who was for a long time a condemned person by the council of Macedonians. He secretly sent to Antigenes and the silver targeteers to kill Eumenes. They refused. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  4. Eumenes had the loyalty of his soldiers. He marched to the bank of the Tigris River and there camped about 40 miles from Babylon. He lost some of his men by an uprising of the natives against him. From there he planned to go forward to Susa to gather his soldiers out of the upper provinces and to take the kings' money which was stored there for his own needs. Seleucus came on him near the Euphrates. Eumenes almost lost his whole army by a sudden flood which Seleucus caused by opening the head of an old dam and let in the water and flooded his camp and almost drowned everyone. Therefore Eumenes and his men were forced to flee from there to a higher ground. They spent that day figuring out how to recover things. The next day they got 30 flat bottom boats and transported the main part of the army without being hindered by the enemy. For Seleucus had nothing but cavalry with him and they were out numbered by Eumenes. When night came, Eumenes returned with his Macedonians to take care of the wagons which were left behind. They crossed the river and there with the help of the natives found a place to let out the water another way to make all that country dry and passable again. When Seleucus knew of this he was desirous to rid his country of such guests. As soon as he possibly could, he sent messengers to offer them a truce and so allowed them to march away without bothering them. So once again beyond all his expectations, Eumenes escaped from Seleucus and came with his army into Persia to the country of Susa. He had 16,000 foot soldiers and 1300 cavalry. When he had refreshed his army after their hard and miserable march, he sent to the commanders of the upper provinces to send to him men and money for the service of the kings. [Diod. Sic. l.18,19.]
     
  5. Attalus Polemo, Antipater and Philotas who were all captains and captured in the defeat of Alcetes were committed to prison in an exceedingly strong citadel. When they heard that Antigonus marched up into the upper provinces, [Diod. Sic. says, that at that time he was in Mesopotamia] they found a sword for each man. Although there was only 8 in their group, at midnight they attacked 400 men who were in the garrison. They first seized Xenopithes, the captain of the garrison and threw him down the rock of the citadel which was about 200 yards high. When they had killed some and forced the rest they set fire to the houses within the fort. Thereupon those who were outside waiting to see how the matter would go, went and about 50 were received into the citadel. When they were in they could not agree among themselves, whether they should hold the place and await supplies from Eumenes or leave it and every man go his own way. The soldiers of the other garrisons were not far off. About 500 foot soldiers and 400 cavalry and about 3000 natives appointed a new captain and came to besiege the citadel. Docimus, who had advised to leave the place, saw an unguarded way down the hill. He sent a messenger to Statomice the wife of Antigonus, who was close by. He and another man got out and went to her. However, she did not keep her word with him and held him fast again. The man that went with him guided the enemy up to the citadel. They outnumbered the defenders and took over a strong place in it. Nevertheless Attalus, with the rest who were of the opinion to defend the fort and kept on fighting bravely from day to day for 16 months. [Diod. Sic. l.19.]
     
  6. When Pithon, who was governor of Media had killed Philotas, who was governor of the upper provinces, he replaced him with his own brother, Eudramus. Thereupon the other governors united their forces because they feared they would be treated in the same way and they knew that Pithon was a man of a violent disposition. They attacked and defeated him and killed many of his men. They drove him from all of Parthia. He went into Media hoping to have relief there. When he found none, he went to Babylon and there desired help from Seleucus. [Diod. Sic. l.19.]
     
  7. Eumenes stayed in the country of Susa. Lacking supplies, he divided his whole army into three brigades. Even so as he marched through the country, he found a great scarcity of grain everywhere. Instead, he was forced to give them rice and a kind of Indian wheat and the fruit of the palm tree which was in great abundance there. He had previously sent the kings' letters to the governors of the upper provinces requesting help. Again he sent more letters to them of his own, to request them to come to him with all their forces into the country of Susa. However, his messengers found them all in one body fighting Pithon. [Diod. Sic. l.19.]
     
  8. The leader of them all and the man most watched was Pencestes, whom Alexander had previously made the chief captain of his bodyguard and governor of Persia. He had with him 10,000 Persian archers and slingers. From the other countries he had taken 3000 Macedonians with 600 cavalry from Greeks and Thracians along with 400 Persian cavalry. Polemon a Macedonian and governor of Carmania had 1500 foot soldiers and 700 cavalry. Sibyrtius the governor of Arachosia had 1000 foot soldiers and 610 cavalry. Androbazus had 1200 foot soldiers and 400 cavalry that were sent from Oxyarta, the governor of Parapamysus. Stasanor, the governor of Aria and Drangia had 1500 Bactrian foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry. From India, Eudamus [whom Arrian calls Eudemus and Curtius calls Eudemon,] the governor of the Oxydracans and Mallians brought 3000 foot soldiers and 300 cavalry plus 120 elephants. These animals he got when he treacherously killed Porus, the king of the Indians. In total they had 18,700 foot soldiers [although the details sum to 21,000] and 4600 cavalry. [Diod. Sic. l.19.]
     
  9. When they all came to Eumenes in the country of Susiana, they called a public council. There was a hot dispute especially between Pencestes and Antigenes the captain of the silver Targateers about the choice of a general. Eumenes removed the reasons for that dispute, by erecting a pavilion for Alexander and putting his throne in it. All meetings about public affairs were conducted here. [Diod. Sic. l.19.]
     
  10. When they all came together at Susa, Eumenes took from of the kings' treasury as much as the kings' service required. For the kings' letters to the keepers of their treasure had required that they only give money to Eumenes and as much as he needed. He gave the Macedonians 6 month's advance pay. He gave 200 talents to Eudamus who brought the elephants from India. This was under the pretence of defraying the cost of those beasts but it was intended to secure his loyalty. Eumenes knew that if any controversy happened, the side with the elephants would likely win. The rest of the governors paid for their own soldiers that they had brought with him. When this was done, Eumenes stayed a while in Susiana to refresh his army after their hard journey. [Diod. Sic. l.19.]
     
  11. Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, had Philippus Aridaeus, one of the two kings and his wife Euridice murdered. He had reigned 6 years, after the death of Alexander. [Justin. l.14. c.5.] and 6 years 4 months according to Diodorus. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. (115).] Porphyrie [in Grac. Euseb, p. 228.] says this happened about the 22nd day of our September.
     
3688 AM, 4398 JP, 316 BC
  1. Cassander, the son of Antipater, besieged Olympias with her grand-child Hercules, the son of Alexander the Great and his mother Barsine, in the Macedonian town of Pydna. In the beginning of the next spring, they ran out of provisions and Olympias was forced to dismiss her soldiers. She surrendered to Cassander on the condition she would be allowed to live. [Diod. l. 19. & Justin. l.14. c.6.]
     
  2. Antigonus left Mesopotamia and came into the country of Babylonia. He allied himself with Seleucus and Pithon. After receiving some supplies from them, he made a bridge of boats over the Tigris River and there crossed the river. He quickly marched away to fight against Eumenes. However, Eumenes was notified before of this and ordered Xenophius, the keeper of the citadel in Susa to pay none of the kings' money to Antigonus. Neither was he to even talk to him. Eumenes went with his armies and manned the bank of the Tigris all along, from its source to the very sea with forts. These were built on its bank. Since that was a considerable undertaking, Eumenes and Antigones had Pencestes send them 10,000 more archers from Persia. [Diod. Sic. year. 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  3. Antigonus went with his army to the king's palace in Susa and made Seleucus the governor of that country. He left a sufficient army with him and wanted him to besiege the citadel. Xenophilus the treasurer refused to obey his commands. About the rising of the dog-star [Siris], Antigonus with his army marched at night to the Copatres River where it joins the Tigris River. He lost a great number of his men because the season was so hot. He found that river to be about 400 feet wide. Therefore he got together a small quantity of flat-bottomed boats and used them to get some of his foot soldiers across. He told them to wait for the rest to cross. Eumenes was notified of this by his scouts and was about 10 miles from the place. He crossed the Tigris River on a bridge and came with 4000 foot soldiers and 1300 cavalry. He found 3000 foot soldiers and 1300 cavalry of Antigonus' army had crossed over already. There were at least 6000 who were foraging about the country. He suddenly attacked them and routed them. He forced the Macedonians who fought into the river. They ran headlong into their boats which sunk from overloading. Few escaped. About 4000 who would not venture into the river, were taken prisoners according to Diodorus. However, Plutarch says that when Antigonus crossed the Pasitigris River, the rest of the army did not know what had happened. Eumenes himself met him with his own company and killed many of his men. He filled the river with dead bodies and took 4000 prisoners.
     
  4. When Antigonus saw that he could not pass that river, he retired with his army toward a city called Balaca that was located on the Ulaie River. He stayed here for a few days to refresh his army which was exhausted from the extreme heat. He planned to go to Ecbatane. He did not follow the highway because of the extreme heat and the journey would take at least 40 days. He went by the Cossaeans which was shorter and not so hot. In spite of this he lost a great number of men and risked the lives of the rest. After 9 days when they had yet to come to any habitable place in Media, the whole army began to grumble. For within 40 days, they had received three major set backs. Antigonus ordered Pithon to go over all Media which he did. He brought him 2000 cavalry, a 1000 equipped cavalry horses and with enough equipment to outfit his army again. He brought 500 talents from the king's treasure also. Antigonus distributed the cavalry among his other troops and gave the horses to those who had lost their own. He gave the beasts of burden freely to those that wanted them. By this he quickly regained the love and favour of his army again. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  5. Eumenes with his men left Pafitigris for Persia and came to the royal seat of the kingdom, called Persepolis after a 24 day march. There his his whole army was entertained and most magnificently feasted by Pencestes the governor of that province. Sacrifices were offered to the gods including Alexander and Philip. Plutarch adds that a sheep was given to each of them for his own particular sacrifice. Eumenes knew that his purpose was to ingratiate himself with the army and to gain for himself the sovereign power and command of if. He forged a letter addressed to himself in the name of Orontes the governor of Armenia and good friend of Pencestes. It was written in Syriac letters. It stated that Olympias, with Alexander's youngest son, had defeated Cassander and had recovered the kingdom of Macedon again. Also it said that Polysperchon with the main force of the king's army and his elephants had crossed into Asia against Antigonus. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116 & Polya. Stratag. l.4.] These letters passed as authentic. Therefore every man thought that Eumenes would be the most important man and in a position to advance whom he pleased and to punish whom he thought fit. Hence they resolved to depend on him. Any that opposed him he called them in question before the courts. He started with Sibyrtius the governor of Arachosia and so made them all afraid. In the meantime he courted Pencestes' loyalty and told him what great honour and wealth he would give to him when the time would come. By that means he prevented him from doing anything else against him. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  6. Since he desired to ingratiate the rest of the governors of the provinces and commanders to himself, he made as though he needed more money. Therefore he exhorted them to contribute what they could spare for the king's service and collected 400 talents. He made them who seemed most fickle to him before, most loyal to him for fear of losing the money which they had lent to him. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116. & Plut. in Eunmenes.]
     
3689 AM, 4398 JP, 316 BC
  1. In the lesser Asia, Attalus and the rest of the commanders with him, after enduring a 16 month siege and suffering much hardship were forced at last to surrender. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 115.]
     
  2. In the greater Asia, Antigonus moved with his army from Media into Persia. Eumenes prepared to march against him and offered sacrifices and started feasting with his captains. He enjoyed their pleasure and became quite drunk and sick and had to sleep it off. This hindered his march for a few days. Thereupon his soldiers said that other generals could feast but Eumenes could do nothing but command and fight. After a little while, he recovered and went on his march. Pencestes and Antigenes led the troops and he was in a litter and came after with the elephants. The two armies were within a day's journey of each other when the scouts came in and brought news of their approach. They told the number of the enemy and the way they were coming. Thereupon each army prepared for the battle. When Eumenes who was lying in his litter did not come into the camp, the chief soldiers in every company resolved not to go any farther unless Eumenes came into the camp among them. Thereupon he was carried in his litter and so went from one quarter to another throughout the army. He gave orders everywhere for the arranging of the troops. Meanwhile Antigonus looked on and laughed at him for his efforts. So each side prepared for the battle which never happened because the intervening ground was so bad to fight on. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116. & Plut. in Eumene.]
     
  3. They approached each other within 600 yards and spent 4 days in small skirmishes and foraging the surrounding country. Each side was very hungry and needed supplies. On the 5th day, Antigonus again tried to make Eumenes' army betray him by offering huge rewards. However, his agents were sent away by the enraged Macedonians. They threatened them if they came again on that errand. After this, Eumenes, received news that Antigonus planned to move his camp by night and take a 3 day journey to a place called Gubiene. This country abounded with all sorts of provisions. Therefore Eumenes sent some trusted men who pretended to be deserters to inform Antigonus that Eumenes would attack his camp that night. While Antigonus was preparing for the attack, Eumenes stole away with his army to go to Gubiene before Antigonus so he could find a good location for his camp. When Antigonus learned that Eumenes had tricked him and although Eumenes had a 6 hour head start, yet he followed him. He wanted Pithon to come safely later with the main body of the army. Antigonus with a company of the swiftest cavalry that he could choose, got ahead of Eumenes and showed himself upon a hill where Eumenes could see him. Eumenes gathered by this that Antigonus with all of his army was there. He made his stand before he came to the very place where he intended to pitch his camp and there arranged his battle in array. In the meanwhile, Antigonus' army came upon him. Thus these two great generals used their wits and tricked each other. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. (116).]
     
  4. In the country of the Paraeteceni, these two generals arranged their army in excellent formation and with great judgment as Diodorus describes in detail. Eumenes had with him 35,000 foot soldiers, 6100 cavalry and 114 elephants. Antigonus had 28,000 foot soldiers, more than 8500 cavalry and 65 elephants. The battle was bravely fought on each side until almost midnight. The moon was almost full. When each side was exhausted with fighting, they stopped and went back to their camps. Antigonus lost 3700 foot soldiers and 54 cavalry and had about 4000 maimed horses. Eumenes lost 540 foot soldiers, a very small number of his cavalry and more than 900 were hurt. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  5. Eumenes wanted to bury the dead as a sign of a total victory but the army would not allow it. They wanted to go the place where their belongings were. Since that was some distance away, Eumenes was forced to allow them to do it.
     
  6. Antigonus forced his men to camp near the place where the battle was fought and where his men lay dead. They buried them and Antigonus said he had the victory. He said: "He who had power to bury his dead was ever to be counted conqueror of the field."
     
  7. The bodies were buried by the break of day. He detained the herald who came to him to beg the bodies of the dead. He sent him back at night again and gave them permission to come and bury the bodies the next day.
     
  8. When he had sent away the herald, he marched away with all his army and by long marches came to Gamarga in Media which was far away from Eumenes. Pithon was governor of this country. It had abundant provisions and was able to maintain a very large army. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.] When Eumenes had beaten Antigonus in the country of Paraetecene, he went away to take up his winter quarters in Media, [Emil. Prob. in Eumene.] in a place called Gadamalis or Gadarlis according to Diodorus, or Gadamarlis according to Polyaenus.
     
  9. Eumenes heard through his scouts that Antgonus did not follow him. His army was not up to it and he wanted to bury his dead. Among the dead was Ceteus, who commanded those who came to him from India. His burial caused a large argument between his two wives. Each wanted to have the honour of being burned alive with him. The younger of the two, won the argument. She was great with child and went into the fire and left the other to live if she wanted to. However, she from grief pined away and died. Diodorus describes this in detail.
     
  10. When Eumenes had finished burying his dead he went to Gabiene. This was some distance from where Antigonus was with his army. It was about a 25 day journey if one went through the inhabited country. If one went through the desert, they were only a 9 day journey apart. They wintered far from each other and gave their armies a chance to rest and recover their spirits again before the next spring. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  11. Meanwhile, Cassander the son of Antipater was desirous to make himself absolute king of Macedon. He had Olympias the mother of Alexander the Great murdered and married Thessalonice the daughter of Philip [not of Aridaeus, as Justin mistakes it] who was Alexander's own sister. When this was done, he sent Alexander the son of Alexander the Great, with Roxane his mother who was very greate with child, to be kept in the citadel at Amphipolis. [Diod. year (1). Olymp. 116. Justin. l.14. in fi.]
     
  12. While Eumenes' soldier were resting, they grew heady and insolent. In spite of their commanders, they camped where they wanted to all over the country of Gaviene. Some of their tents were more than 125 miles from their headquarters. [Plutarch] They selected their quarters, not according to any discipline or order of war but to satisfy their own desires and pleasures. [Emil. Prob.]
     
  13. When Antigonus was told of the disorder in Eumenes' camp, he decided to attack. He let it be known that he would march with his army from Media into Armenia. However, in the depth of winter about the winter solstice, he departed from the ordinary way and marched through the desert. He made fires in the daytime and put them out at night to escape detection. When they had spent 5 days on this tedious journey, the soldiers started making fires at night as well as by day because of the extreme cold. Some who lived in the desert saw this and using dromedaries which commonly run 200 miles in a day, they notified Eumenes and Pencestes of this. [Diod. Sic. Plut. and Emil. Prob.]
     
  14. Pencestes was petrified when he heard this and thought of running away. Eumenes calmed things down and said he would take charge. The enemy would not come into those parts for at least 3 or 4 days, or as Emilius has it, more than 5 days. Therefore he sent messengers into all parts to require his troops to come to their head quarters. Then he went about with certain speedy officers and had fires made everywhere on the hill countries so Antigonus would see them. When Antigonus was within 9 miles from Eumenes, he saw those fires and began to imagine that he was betrayed and his purposes revealed by some of his own people. He thought Eumenes was coming to attack him with his whole army. He feared to risk his tired army against Eumenes' fresh and lusty soldiers. Therefore he turned aside from the plain, into a more winding way and there stayed one whole day to rest his men and to refresh his beasts. They would be in better shape to fight if need should be. [Id. and Polyanus, Stratag. l.4.]
     
  15. Meanwhile most of Eumenes' army came to their head quarters. When his soldiers saw his surpassing dexterity and wisdom in ordering things, they desired him to order all matters himself. Thereupon Antigenes, who was always loyal to him and Theudamus, the two commanders of the silver targeteers were envious. They plotted with the other captains of the army to kill him. When Eudamus, who commanded the regiment of the elephants and Phaedimus, [being two of those who had lent him money and feared losing it if he died] knew of this, they immediately told Eumenes. He said that he had to deal with a company of bruit beasts. He went and made his will and then burnt his cabinet of papers least after his death they should tell tales and prove dangerous to those that had written them. [Plutarch.]
     
  16. Diodorus describes in detail the day of the battle between Antigonus and Eumenes. Antigonus had with him 22,000 foot soldiers and 9000 cavalry with 65 elephants. Eumenes' army consisted of 36,700 foot soldiers, 6050 cavalry and 114 elephants. The field where they fought was very spacious, sandy and a desert. Such a dust was stirred up when the cavalry first charged that if a man were only a short ways off he could not see what was going on. When Antigonus saw this, he immediately sent some Median cavalry and some Tarentines from Italy at attack the baggage of the enemy. This was about 5/8 of a mile from the battle. Pencestes the governor of Persia was frightened by Antigonus and got out of the dust cloud with his horse and took with him some 1500 more troops. However, the silver targeteers on Eumenes' side made a strong attack on Antigonus' main battle line and killed more then 5000 and routed the rest. They lost not a single man. So Eumenes won and did not lose more than 300 men. [Diod. Sic. Plut. Polyan. Stratag. l.4.]
     
  17. After the battle, the Macedonians saw their wagons were all taken with their wives, children and whatever else was dear to them. There was great sorrow in the camp. Eumenes sought to pacify them and reminded them that they had killed 5000 of the enemies and if they would be patient, the enemy would be forced to ask for peace and then all would be well again. They lost about 2000 women, a few children and servants. This would be better regained by pressing the victory then by letting it go now that the victory was so close at hand. However, the Macedonians plainly told him that they would neither flee now they had lost their wives and children nor bear arms against them and started railing at him. Then Teutamus, of his own accord, sent a messenger to Antigonus to desire him to send back their goods again which he had taken. So the bargain was driven between them that if they surrendered Eumenes into his hands, they would get back their belongings. So the Macedonians, 10,000 Persians who came with Pencestes, the other governors of places and most of the soldiers left Eumenes and went to Antigonus' camp. [Idem. with Justin l.14. c.3.]
     
  18. Before they went, the silver targeteers broke in on Eumenes, took his sword from his hand and bound his hands behind him with a garter. On the 4th day after the battle, they delivered him bound to Nicanor who was sent by Antigonus to receive him. Eumenes desired nothing of Nicanor but that he would lead him through the midst of the Macedonians and give him permission to speak his last words to them. When this was done, he went before his keepers into Antigonus' camp followed by the army which had betrayed their own commander and who were now themselves no better than so many captive slaves. They went in triumph of themselves into their conqueror's camp. To make it a complete triumph, the elephants and the auxiliaries from India brought up the rear. Antigonus, for very shame and reverence of the old friendship that had been between them, did not allow Eumenes to be brought into his sight but assigned him to certain soldiers to keep him. [Plutarch in Eumene: Justin, l.14. c.4.]
     
  19. Among those that were wounded, Hieronumus of Cardia, the Historian was brought. He was always held in great esteem with Eumenes during his life. After his death, he was held in great favour also by Antigonus. [Diod. Sic. l.19. year 1. Olymp. 116.] This Hieronimus wrote a book as Diodorus [l. 18. p. 62.] and Josephus, [l. 1. cont. Apionem, p. 1050.] call it, or [as Dionysius Halicarnaslaeus in the poem of Roman Antiquities calls it]. It was concerning the successors of Alexander the Great and the general history of his own time.
     
  20. When Antigonus had now gotten both Eumenes and all his army into his hands, he first laid hold on Antigenes, the commander of the silver targeteers. He put him alive into a coffin and burnt him to ashes. Then he executed Eudamus, who brought Eumenes elephants from India, and Celbanus and some others who opposed him. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  21. When Onomarchus the captain of the watch asked Antigonus, how he would have Eumenes to be kept, he replied that as you would keep a raging lion or an unruly elephant. Later he relented and he ordered his heavy chains to be removed and a boy of his own to be allowed to attend him and to help to anoint him. He allowed Eumenes' friends to visit him and to supply him with necessaries. Although his own son Demetrius and Nearchus the Cretian were desirous to spare him and tried to save his life, almost all the rest that were about Antigonus urged him to kill Eumenes. In spite of all this, Antigonus took 7 days to think about it. When he feared least his army might rebel, he ordered that no man would be allowed to come to Eumenes. He ordered him to be given no food because he said that he would not kill him who had formerly been his friend. When Eumenes had neither eaten nor drank in 8 day's time and the camp was suddenly to be moved and a man was sent and cut Eumenes' throat. Antigonus knew nothing of this and in respect to his former friendship, he ordered his corpse to be turned over to his closest friends to be buried as they thought fit. They burned it in an honourable and military way. All the army following the bier and burnt it. They gathered his bones into a silver urn and took care to deliver them to his wife and children in Cappadocia. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116. Plutarch and Emil. Prob. in Eumene.]
     
  22. Antigonus returned into Media with his whole army and spent the rest of the winter in a town not far from Ecbatane. He distributed his army here and there all over that province and especially in the country of Rages. It was called that from f[r because there had been more than 2000 cities and towns destroyed by earthquakes in those parts according to Strabo [l. 11. p. 514.] from Possidomus. Antigonus discovered that Pithon the governor of Media tried to ingratiate many of his soldiers with generous gifts and promises and to encourage them to revolt from him. Antigonus handled the matter very astutely. He let it be known that he planned to make Pithon governor of the upper provinces and give him a sufficiently large army for that purpose. He also wrote letters to Pithon and earnestly asked him to come quickly to him so they could consult together on some important matters so that he could immediately march into lesser Asia. By these and other letters sent to Pithon from his supposed friends, Pithon, who was then in the remotest parts of all Media in his winter quarters, came to Antigonus. As soon as Antigonus had him, he called him before a council of war. They quickly found him guilty and chopped off his head. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  23. Antigonus gathered all his army together and committed the government of Media to Orontobazes, a Median. He made Hippostratus the general of his army who had 3500 foreign foot soldiers under him. Antigonus took the main body of his army to Ecbatane where he got 5000 talents of solid silver. Then he marched into Persia and after a 20 day march, he arrived at Persepolis, its capital city. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116]
     
  24. While Antigonus was on his way there, the friends of Pithon, [those that were in on Pithon's conspiracy of which Meleager and Menoetas were the leaders] and followers of Pithon and Eumenes came from those parts to the country and met together. They had about 800 cavalry. They first attacked the lands and possessions of the Medes who refused to join with them in this rebellion. Then they attacked Herostrotus and Orontobazus' camp by night. They almost overcame the outer works but had to retire because they were outnumbered. They only persuaded a few Medes to follow them. Some of the nimblest of the cavalry made many incursions on the country people and raised many disturbances among them. At last they were enclosed in a place surrounded by rocks and cliffs. There some were killed and the rest captured. Meleager and Ocranes and the better men of them who would not surrender, died fighting. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  25. As soon as Antigonus came to Persia, the people honoured him like a king and proclaimed him master of all Asia. He called a council of his friends and he propounded to them the matter of the government of the various provinces to be considered. They decided to give Carmania to Tlepolemus, Bactria to Stasanor and Parapamisus to Oxyartes the father of Roxane since they could not easily remove them from their posts. Evitus was sent to Aria and he died soon after he came there. Euagoras who was a man of outstanding valour and grave wisdom, replaced him. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  26. Antigonus sent for Sibyrtius from Arachosia who was his friend. He confirmed him in his government of that province and gave him 1000 of the most rebellious silver targeteers who had betrayed Eumenes. He appointed them to him under the pretence of helping him in the war. His real reason was to kill them for he ordered Sibyrtius to use them in the risky work until he had destroyed them. Antigonus did not want any of them to ever return to Macedonia or see Greece again. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116. with Plut, in Eumene and Polyamus, Stratag. l.4.]
     
  27. When Antigonus found that Pencestes was highly respected in Persia, he planned to remove him from his government. When all the Persians complained about this, Thespias one of the leaders, spoke publicly against it. He said that the Persians would only be governed by Pencestes. Antigonus had Thespias killed and made Asclepiodorus, the governor of Persia. He strung Pencestes along with vain hopes of better things until he had drawn him out of Persia. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  28. While Antigonus was on his way to Susa, Xenophilus, who had the keeping of the kings treasure at Susa, was sent by Seleucus and met Antigonus at Pasitigris and offered Antigonus his service in whatever he required. Antigonus received him very graciously and pretended that he honoured him more than all his friends. Antigonus feared least he might happen to change his mind and keep him out when he came to Susa. When he came into the citadel of Susa, he took it over for himself. He got the golden vine and a number of objects of art totalling 15,000 talents. All this he made into coins. In addition to the crowns of gold and other presents and spoils taken from the enemy which amounted to 5000 more talents, he took 25,000 talents out of Media. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116.]
     
  29. Antigonus put Aspisus, a native of the country, as the new governor of the province of Susa. He planned to carry away all this money to the sea coast in Asia. He had wagons made for this purpose and journeyed toward Babylon. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 116.]
     
  30. After 22 days, he arrived at Babylon and Seleucus, the governor of that province, received him with all royal presents and feasted his whole army. Antigonus wanted him to give an account of all the money in the public treasury which he had received there since he was appointed to his position. Seleucus replied that he was not bound to give an account for that which was given him by the Macedonians for the service which he had done for Alexander in his lifetime. When hostilities grew daily between them, Seleucus knew he was too weak to tackle Antigonus and feared lest he be killed like Pithon. He stole away with only 50 cavalry in his company and fled to Ptolemy in Egypt. All the world spoke of how good Ptolemy was to all those that fled to him for refuge. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 116. and Appia. in his Syriaca. p. (121).]
     
  31. Antigonus was quite happy that he had been able to take over Babylon without having to kill his old friend. The Chaldeans told him, that if he let Seleucus go, all Asia would be his and he would one day lose his life in a battle against him. He repented that he had let him go and sent men after him to take and bring him back again. After they had pursued him for awhile, they gave up and returned to Antigonus. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 116.] Thereupon, he removed Blirores, the governor of Mesopotamia for allowing Seleucus to pass that way. [Appia. in his Syriaca. p. 121.]
     
  32. When Seleucus was safely in Egypt, Ptolemy entertained him very graciously. When he told Ptolemy all the things Antigonus had done against him, he persuaded Ptolemy to fight against Antigonus. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 116. with Pausanias in his Attica, p. 5.]
     
3690 AM, 4400 JP, 314 BC
  1. From there Seleucus with some his closest friends went to Europe, to persuade Cassander, who then commanded all in Macedonia and Lysimachus, who was over Thracia, to wage war on Antigonus. Antigonus suspected his intentions and sent his agents to Ptolemy, Cassander and Lysimachus, to request their love and friendship to him as in former times. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 116.] However, Seleucus carried the day so that they all joined together with him in a firm league against Antigonus. [Appia. in his Syriaca. p. 121.]
     
  2. Antigonus had made Pithon, who came from India, governor of Babylon. Then he marched toward Cilicia and came to Mallos, a city in Cilicia. There he distributed his army into their winter quarters since it was the time when Orion arose in our month of November. He received 10,000 talents in the city of Quindi of the same province. He received 11,000 talents more from the yearly revenue of the place. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 116.]
     
  3. When Antigonus had gone into upper Syria, ambassadors came to him from Ptolemy, Cassander and Lysimachus. They came to him as he sat in council and made their demands according to their instructions. Antigonus was to surrender all Cappadocia and Lycia to Cassander. Phrygia that bordered on Hellespont was to be turned over to Lysimachus. All Syria was to be given to Ptolemy and the province of Babylon to Seleucus. All the public money which he had taken since the death of Eumenes was to be shared equally among them. Antigonus replied roughly that he was now making war on Ptolemy and that his purpose was not to have any partners in either the peril or the profit. [Diod. and Appia. ut sup. Justin, l.15. c.1.]
     
  4. When the ambassadors returned with this answer, Ptolemy, Cassander and Lysimachus prepared immediately to fight against Antigonus by sea and land. [Id.] When Antigonus knew what a gathering storm was about to break over his head, he sought the alliances of other cities and countries and princes to help him is this war. To this end, he sent Agesilaus to the king of Cyprus, Idomeneus and Moschion to Rhodes and Ptolemy, his own brother's son, in Cappadocia, with an army and Aristodemus into Laconia with 1000 talents to hire soldiers there. He placed couriers and watchmen throughout all Asia which was wholly at his command to quickly send him news of anything that happened.
     
  5. When this was done he marched into Phoenicia and camped near Tyre. He ordered them to provide him with a fleet. He sent for the petty kings and governors of those parts to come to him. When they came, he asked them to join with him in supplying a fleet and in building more ships. All the ships that belonged to Phoenicia were at that time with Ptolemy in Egypt. He ordered them to bring him 4,500,000 bushels of wheat. This was the annual expense of keeping his army. He then had men fell timber and build ships. He used 8000 men and 1000 beasts of burden to move the materials for the ships from Mount Lebanon to the sea side. [Diod. and Appia. ut sup. Justin, l.15. c.1.]
     
  6. While Antigonus was busy building a fleet and had his camp by the seaside, Seleucus sailed past with 100 well outfitted ships. He sailed along in a scornful manner under their very noses. Antigonus' new associates where greatly troubled by this. Antigonus encouraged them and said that by the end of summer, they would see him put to sea with a fleet of 500 ships as good as those. Meanwhile Agesilaus returned with his embassy from Cyprus and brought word that Nicocreon and the most powerful kings of that island had already confederated with Ptolemy. However, Citticus, Lapithus, Marrius and Cirenytes would join with him. Thereupon Antigonus left 3000 men under the command of Andronicus, to maintain the siege against Tyre. With the rest of the army he marched against Gaza and Joppa which held out against him and took them by force. Any of Ptolemy's men he found there, he distributed among his own companies to serve him in his wars. He placed garrisons in both places to keep them in obedience. He returned to his standing camp before Tyre, and prepared all necessaries for a siege against it. [Diod. Sic. Appia. his Syriaca p. 121. Justin, l.15. c.1.]
     
  7. At the same time Aristo, who was entrusted to carry Craterus' bones, delivered them to Phila, the daughter of Antipater, who was married first to Craterus and later to Demetrius. Antigonus had persuaded her father to have his son Demetrius marry her. [??] He was not happy with the match because she was so much older than he. He would always toast him in the feast with that saying from Eurypedes. "In marriage look to thy gain, Though nature sometimes doth restrain."
     
  8. He changed the saying by replacing "to serve" by "to marry". He meant that a man must do anything to serve his own ambitions. [??] Phila was a woman who was reputed to excel both in wit and wisdom. Thereby she often repressed the tumultuous spirits of the most turbulent soldiers in the army. She preferred in marriage at her own cost, the sisters and daughters of the poorer sort among them. [Id. with Plut. in the life of Demetrius.]
     
  9. Aristodemus was sent with other captains into Laconia. He got permission from the Spartans, to raise soldiers and got 8000 troops from Peloponesus. In a conference with Polysperchon and his son Alexander they made a firm alliance with Antigonus and made Polysperchon their general. Aristodemus made Polysperchon commander over the forces which he had raised in Peloponesus and had Alexander cross over into Asia to Antigonus. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  10. Ptolemy, another of Antigonus' captains, went with an army into Cappadocia. He found the city Amisus besieged by Asclepiodorus, a captain of Cassander. He raised the siege and secured the place and sent Asclepiodorus running. Subject to certain conditions, he recovered that whole province for Antigonus. He marched through Bithynia and came up on the back of Zibytes, king of Bithynia while he was busy in the siege of two cities at once. One city belonged to the Assacenians and the other to the Chalcedonians. Ptolemy forced him to raise his siege from both cities. Both cities surrendered to Ptolemy and gave him hostages as a pledge of their loyalty. Ptolemy then moved toward Ionia and Lydia because Antigonus had written to him to secure that coast as quickly as possible. He had intelligence that Seleucus was going into those parts with his fleet. Seleucus had indeed already come and besieged the city Erythrae. When he heard that Ptolemy, the nephew of Antigonus was coming, he left it and went away as he came. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  11. Meanwhile Alexander, the son Polysperchon, came to Antigonus. Before the whole army including the strangers that were in it, Antigonus publicly declared to them what Cassander had done. He said he would avenge the murder of Olympias by Cassander and deliver Alexander his king's son with his mother Roxane from the prison in Amphipolis. He would break off that yoke which Cassander had laid upon all the cities of Greece by putting his garrisons into them. Antigonus sent back Alexander, Polysperchon's son, with 500 more talents into Peloponesius. [Diod. Sic. with Justin l.15. c.1.]
     
  12. When Antigonus had received a fleet from Rhodes along with his other recently built ships, he sailed for Tyre. Since he was master of the sea, he blockaded them by sea and starved them. Thereby that city was in great distress. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  13. When Ptolemy of Egypt, heard the declaration Antigonus had made with the Macedonians concerning the delivery of all Greeks from the rule of Cassander, Ptolemy did the same. He was desirous that all the world know that he was no less zealous for the liberty of all Greeks than Antigonus was. Asander the governor of Caria who was a man of great power and had many large cities under his command joined with Ptolemy. Although Ptolemy had formerly sent 3000 soldiers to the kings of Cyprus, yet he now sent them 10,000 more under the command of Myrmidon an Athenian born and 100 ships commanded by Polyclitus. He made his brother Menelaus general over the whole force. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  14. When these came to Cyprus, Seleucus and his fleet met them. In a council of war they determined their plan of action. They decided that Polyclitus with 50 ships would pass into Peloponesus and there make war on Aristodemus, Polysperchon and Polysperchon's son, Alexander. Myrmidon with an army of foreigners would go into Caria, there to help Asander the governor of that province against Ptolemy, a captain of Antigonus who warred with Asander. Seleucus and Menelaus would stay in Cyprus to support Nicocreon the king and the rest of their confederates against their enemies who warred against them. When they divided their forces, Seleucus went and took Cerynia and Lapithus. When he persuaded Stasiaecus, king of the Malenses, to join his side, he forced the prince of the Amathusians to give him hostages for his safety in time to come. The city of Citium would not come to an agreement with him, therefore he besieged it with his whole army. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  15. About the same time, 40 ships sailed to Antigonus from the Hellespont and Rhodes under the command of one Themison their admiral. After this Dioscorides came with 80 more ships. Antigonus already had a navy of 120 ships of his own recently built in Phoenicia. Now counting the ones besieging Tyre he had a navy of 240 ships: 90 of four tiers of oars, 10 of five, 3 of nine, 10 of ten and 130 were open galleys. He divided this navy and sent 50 of them into Peloponesus and the rest he committed to help his friends as required. He wanted to have the islands which still held out against him, join his side. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  16. Polyclitus, Seleucus' lieutenant, sailed from Cyprus and came to Cenchrea which was a port of Corinth. When he found that Alexander, Polysperchon's son, had defected from Antigonus to Cassander and was no longer an enemy he sailed for Pamphylia. From there he sailed to Aphrodisiades in Cilicia. Here he learned that Theodotus, a captain of Antigonus' navy, had passed by from Patara a port of Lycia. He had the Rhodian fleet that was manned by sailors from Caria. He also learned that Perilaus with a land army, followed along by the shore for the defence of the fleet if required. In this case he used his wits to defeat him. He landed his men and placed them near a suitable place where the land army must pass. He with the fleet went and anchored behind a cape near the place and awaited the coming of the enemy. It happened that when Perilaus' army came, he fell into the ambush that was laid for him. He was taken prisoner. Some of his men were slain and the rest were captured alive. When the fleet at sea saw the land army engaged, they hurried to their relief. Polyclitus, attacked them in this confusion, with his ships in good formation and easily routed them. So Polyclitus captured all their ships and most of the men in them. Theodorus, their Admiral, died shortly after this from his wounds. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  17. When Polyclitus had such good success, first he sailed back to Cyprus and later to Pelusium in Egypt. Ptolemy richly rewarded him for so great a service. He promoted him to a far higher dignity and place of honour than he was in before because he was the author of so great a victory. He released Perilaus and some other of the prisoners whom Antigonus desired through a messenger he sent to him. Ptolemy went to Ecregma to a parley with Antigonus. When Antigonus refusing to grant him what he demanded, he left and returned to Egypt. [Diod. Sic.]
     
3691 AM, 4401 JP, 313 BC
  1. Cassander marched with an army from Macedonia into Caria. He wanted to help the cities which had allied themselves with Ptolemy and Seleucus. He also wanted to hinder Antigonus from coming into Europe. The commanders of this army, Asander the governor of Caria and Prepelaus heard that Ptolemy the general of Antigonus in those parts had his winter quarters for his army there. Also he was now busy in the burying of his father who had recently died. They sent Eupolemus with 8000 foot soldiers and 2000 cavalry Caprima in Caria to lie in ambush for him. Ptolemy found out about it by some that defected to him. He got together 8300 foot soldiers and 600 cavalry. He attacked them in their trenches and found them there all fast asleep. He took Eupolemus prisoner and forced all the rest to submit to his discretion. [Diod. Sic. year 3Olymp. 116.]
     
  2. When Antigonus saw that Cassander wanted to be master of Asia, he left his son Demetrius in Syria with instructions to intercept Ptolemy's men. He suspected they were coming with an army further up into Syria. He left his (Song of Solomon 10,000) foreign foot soldiers, 2000 Macedonians, 500 from Lycia and Pamphylia, 400 Persian arches and slingers, 5000 cavalry and more than 40 elephants. He left four men as counsellors, Nearchon, Pithon who came recently from Babylon, Andromicus and Philippus. These were all men of mature age and judgment. They had served Alexander the Great in his exploits. Demetrius was a young man not more than 22 years old. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116.]
     
  3. Antigonus took the rest of the army and went to cross the Taurus Mountains. There was a heavy snow storm and he lost many of his men. Thereupon he returned back into Cilicia and was told of an easier less dangerous way to cross that mountain. He came to Ceraenae in Phrygia and made his winter quarters for his army. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116.]
     
  4. After Tyre had withstood a 15 month siege, it conditionally surrendered to Antigonus. The men of Ptolemy, the king of Egypt, were allowed to leave with their belongings. Andronicus was left there to hold the place with a garrison. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 116. & year. 1. Olymp. 117. ??]
     
  5. Antigonus sent for Medius to come to him with his fleet which he had in Phoenicia. On his way he met with the fleet of the city Pydna. He captured it and brought both it and all the men in it to Antigonus. [Diod. Sic. year. 3. Olympiad. 116.]
     
  6. Asander, the governor of Caria, being overwhelmed by the enemy, came to this agreement with Antigonus. He would give all his army to Antigonus. All the Greek cities there could live according to their own laws. Asander would hold the government which he had there, as a grant from Antigonus and would be a loyal friend to Antigonus. As security, he gave his own brother Agathon as a pledge. However, a short time later he changed his mind. He got his brother from them and sent his agents to Ptolemy and Seleucus to come speedily and help him. Antigonus took this rather badly and sent his naval and land forces to attack the free Greek cities. To this end, he made Medius his general of the army and Docimus his admiral of the navy. When they came to Milesum, he challenged the inhabitants to fight for their freedom. They captured the citadel and placed a garrison there. They restored the city to her original freedom again. [??] [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 116.]
     
  7. Meanwhile Antigonus took Tralles and attacked the city Caunus. He sent for his fleet and took the city except the citadel. He made a trench around it and made continual assaults on it where it looked like there might be places he could break through. He had sent Ptolemy to the city Iassus. However, he was forced to come back and join with Antigonus. So all these cities came at that time under his control. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 116.]
     
3692 AM, 4402 JP, 312 BC
  1. The Cyrenians defected from Ptolemy and fiercely besieged the citadel there. They had almost taken it when messengers from Alexandria came and persuaded them to stop. They decapitated them and worked harder than ever to take the citadel. Ptolemy was rather upset by this and sent his captain, Agis, with an army there. He sent a navy under the command of Epaenetus to help Agis. Agis pursued the war against these rebels vigorously and took the city of Cyrene. He imprisoned the authors of this sedition and then sent them bound to Alexandria. He disarmed the rest. when he had set things in order there, he returned into Egypt. [Diod. Sic. year. 1. Olymp. 117.]
     
  2. After this success in Cyrene, Ptolemy sailed with his fleet to Cyprus to fight against those who rebelled there against their kings. He captured and executed Pygmalion, who worked with Antigonus. He imprisoned Praxippus king of the Lapithi and the prince of Cerynnia, who was suspected of a revolt. Likewise he imprisoned Stasiaecus, a petty king of the Malians and destroyed their city. He relocated the inhabitants from there to Paphos. After this, he made Nicocreon commander over all Cyprus and gave him the cities together with the revenues of all the kings which he had expelled from their dominions. Then he went with his army into the upper Syria and sacked the cities of Possideum and Potamos in Caria. Then he went quickly with a light army and took Mallus in Cilicia. He sold all the inhabitants into slavery and wasted all the region around there. When he had made his army rich from plunder, he sailed back again to Cyprus. [Diod. Sic. year. 1. Olymp. 117.]
     
  3. Meanwhile, Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, stayed in Coelosyria awaiting the coming of the Egyptians. When he heard what damage Ptolemy had done to so many cities in Syria, he left Pithon to command in those parts. He left his heavily armed soldiers and elephants with Pithon and he with his cavalry and companies of lightly armed soldiers rushed toward Cilicia to help save them from Ptolemy. He came too late and found the enemies had already gone. He speedily returned to his camp again and ruined many of his horses on the way. In 6 days, he marched from Mallus which is normally a 24 day journey by their ordinary marches. So that through rapid travel, none of the servants of cavalry were able to keep up to them. [Diod. Sic. year. 1. Olymp. 117.]
     
  4. When Ptolemy saw everything going as he wanted it, he returned to Egypt. Not long after Seleucus urged him to attack Antigonus because Seleucus hated Antigonus. Therefore Ptolemy planned to march into Coelosyria and attack Demetrius. He gathered all his army together, he marched from Alexandria to Pelusium. He had 18,000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry of which some were Macedonians and some were mercenaries. Some Egyptians helped carry their darts, weapons and other baggage of the army and some went as soldiers. When they crossed the desert from Pelusium, Ptolemy camped near the old city of Gaza and awaited the enemy's arrival. [Diod. Sic. year. 1. Olymp. 117.]
     
  5. In the 117th olympiad, Ptolemy defeated Demetrius, the son of Antigonus in a main battle near Gaza. Ptolemy was called after this, Poliorcetes, that is "the city taker" according to Castor the Historian reports as cited by Josephus. [l. 1. cont. Apion. p. 1048.] Diodorus gives the details of the battle in his history of that olympiad. He says that 8000 were taken prisoners and about 500 killed. This should be amended from Plutarch who says 5000 were killed. Among the nobles who were killed was Pithon, who was at that time joint commander with Demetrius and Boeotus who had lived a long time with Antigonus the father and was ever knowledgable about his plans and affairs.
     
  6. Ptolemy and Seleucus took Gaza. However Demetrius, by the help of a good pair of spurs came to Azotus about the next midnight after riding about 34 miles. From there he sent messengers to beg the bodies of his dead for burial. Ptolemy and Seleucus immediately granted this and also sent back his own pavilion with all its furniture gratis and without ransom. They added a generous message that they fought not for pay but for honour and to see who should wear the garland. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 117. Plutarch. in Demetrio, and Justin. l.15. c.1.]
     
  7. Demetrius was no longer able to hold out in the position he was in. He sent a messenger with his letters to his father who was in Phrygia. He asked for help and to come quickly. Demetrius said he was coming to Tripoli in Phoenicia. He sent for the soldiers that were in Cilicia and elsewhere in remote garrisons from the enemies quarters, to come to him. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  8. When Antigonus heard the news, he said that Ptolemy had now gotten the victory over a company of beardless boys. Next time he would fight with men. So not to discourage his son and because his son wanted another fight with Ptolemy, Antigonus said he could fight with him alone if he wanted to. [Plutarch. in Demetrio.]
     
  9. Ptolemy sent the prisoners whom he had taken to Egypt. They were distributed among the various regiments of his fleet. When he had honourably interred his dead troops, he marched on and attacked the cities and strong places of Phoenicia. Some he besieged and he persuaded others to yield to him. When he captured Sidon he went and camped before Tyre. He sent to Andronicus, the captain of the garrison, to surrender the city to him. He gave him generous promises of wealth and honour. He replied that he would never betray the trust which Antigonus and his son Demetrius had put in him and said many harsh things against Ptolemy. However a little later his soldiers rebelled and he was taken by Ptolemy. He overlooked the harsh words he had spoken against him and highly rewarded him. He took Andronicus into the number of his friends and regarded him highly. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  10. Seleucus took with him 1000 foot soldiers from Ptolemy's [as Appianus has it, for Diodorus says only 800.] and 200 cavalry. With so small a force he went to recover his government of the province of Babylon. When he came with them into Mesopotamia, he there dealt with the Macedonians he found living in Carran. He persuaded some to follow him, others he forced to go along with him in his journey. No sooner had he set foot within the territory of Babylon, then the inhabitants came flocking to him and offered him their service in the recovering of his government. Polyarchus also, who held some kind of office among them, came to him to receive his commands and brought 1000 armed troops to him. When those who sided with Antigonus knew of his popularity with the people, they all fled to the citadel which was commanded by Diphilus. Seleucus besieged it and took it by force. He released from there the children and friends of his that Antigonus had imprisoned when Seleucus had fled to Egypt for fear. When this was done, he started raising soldiers in the country. He bought horses and distributed them among those who were able to ride them. With all of them be behaved fairly and friendly. He secured their loyalty so they were all ready to risk any hazard with him. So for the third time he again recovered all his government of Babylon. [Diod. Sic. with Appian. in his Syriaca, p. 121.]
     
  11. Nicanor, whom Antigonus had made governor of the province of Media, marched against Seleucus with 10,000 foot soldiers and 7000 cavalry. Seleucus immediately went to meet him with a little more than 3000 foot soldiers and 400 cavalry. When he had crossed the Tigris River, he heard that the enemy was not far off. He hid his men in the marshes around there and planned to ambush Nicanor. When Nicanor came to the bank of the Tigris River, he could not find the enemy and camped near to a post house of the kings. Little did he think that the enemy was so near. The next night he was not even thinking about the enemy and did not post a proper military watch. Seleucus attacked him and raised a great tumult in his army. When the Persians started to fight back, Euager their general along with other commanders were killed. After this fight most of Nicanor's army abandoned him and defected to Seleucus. They did not like the fix they were in nor did they care for Antigonus. Thereupon Nicanor feared what would happen next lest his soldiers turn him over to Seleucus. He stole away with some few of his friends, and fled home through the desert into Media again. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  12. When Seleucus had gotten this powerful army, he still behaved well toward all men and easily subdued the provinces of Media, Susa and the other bordering countries. He quickly sent Ptolemy word how he had regained his full regal power and majesty. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. (117).] Based on this, Eusebius counts this as the first year of Seleucus' reign. All note that the Edesseni begin their epoch here. The story of the Maccabees' account of the Greek reign begins here. Without a doubt this is from the autumn of this very year, that is, from September or October of the year 4402 JP. Starting at that time, the writer of the second book of Maccabees calculates his Greek years, and the Jews there, "eram Contractium", i.e."their account of Contracts", and those of Edessa, and other Syrians, in their "Epoch of the Seleucian Kingdom", and the Arabians, "the years of Alexander Dehiplarnain", as they call them. Yet the writer of the first book of Maccabees begins his account of the Greek year, from the previous spring to this autumn and Ptolemy of Alexandria, in his great Syntaxis begins his Chaldean account, from the next spring.
     
3693 AM, 4402 JP, 312 BC
  1. While Ptolemy of Egypt remained still in Coelosyria, he sent one of his friends, called Cilles, a Macedonian, with a large army against Demetrius. He was camped in upper Syria and Ptolemy wanted Cilles to fight with him and either drive him out of Syria or confine him there and destroy him. Demetrius was told this by his spies that Cilles with his army camped at Myus carelessly without keeping a proper watch. He left his baggage behind him, marched away with a company of light-footed troops. They travelled all night and a little before daybreak they attacked Cilles' camp. They turned it into chaos and captured Cilles with 7000 soldiers and much booty besides. Since he thought Ptolemy was coming later with all his army, he pitched his camp in a place where he had a bog on the one hand and a large lake on the other side to protect him. [Diod. Sic. year. 1. Olymp. 117. & Plut. in Demetrio.]
     
  2. Demetrius sent news of this good success to his father Antigonus at Celenae in Phrygia. He asked him to quickly send an army or to come himself in person into Syria. When Antigonus read the letter, he was overjoyed by the news of the victory and his son's conduct in managing the battle. He showed himself a man worthy to wear the crown after Antigonus. [Diodor.] Demetrius, with his father's permission, sent back Cilles and all his friends to Ptolemy again. Thereby, he was no longer indebted to Ptolemy for his former kindness to him. [Plut.]
     
  3. Antigonus with his army moved from Phrygia and in a few days crossed the Taurus Mountains and came to his son Demetrius. Ptolemy followed the advice of his council and decided to leave Syria. Before he left, he laid waste and destroyed the main cities which he had captured. These included, Acon in Syrophoenicia, Joppa, Samaria and Gaza of Syria. He took whatever he could carry from there and returned to Egypt loaded with wealth. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 117.]
     
  4. A great number of men who lived there noticed his good disposition and clemency of nature. They wanted to return with him to Egypt. Among those was Ezechias, a high priest of the Jews. [Perhaps a secondary one, for the chief high priest at that time was Onias the first] Ezechias was about 66 years old and highly respected among his people, very eloquent and had much experience in the affairs of the world. This and much more concerning this Ezechias is told by Hecaraeus the historian [who conversed with him in Ptolemy's army] in a peculiar Treatise which he wrote about the Jews. He tells a long story about another Jew, whom he became acquainted with, named Mosollamo. or Meshullamo. His story is: "When I went toward the Red Sea, there was one among the rest, of a troop of cavalry of the Jews who escorted us, a man called Mosollamus. He was a high-spirited man and the best archer of all the company. He saw a certain wizard in the company who stood still. He desired all the company to do the same while he observed a certain bird that flew so he could divine by it. Mosollamus asked him why he stood still. When the wizard showed him the bird which he was watching and said that it would be best for the company to stay there if the bird would stay where she was. If she arose and flew before them then they should go forward too. If she flew back, then all the company ought also to return. Mosollamus said nothing but drew his bow and shot and killed the bird. The wizard and others there present were angry about this and shamed him for his actions. He replied that why were they angry with him and why do you pick up this unlucky bird? How could the bird that did not know what was about to happen to it, predict what would happen to them on their journey? If she had any knowledge of things to come, she would never have come there to be shot to death by Mossollamus a Jew."
     
  5. Many things besides this are told by Josephus, [in his book, contra. Apion.] from the same book concerning the Jews. He says that at that time there were 1500 priests who received tithes and governed all things belonging to the commonwealth. Demetrius Phalareus, in his Epistle to Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, [found in Aristeas his book of the 70 Interpreters and in the same Josephus, l.12. Antiquit. c.2.] from the same author tells us the reason why no heathen poet or historian mentions either of those sacred books or of those men who lived according to the rules set down in them. These books contain a sacred and a venerable rule which was not to be uttered by unhallowed mouths.
     
  6. Antigonus had recovered all Syria and Phoenicia without fighting a battle. He journeyed to the country of the Arabians, called the Nabathaeans. He thought they never really favoured his actions. Therefore he appointed one of his friends called Athenaeus, with 4000 foot soldiers and 600 light cavalry to attack them and get as much spoil as he could. About that time of the year, all the neighbouring countries came together to a common market to sell their wares. The Nabathaeans went to this market according to their custom. They left their wealth and the old men with their wives and children on the top of a rock. Athenaeus waited for this opportunity and quickly marched to this rock. He left the province of Edom and marched 275 miles in 3 days and 3 nights time. Late in the night he surprised the Arabians and captured the rock. He killed some of the soldiers there and took some prisoners. He left their wounded behind. He took a large quantity of their myrrh and frankincense with 500 talents of silver. He did not stay there more than 3 hours lest the neighbouring countries attack him. He returned immediately again. They had gone only 25 miles and could go no further because they were so tired. Therefore they rested and did not set a watch for they thought the people could not reach them for 2 or 3 days. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 117.]
     
  7. When the Arabians knew what had happened by those who had seen the enemy army, they left the market and returned to the rock. The wounded told them which way the army had gone and the Arabs followed them. Athenaeus' men kept no watch and after their long journey were weary and fast asleep. Some of their prisoners stole away from them. They told the Arabs where the enemy camp was. They hurried to the place and arrived about 3 in the morning. They attacked their trenches and killed 8000 of them as they lay sleeping in their tents. Any that resisted were killed. They utterly destroyed all their foot soldiers and only 50 of their cavalry escaped and most of them were wounded too. So the Nabathaeans recovered their goods and returned to the rock. They sent a letter to Antigonus written in Syriac. They complained of Athenaeus and his wrong doing and excused themselves. Antigonus wrote back again cunningly telling them that Athenaeus was well enough treated by them. He blamed Athanaeus for his actions and assured them that he had issued no such order to do that. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. (117).] When Antigonus had appeased and deceived these poor Nabathaeans, a little later he selected from all his army, 4000 foot soldiers. They were lightly armed and the swiftest on their feet that he could find. He added 4000 cavalry to the troops and wanted them to take in their knapsacks, a supply of food for the journey that would not need to be cooked. He had Demetrius, his son, to command them. He sent them away early in the night with orders to avenge his loss. Demetrius travelled 3 day's journey through the desert and hurried to attack them by surprise. However, the scouts saw them coming and made fires to signal their coming into that country. Thereupon the Arabs presently climbed to the top of their rock. There was only one way to get up and that was by climbing by hand. They left their belongings there with a sufficient guard to keep it. The rest went and drove away their cattle, some to one place, some to another in the desert. When Demetrius came to the rock and saw all the cattle were driven away he started to besiege the rock. They manfully defended it and by the advantage of the place and that day had the upper hand. At last Demetrius was forced to withdraw. Since he saw that he could not defeat them, he made a peace with them. They gave him hostages and such gifts as were agreed upon between them. He moved with his army about 40 miles and camped near the Lake Asphaltis or Dead Sea. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116] Plutarch says that he went there with a huge booty and 700 camels.
     
  8. When Demetrius returned to Antigonus, he told his father what happened. Antigonus blamed him for making peace with the Nabathaeans and said that those barbarous people would become more insolent since they had escaped. However, he commended him for discovering the Lake Asphaltis since from there he might raise some yearly revenue for himself. He made Hieronymus Cardianus the historian, his treasurer for that revenue. Josephus [l. 1. cont. Apion.] notes that he was made governor of Syria by Antigonus. Josephus very deservedly blames Heironymus that in his writings, he makes no mention of the Jews since he lived near to them and almost among them. Hieronymus was commanded to build ships and to gather together in one place all the bitumen or liquid brimstone that could be extracted from that lake. The 6000 Arabians attacked them as they were in their ships gathering this brimstone and killed almost all of them with arrows. Hence, Antigonus lost all hope of making any regular revenue that way. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116]
     
  9. Antigonus, learned from letters by Nicanor the governor of Media and others, how Seleucus prospered in those parts. He sent his son Demetrius with 5000 Macedonian foot soldiers, 10,000 mercenaries and 4000 cavalry. He was ordered to march to the very walls of Babylon. When he had recovered that province, he was to march down to the sea. Demetrius left Damascus in Syria and went to execute his father's commands. As soon as Patrocles, whom Seleucus had left as governor of Babylon, heard that Demetrius was coming into Mesopotamia, he dared not to check his coming because he had only a small force with him. He ordered the rest to leave the city and when they had crossed the Euphrates, they should flee. Some should go into the desert, while others over the Tigris River into the province of Susa and to the Persian Sea: He with the forces he had would trust in the sandbars of the rivers and dikes of the country for defences instead of so many fortresses and bulwarks. He stayed within the bounds of his own government and thought how to entrap his enemy. He kept Seleucus in Media informed how things went with him and desired help to be speedily sent to him. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116]
     
  10. When Demetrius came to Babylon and found the city itself devoid of inhabitants, he started to besiege the forts and citadels that were there. When he had taken one, he gave its spoil to the soldiers. He turned out Seleucus' men, put his garrison of 7000 soldiers in their place. He was not able to take any others and after a long seige he departed and left Archelaus, one of his loyal friends to maintain the siege with 5000 foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry. When Demetrius had run out of time that his father had allowed for this expedition, he ordered his soldiers to steal for themselves whatever they could from that province. Then he journeyed back to Asia. By this action, he left Seleucus more grounded and better settled in his government than before. Men said why would Demetrius waste and spoil the country if he planned to take it over? [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116 with Plut. in Demetrio.] Thereupon the Chaldeans reckon the beginning of the Seleucian reign in Babylon from this time rather than an earlier time.
     
  11. Demetrius returned to Asia and quickly raised the siege which Ptolemy had laid to Halicarnasius. [Plut. in Demetrio.]
     
  12. Cassander, Ptolemy and Lysimachus, made peace with Antigonus, upon these conditions. Cassander would command all in Europe until Alexander the son of Roxane came of age. Lysimachus would hold Thrace and Ptolemy Egypt along with the bordering countries of Libya and Arabia. Antigonus would have the command of all Asia to himself. This agreement did not last long for everyone used any occasion to encroach on one another's territory. [Diod. Sic. year. (2). Olymp. 117.]
     
  13. Cassander saw that Alexander the son of Roxane was growing up and heard a rumour among the Macedonians. They thought it was about time that the young king should now be freed from his prison and rule the kingdom. He was alarmed by this and ordered Glaucia the keeper, to murder Roxane and her son, the king. He was to bury their bodies in some secret place and should by all means possible conceal their deaths. This he did. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 116]
     
  14. Parysades the king of Bosphorus Cimerius died after ruling for 38 years. He left his kingdom to his oldest son Satyrus. He held the kingdom for only nine months. [Diod. Sic. year. (3). Olymp. 117.]
     
3694 AM, 4404 JP, 310 BC
  1. In Peloponesus, Ptolemy, a captain of Antigonus, defected from him to Cassander's side. He sent soldiers to a most loyal friend of his, called Phoenix and one to whom he had committed the management of the government of Hellespont. He advised him to man his forts and cities and to stand guard and no longer serve Antigonus. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 117.]
     
  2. On the other side, Ptolemy of Egypt cried out against Antigonus. He, contrary to agreement, had put his garrisons into various Greek cities on the Asian side. Thereupon he sent Leonides, his captain, to Cilicia Aspara. He took over some cities and places that belonged to Antigonus. Moreover he sent his agent to some cities held by Cassander and Lysimachus, that they should follow his advise and not allow Antigonus to become too powerful. [Diod. Sic. year (3). Olymp. 116]
     
  3. Antgonus sent his younger son Philippus, to fight against Phoenix, and others who had revolted from him in the Hellespont. His son Demetrius, was sent into Cilicia against Ptolemy of Egypt. He routed the captains of Ptolemy and recovered the cities which he had taken. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116]
     
  4. Polysperchon in Peloponesus cried out against Cassander and concerning his government of Macedonia. He sent for Hercules, a son of Alexander the Great by Barsine, who was now 17 years old. He sent to those who were enemies of Cassander to help establish this young man in his father's kingdom. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116]
     
  5. when Ptolemy of Egypt had all Cyprus under his command, he learned that Nicocles the king of Paphos, had negotiated secretly with Antigonus. Ptolemy sent two confidants of his, Argaus and Callicrates, with orders to get rid of Nicocles. They crossed over into Cyprus and took with them a certain number of soldiers from Menalaus, who commanded the army there. They surrounded the house of Nicocles and then told him what Ptolemy wanted him to do and advised him to find another kingdom. First, he tried to clear himself of the charges. When he saw that no man listened to him, he drew his sword and killed himself. When Axiothea his wife heard of her husband's death, she took her daughters who were all young virgins and killed them. She tried to make the wives of Nicocles' brothers, die with her. Ptolemy had not requested this but ordered that they be spared. The brothers also of Nicocles, shut themselves in their houses and set fire to them and they died. The whole family of the kings of Phaphos came to a tragic and lamentable end. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116] & Polya. Stratag. l.8.]
     
  6. Agathocles king of Sicily, was sailing about this time into Africa to make war upon the Carthaginians. A total eclipse of the sun happened and it was so dark that the stars appeared in the sky and the day was turned into night. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 117. Justin. l.22. c.6.] This happened on August 15,310 BC according to the astronomical tables.
     
  7. When Epicurus was 32 years old, he taught publicly for 5 years in both Mitylene and Lampsacus. [Diod. Sic. Lacterus, in the Life of Epicurus.]
     
  8. In Bosphorus Cimmerius, Eumelus, the younger brother to Satyrus allied with some of the neighbouring natives and laid claim to the kingdom of his elder brother. When Satyrus knew of this, he went against him with a large army and crossed the Thapsus River. When Satyrus came near Eumelus' quarters, Satyrus surrounded Eumelus' camp with his carts and wagons in which he had brought a large quantity of provisions. He arranged his army in the field for battle. As was the custom of the Scythian kings, he led the main battle line in his army. He had less than 2000 Greeks or 1000 and as many Thracians. All the rest were Scythians who came to help him. They numbered 20,000 and at least 1000 cavalry. Eumelus was helped by Ariopharnes, king of Thracia, with 20,000 cavalry and 22,000 foot soldiers. Satyrus routed Ariopharnes and then defeated his brother Eumelus with his foot soldiers. He forced them all to retreat to Arioparnes' palace, which was surrounded by a river with steep rocks and a thick woods. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116]
     
  9. At first, Satyrus went and wasted the enemy's country and set fire to their villages. He gathered much spoil from them. Then he made his way through their marshy country and came to their wooden citadels and took them. He crossed the river and cut down a large forest that he had to pass through to get to the king's palace. He had his whole army work at this for 3 days until they came to the walls of the citadel. Meniscus, who led the mercenary companies, got through a passage in the wall. Although he fought very courageously, he was outnumbered and forced to retreat. When Satyrus came to his relief, he was wounded in the arm with a spear. He was forced to retire to his camp and the next night, died from the wound. Meniscus broke off the siege and withdrew the army to a city called Gargaza. From there he carried the king's body down the river to a city called Panticapaeum to his brother Prytanis. He gave it a magnificent burial and laid up the relics in the king's sepulchre. He went to Gargaza and took over the army and the kingdom. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116]
     
  10. Agents from Eumelus came to Prytanis to purpose that the kingdom be divided between them. Prytanis would have none of it and left a strong garrison at Gargaza. He returned to Pantacapaeum to settle the affairs of his kingdom. After a while Eumelus with the help of some barbarians captured Gargaza and various other towns and citadels. Later he defeated Prytanis in a battle and trapped him in a neck of land near Lake Maeotis. He forced Prytanis to surrender on condition that he give up all his army and leave the kingdom. Nevertheless, when Prytanis returned to Pantacapaeum which was the place where the kings of Bosphorus keep their standing court, he endeavoured again to recovered his kingdom. He was foiled in this and he fled to a place near there called the Gardens and was killed. His brother Eumelus reigned in his place for 5 years and 5 months. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116]
     
3695 AM, 4405 JP, 309 BC
  1. To establish his kingdom, Eumelus killed all the friends, wives and children of both his brothers, Satyrus and Pritanis. Only Parysades, Satyrus' son, who was only a youth escaped. Using a swift horse, he fled to Agarus king of the Scythians. When Eumelus saw that the people repined at the loss of their friends who he had murdered, he called them all together. He excused himself and restored to them their ancient form of government and restored moreover to the citizens of Pantacupaeum their former immunities. He promised to free them from all kinds of tribute. He spared no fair words to reconcile the hearts of the people again to him. By this he got their good will again. He ruled with justice and moderation and was held in admiration among them. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 116]
     
  2. When Ptolemy of Egypt heard that he had lost all again in Cilicia, he sailed over with his fleet to Phaselis and took that city by force. From there he passed into Lycia and took Xanthus by assault and the garrison of Antigonus that was there. Then he attacked Caunus which surrendered to him. Then he attacked the citadels and forts that were in it and took them by assault. He utterly destroyed Heracleum. Persicum was surrendered to him by the soldiers that were to hold it. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 117.]
     
  3. Then he sailed to Cos and sent for Captain Ptolemy to come to him. He was Antigonus' brother's son and had an army committed to him by Antigonus. He defected from his uncle and he sided with Ptolemy in everything. He left there or from Chaleis, and arrived at Cos. At first Ptolemy received him in a very courteous manner. After a while, he saw the indolence of his behaviour and how he tried to secure his officers by gifts and secret meetings with them. He feared the worst and put him in prison. There he poisoned him with a drink of hemlock. Ptolemy secured his soldiers with generous promises and distributed them in small numbers among the rest of his army. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 117.]
     
  4. Cassander feared lest the Macedonians would defect to Hercules, the son of Alexander the Great. He was then 14 years old. [as Justin, or rather 17 according to Diodorus] Cassander befriended Polysperchon and by his means had Hercules and his mother Barsine to be privately murdered and their bodies to be hid deep enough in the ground lest by their solemn funerals the truth might happen to come to light. Now that Alexander's two sons were both dead and there was no heir of his body left to succeed him, every governor made himself a king of the province which he held just as if he had captured it in battle. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 117. & Justin, l. 15. c.2.]
     
3696 AM, 4406 JP, 308 BC
  1. Ptolemy sailed from Myndus along the islands which lay by his way and came to Andros. He expelled the garrison that was there and restored it to her former liberty. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 118.]
     
  2. Cleopatra, the daughter of Philip and sister to Alexander the Great, was incensed against Antigonus. Of her own accord she planned to go to Ptolemy and left Sardis. The governor there, to whom Antigonus had given a charge not to hurt her, prevented her from leaving. Later, by Antigonus' command and the help of some of her women about her, Cleopatra was murdered. To alley suspicion, Antigonus had some of those women executed who murdered her and buried her with all the magnificence that he could. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 118.]
     
  3. Ophellas, who had expelled Thimbron and subdued the Cyrenians for Ptolemy, now claimed Cyrene with the cities and adjoining regions as his own. Still not content, he began to look for greater things. While he was thinking about this, Ortho of Syraensa, came to him with a message from Agathocles asking him to join in arms with him against the Carthaginians. He told him that if he subdued them, he would make him sovereign of all Africa. This fuelled his ego and he listened to him. He sent his agent to Athens from where he had married his wife Euridice, the daughter of Miltiades, to ask their help and alliance in this war. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 118.]
     
3697 AM, 4407 JP, 307 BC
  1. Many Athenians and other Greeks willingly listened to this motion. They hoped by this to have a share of the richest pieces of all Africa with all the wealth of Carthage for themselves. Ophellas was outfitted for this expedition. He had an army of 10,000 foot soldiers, 600 or 700 cavalry, and 100 chariots with more than 300 men drivers and soldiers to manage them. Besides the followers of the camp, he had more than 10,000 with him. They brought along their wives and children with their baggage. This looked more like a colony going to be established than an army marching against an enemy. When they had marched for 18 days and gone 375 miles, they came to a city called Automulus on the western border of Cyrene. They camped here and rested themselves. Then they moved again and travelled through a dry desert country that was full of poisonous snakes. At last after two months of miserable travel they came to Agathocles' camp where they pitched their camp close to his. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 118.]
     
  2. When Agathocles heard of his coming, he went to meet him. He advised him to rest and relax after so tedious and hard a journey. When they had dined together often, Ophellas adopted Agathocles for his son. Later when most of Ophellas' army was foraging in the country, Agathocles suddenly called an assembly of his own army and before them accused Ophellas who was to help him in this war of betraying him. When he had incensed the multitude, he drew out his whole army in formation against Ophellas and his Cyrenians. Ophellas was shocked at this unexpected turn of affairs and had his men defend themselves. The enemy was too quick for him and he too weak for them. He was killed. After his death, Agathocles persuaded the rest that were left to lay down their arms and then told them what great things he would do for them. He persuaded them to take his pay and thus took over Ophellas' army. Those that he found not fit for the war, he sent to Syracuse. Some arrived there but most perished in a fierce storm on the way. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 118. with Justin, l.22. c.2.]
     
  3. After Ophellas' death, Cyrene and all Libya returned in Ptolemy's government again. [Suid. in Dhmhtr.]
     
3698 AM, 4408 JP, 306 BC
  1. Demetrius Poliarcator or as Pliny renders it, "Expugnator Urbum", that is "the City Taker" was furnished with two strong armies, one by land and another by sea. They had all weapons and all other necessaries for the war. They left Ephesus with 5000 talents of silver to liberate the Greek cities. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 118.] They came to Pyrrum, the port of Athens, with 250 ships on the 26th day of Thargelion, about May 31th, [Plutarch in the Life of Demetrius] They were received into Athens and took the city of Megar. Since Cassander had put a garrison into Munichium which was the fort or citadel of Athens, under the command of Dionysus, therefore he raised it to the ground.
     
  2. This happened in the year when Anaxicrates was archon at Athens. Among others, Philochorus who lived at this very time, records this in his Attic. [History. l.8. cited by Dionysuis Halicarnassus, in his Dinarchus] It was toward the end of his archonship in year 2 of Olympiad 118.
     
  3. Enridice returned to Athens. She was the widow of Opheltas or Ophellas who was governor of Cyrene and was killed the previous year before. Demetrius the son of Antigonus married her. The Athenians took this as a great honour for them. They were the first that called Demetrius and Antigonus by the title of kings. Otherwise they declined that title as the only mark of royalty which belonged exclusively to Phillip, Alexander and his posterity. [Plut. in Demetrius.]
     
  4. Demetrius was recalled from Greece by his father Antigonus to make war upon the captains of Ptolemy in Cyprus. He sailed first to Caria and then to Cilicia. He got supplies from there of ships and men and sailed to Cyprus with 15,000 foot soldiers, 400 cavalry and a fleet of 110 very fast ships of three tiers of oars a piece and 53 that were slower. The rest were cargo ships to transport the men, horses and equipment.
     
  5. He landed and first camped near the shore not for from Carspasia. He drew up his ships to land and fenced them there with a deep trench and ramparts. Then he went by force and took Urania and Carpasia. He left a sufficient guard to defend his trenches about the fleet and marched immediately to Salamis. [Diod. Sic. year 3Olymp. 118.]
     
  6. Menelaus, the brother of Ptolemy and chief commander of the island was then at Salamis. When he saw the enemy within 5 miles of the city, he drew out from the adjoining garrisons 12,000 foot soldiers and 800 cavalry. He went to attack him but was overcome by the enemy and fled. Demetrius followed him closely to the very gates of the city and captured 3000 men and killed 1000 there. He distributed the prisoners among his own companies to serve him. When he found they were always ready to defect again to Menelaus, because their wealth was in Ptolemy's hands in Egypt, he shipped them all away to Antigonus his father. [Diod. Sic. year 3Olymp. 118.]
     
  7. Antigonus at that time was building a city in upper Syria by the Orontes River. He called it after his own name, Antigonia and spent large amounts of money on it. The walls were about 9 miles long. The place was very opportune to control Babylon and the upper provinces and also the lower ones as far down as Egypt. [Diod. Sic. year 3Olymp. 118.]
     
  8. Menelaus fled back to Salamis and determined to endure a siege. He sent a messenger to Ptolemy for more help and told him what danger he was in. Demetrius started to work preparing his battering rams to take the city by force. He had one special machine which he called "Helepolis", i.e."one that would not fail him in taking any city, which it was sent against". He also had various other large rams and galleries for them. At night those within the city threw fire on them and consumed many of the machines with the most of the men that kept them. Yet Demetrius would not stop but pressed the siege both by sea and land and thought in time he would capture the city. [Diod. Sic. year 3Olymp. 118.]
     
  9. When Ptolemy heard of the loss of his men, he sailed with a well furnished army for sea and land and arrived at Paphos in Cyprus. He took boats from the neighbouring cities and went to Citium about 25 miles from Salamis. His whole fleet consisted of 140, or as Plutarch has it, 150 ships. The largest was of five tiers of oars and the smallest had four teirs of oars. These were accompanied by 200 cargo ships containing at least 10,000 soldiers. He sent word to Menelaus that when he saw them in the heat of the fight, he should then attack from the port of Salamis with 60 ships and assault the rear of the enemy and disorganize them in any way he could. Demetrius foresaw what would happen. He left a part of his army to maintain the siege by land. He ordered Antisthenes his admiral, with ten ships of 5 tiers of oars a piece to lie at the mouth of the harbour of Salamis and to keep the fleet in, so they could not get out. When he had arranged his land army on the shore on forelands looking toward the sea he sailed and with a fleet of 108 or as Plutarch has it, of 180 ships. Most were of 7 tiers of oars and the smallest, four tiers. [Diod. Sic. & Plutarch.]
     
  10. Ptolemy was in the wing where he utterly routed the enemy and sank some of their ships and captured others with their men in them. When he returned, he thought to do the same with the rest of the enemy forces. However, he found that his left wing was wholly routed by Demetrius and he was in hot pursuit of them. Therefore he sailed back to Citium. Demetrius committed his warships to Neon and Burichus to pursue the enemy and rescue those who were swimming in the sea. He returned to his own port from where he had set out. [Diod. Sic.]
     
3699 AM, 4408 JP, 306 BC
  1. Meanwhile, Menelaus sent out his 60 ships as he was commanded under the command of Menaetius. He fought with those ten ships that were set to keep him in, broke through them and they fled for safety to the army that was on land. When Menetius' men saw they came too late to act according to their instructions, they returned again to Salamis. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  2. Ptolemy saw he could do no good in Cyprus and returned with only 8 ships to Egypt. [Diod. Sic. & Justin, l.15. c.2. and Plut.] Thereupon Menelaus surrendered both the city and all his forces both of land and sea to Demetrius. He had 1200 cavalry and 12,000 heavily armed foot soldiers. [Plut.] In a short time, Demetrius captured all the rest of the cities and forts of the island and distributed the garrison soldiers among his own companies to the number of 16,000 foot soldiers and 600 cavalry. [Diod. Sic.]
     
  3. He took 100 cargo ships containing almost 8000 soldiers and 40 warships with their crews. About 80 ships were damaged in the battle and leaked. They drew these to land below their camp near the city. Demetrius had 20 of his own ships badly damaged in this fight. These were repaired and were as good as new again according to Diodorus. However, Plutarch says 70 of Ptolemy's ships were captured with their crew and soldiers. Of the rest who were in the cargo ships, these were mainly slaves, friends and women. They had weapons and money to pay the soldiers and had engines of war. Nothing escaped and Demetrius took it all and carried it to his camp. Among the rest, there was a lady named Lamia, who was first famous for her excellent skill in playing upon the recorder and later became a notorious harlot. Although she was well past her prime, Demetrius who was much younger then her, fell in love with her. She so far caught and enamoured him with the pretence of her talk and behaviour that he grew as much in love with her as other women were with him. [Plut.]
     
  4. Demetrius buried the bodies of the enemy that were slain with a very honourable burial. He dismissed those he had taken prisoners and gave the Athenians arms enough to furnish 1200 men. [Plut. in Demetr.] He sent home Leontiscus, Ptolemy's son, Menelaus' brother and his other friends, with suitable provision for their journey by the way. He did not forget what Ptolemy had formerly done to him in the same kind of situation. He used these reciprocal displays of love and kindness in the very heat of war that it might evidently appear their dispute was for honour and not from hatred. It was the fashion in those days to wage war more religiously than now men use to observe the laws of friendship in time of peace. [Justin, l.15. c. 2.]
     
  5. Demetrius sent by Aristodemus the Milesian, the news of this victory to his father. This Aristodemus was counted the prime flatterer in all the court. When he came to Antigonus, he stood still a while and held him in suspense as to what the news might be. Finally he burst out with these terms: "God save the King Antigonus, we have overthrown king Ptolemy at sea. Cyprus is ours. We have taken prisoner 16,800 of his men."
     
  6. Antigonus replied to him. "God save thee too. Nevertheless, because thou heldest me so long in suspense before thou toldest me thy good news, thou shalt in the same way be punished too. For thou shalt stay a while, before thou receive thy reward for thy good news." [Plut.]
     
  7. Antigonus was puffed up with pride of this victory and assumed to himself a crown and the title of king after this. Thereupon Ptolemy did the same lest he should in any ways seem to be defeated by this or be held in less regard by his subjects. In all his letters from that time on, he swore himself king. By their example, other governors of provinces did likewise. Seleucus, who had lately subdued the upper provinces to himself did this. Likewise did Lysimachus and Cassander when they saw there was neither mother nor brother nor son of Alexander the Great now left alive. [Diod. Sic. & Justin. l.15. c.2. Plut. in Denet. And Appianus, in his Syriaca. p. (122).]
     
  8. Seleucus made himself king of Babylon and Media since he had personally killed Nicator or Nicanor whom Antigonus had placed as governor there. [Appia. ib.] He assumed the surname of Nicator or Nicanor [for so we find him also stamped on his coins] not from Nicator or Nicanor, whom he so slew, but from the many and great victories which he got. [Appia. ibid. p. (124). and Ammia. Marcellnus, l.23. Histor.] After he subdued the Bactrians, he proceeded and took in all the rest of the countries which Alexander had formerly subdued, as far as the Indus River and added them to his own dominion. [Justin, l.15. c.4. Appia. in his Syriaca. p. 123.]
     
  9. King Antigonus' [for so hereafter we must call him] youngest son died and Antigonus buried him in a royal manner. He called home Demetrius from Cyprus and commanded his whole army to meet at his new city of Antigonia. He planned to march from there into Egypt. Therefore leading the foot soldiers himself, he went through Coelosyria. He had an army of 80,000 foot soldiers and about 10,000 cavalry. He made Demetrius, admiral of his fleet and ordered him to keep close to the shore within sight of the army. He had 150 fighting ships and 100 cargo ships. They carried an enormous supply of all types of weapons. The pilots told him that now was the time that the seven stars were ready to set and would set on the 8th day from then. [in the beginning of April]. He replied that they were too timid to make good sailors. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 118.]
     
  10. Antigonus came with his army to Gaza and planned to attack Ptolemy before he was ready for him. He commanded his soldiers to take with them 10 days supply of food. With the camels from Arabia, he loaded 130,000 bushels of wheat and an enormous supply of hay on the other beasts of burden. He carried his weapons in wagons and went through the desert. This caused some trouble for the army. They crossed various marshy and dusty places in the way, especially about the place called Barathra. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 118.]
     
  11. Demetrius sailed with his ships from Gaza in the dead of the night and was for many days becalmed. The higher ships were forced to tow the cargo ships with ropes. After this and as soon as the seven stars were set, a northerly wind rose upon them. Many of the ships of 4 tiers of oars were driven on shore near to the city Raphia where there was no good harbour for them. Of those which carried the weapons, some sank and the rest retired to Gaza again. Some of the best of them bare up and came under the promontory of Cisius. That cape is not far from the Nile River and is not suitable for shipping especially if there are any storms. There is no way to get near it. Therefore every ship dropped two anchors a piece a quarter mile from land and were forced to ride out the storm in a heavy sea. In the midst of all this danger they were driven to extremity. For had that storm lasted only one day longer, they would have used all their fresh water and would have died of thirst. The storm ceased and Antigonus with his army came to the place and camped there. The weather beaten men came ashore and refreshed themselves in the camp. Nevertheless in this storm there were lost 3 ships of 5 tiers of oars from which some men escaped alive to land. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 118.]
     
  12. From here Antigonus moved and placed his army a quarter mile from the Nile River. However, Ptolemy had manned all the bank of the river with strong garrisons. He sent some in river boats. They went as near the further bank as they safely could and proclaimed that if any of Antigonus' army would come to him, he would give a common soldier two pounds and a captain a whole talent for his trouble. No sooner was this proclamation made, but a large number of Antigonus' mercenaries wanted to leave. Some of his captains wanted also to go. When Antigonus knew that a large number of his men were deserting him, he positioned archers, slingers and other engines of war, to keep them from crossing over the water in boats. If any were found that went, he put them to death with horrible torments. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. (118).]
     
  13. Antigonus gathered together his ships which came to him although they were late. He went to a place called Pseudostomon and planned to land some of his men there. However, he found a strong garrison of the enemy there and was beaten off with bows and slings and other engines of war. Therefore as the night drew on, he went his way and ordered the captains of every ship to follow the lantern of the admiral. So they came to the mouth of the Nile River which is called Phagneticum. The next morning he found that many of his ships had lost their way and he did not know where they had gone. He was forced to anchor there and send the swiftest ships he had all over the sea to look for them and bring them to him. Meanwhile, as time wore on, Ptolemy had been alerted of the approach of the enemy. He immediately went to the relief of his men and arranged his army all along the shore in the enemies' sight. Demetrius could find no landing place here either. He was told that if he should land in the surrounding area, the country was naturally fortified with marshes and moorish grounds. He set sail and returned. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 118.]
     
  14. As he was going, a violent wind came up from the North and drove 3 of his ships of four tiers of oars and some other warships on the shore. All these came into Ptolemy's hand. After much trouble, the rest got to Antigonus' camp. Ptolemy had placed strong garrisons at each of the mouths of the Nile River and had an enormous number of river boats everywhere. These were supplied with darts and slings and men who knew how to use them well. These troubled Antigonus very greatly, for the mouth of the river at Pelusium was strongly guarded by Ptolemy. Antigonus could make no use of his ships at all. His land forces were in trouble also. The Nile River starts swelling at the coming of the sun into Cancer. When the sun enters Leo, it overflows all its banks. It was now so high that they could do little. Worse, he was running out of food for men and fodder for cattle because they stayed there so long. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 118.]
     
  15. When Antigonus saw that his army was demoralized, he called them all together. Before them all he asked the captains, whether it was better to stay and fight or to return to Syria for the time being. They would then return again next year better prepared and when the waters should be lower. When every man wanted to go, he ordered his soldiers to gather up their belongings. His navy followed them along the shore, and he returned to Syria. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. (118).] The pointlessness of this expedition was foreseen by Medius, one of Antigonus' friends in a dream. For it seemed to him that he saw Antigonus with all his army to contend in a race at Olympus, called "Diaulus", i.e."a double course." When they first set out, they seemed to run very well. After a while they grew weaker. When they came to the race post and were to turn about it and return to the barriers where they set out, [for that was the manner of this double course] they were so out of breath that they could go no further. [Plut. in Demet.]
     
  16. Ptolemy was glad to see that the enemy was gone. He offered sacrifice to his gods for this great benefit they bestowed on him. He made a magnificent feast for his friends and wrote letters to Seleucus, Lysimachus and Cassander of his good success. He did not forget to tell them how large an army of Antigonus had defected over to him. Now when he had rescued Egypt, a second time and gotten it by his sword, he thought he might lawfully count it his own. He returned in triumph to Alexandria. [Diod. Sic.] Hence it is that Cl. Ptolemy, in his Reg. Cano. starts the beginning of his reign over Egypt from this time. He calculates that the time from the death of Alexander the Great to this time was 19 full years. For the 19th year from the death of Alexander the Great ends according to his account with the November 6th 4409 JP.
     
  17. While these things thus happened in Egypt, Dionysius the tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus died. [Diod. Sic.] He reigned 33 years according to Athenaus. [l. 12. c.26.] Although Memnon says that he reigned only 30 years and Diodorus says 32 years. He was incredibly fat. Besides Memnon and Nymphis, Heracleotes, in his book of the City Heraclea, cited by Athenaeus in the place mentioned, notes this. So does Elia. [Var. Histor. l.9. c.13.] He had two sons by Amastris or Amestris, the daughter of Oxethras, brother to Darius, the last king of Persia. She was first given in marriage to Craterus, by Alexander. The oldest of the sons was called Clearchus, the younger Oxathras, according to Diodorus, Zathras, and Dionysius. Therefore by his last will he joined some others with her in the adminstartion lest the government of his kingdom and charge of his two children, who were still very young go entirely to his wife. [Memnon in Excerpt. Photii. c.5. with Diodorus, year. 3. Olymp. 118. & year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
3700 AM, 4410 JP, 304 BC
  1. Menedemus was from Patara in Lycia with the command of three ships. Each of them was between two and three tiers of oars a piece. He captured a ship of four tiers of oars that was coming from Cilicia. It had letters from Phila with rich and royal apparel with other costly furniture destined for Demetrius Poliorcetes. All of this was sent by Menedemus to Ptolemy in Egypt. This affront enraged Demetrius against the Rhodians. He then lay in siege before their city to take it. After doing this for a year, the Athenians mediated an agreement that the Rhodians would help Antigonus and Demetrius in their wars against any country except for Ptolemy. Hence the siege was lifted. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 119. & Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  2. As soon as this war was over, the Rhodians sent some of their priests to consult the oracle of Ammon. They wanted to know if they should worship Ptolemy as a god or not. When they were told they should, they consecrated to him a square grove in their city. They built on each side a gallery about 200 yards long and called it "Ptolmeum" or "Ptolemy's gallery". They were the first to surname Ptolemy the "Saviour" because he had saved them from the violence of Antigonus and Demetrius and not with his soldiers. Also Ptolemy had saved Alexander in the city of the Oxydracans, [See note on 3678b AM] as some have thought. [Arrian. l.6. p. 131. and Steph. in the word Oxydrac. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 119.]
     
  3. Eumelus, the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius, after reigning 6 years died in an accident. He was hurrying home from Scythia to a certain solemn sacrifice that was to be offered then. He was in a 4 wheeled coach drawn by 4 horses and covered with a canopy. As he came to his palace, the horses took a fright and ran away with him. When the driver could not hold them, Eumelus feared lest they would run down some precipice and leaped from the coach. His sword caught in the wheel and he was whirled away with it and killed. His son Spartacus succeeded him and reigned 20 years. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 117. & year 1. Olymp. 119.]
     
3701 AM, 4411 JP, 303 BC
  1. Seleucus crossed the Indus River and made war on Sandrocottus or Androcottus. When Seleucus had restored his government in the east, Sandrocottus had murdered all the governors whom Alexander had appointed and took over all of India. [Justin, l.15. c.4. Appia. in his Syriaca. p. 122,123.]
     
  2. Now as Seleucus was going to make this war, a wild elephant of enormous size came to him on the way as if it had been tame. He went to it and the animal allowed him to get on and ride it. This beast proved to be a prime and singularly good elephant for the war. [Justin, l.15. c. 4.] Thereupon, he traversed over all India with a 600,000 man army and sudbued it. [Plut. in Alexan.] He made himself king over them and freed them from a yoke of strangers only to bring them under his yoke. [Justin, l.15. c.4.]
     
  3. Megasthenes, in his Indica, writes, that he often came to him while he remained with Sibyrtius governor of the Arachosians. [Arrian. l.5. cites him] He says that Seleucus had an army of 400,000 men. [Strabo, l.16. p. 709.]
     
3702 AM, 4412 JP, 302 BC
  1. Cassander, king of Macedonia, sent his ambassadors to Antigonus and desired to make a peace with him. Antigonus refused unless Cassander would surrender to his mercy. After a conference with Lysimachus king of Thrace, Lysimachus and Cassander both agreed to send their ambassadors to Ptolemy, king of Egypt and to Seleucus, king of the upper provinces of Asia. They decried the pride and arrogance of Antigonus expressed in his answers and showed them how this war involved them too. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.] Therefore they knew that Antigonus planned to take them on one at a time because they were not united against him. They then appointed a place where they all were to meet. They resolved to contribute their various forces to prosecute this war. Cassander could not be there because the enemy was so close to him. Therefore he sent Lysimachus with all the forces which he was able to spare with abundant provisions for them. [Justin, l.15. c.2.]
     
  2. Seleucus made an alliance with Sandrocottus, king of India and gave him all those regions bordering the Indus River which Alexander had taken from the Arians. Seleucus had made them his colonies and had set governors over them and received from Sandrocottus a gift of 500 elephants. [Strabo. l.15. p. 724. Plut. in Alex. & Appia. in Syria. p. 123.] When Seleucus had made peace in the east, he prepared for the war against Antigonus, with his allies according to their agreement in the west. [Justin, l.15. c.4.]
     
  3. Lysimachus crossed over into Asia with his own army and came before Lampsacus and Paros. Because they submitted readily to him, he restored to them their ancient liberty. When he had taken Sigaeum by force, he put a strong garrison in it. He then committed 6000 foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry to Prepelaus and sent him to take the cities of Ionia and Eolia. Lysimachus besieged Abydus with all types of battering rams and other weapons of war. Nevertheless, when Demetrius sent an army to defend that place, he lifted the siege. When he had captured the Hellespont and Phrygia, he went on and besieged the city Synada. Antigonus stored his treasure here. [??] Lysimachus persuaded Docimus, a commander of Antigonus, to defect to his side. Docimus helped take Synada and other forts and places belonging to Antigonus. He captured Antigonus' treasure. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  4. Meanwhile, Prepelaus, who was sent to make war upon Ionia and Eolia, took Adramittium on the way and besieged Ephesus. He so terrified the inhabitants, that they submitted to him. He found Rhodian hostages there, whom he sent home again to their friends. He did not harm any of the Ephesians. He only burned all the ships which he found in their harbour because the enemy still controlled the sea. Antigonus' naval supremacy was not as certain as it was. [??] After this, the Teians and Colophonians joined the common cause against Antigonus. The Erythrae and Clazomenae were helped by forces sent by the sea, and he was not able to overcome them. He wasted their territories and went to Sardis. There he was able to persuade two of Antigonus' captains, Phaenix and Docimus to defect. He took all the city except for the citadel. It was held by Philippus, a friend of Antigonus and would not defect to him. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
3703 AM, 4413 JP, 301 BC
  1. Antigonus was at that time completely occupied holding games and feasts at his new city of Antigonia. He had proclaimed expensive prizes for those who would enter the contests and offered huge wages to all skilled artisans that he could hire. When he heard how Lysimachus had come into Asia and what great numbers of his soldiers defected to him, he stopped the games. However, he distributed 200 talents among the wrestlers and the artisans who came. He went with his army as quickly as he could and made long marches to meet the enemy. As soon as he came to Tarsus in Cilicia, he advanced his army 3 months pay from the money which he took with him from the city Quindi. Besides this he brought 3000 talents along with him from Antigonia so he would not run out of money. He crossed over the Taurus Mountains and hurried into Cappadocia. He subdued those who revolted from him in upper Phrygia and Lycaonia and made them help him in the wars as they did before. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  2. When Lysimachus heard of the enemies' approach, he consulted with his council concerning this imminent danger and what to do. Their advise was not to risk a battle until Seleucus came from the upper provinces but get into the strongest most fortified place. He should entrench himself in the strongest manner that possibly he could with ramparts and palisades and await the coming of the enemy. Lysimachus followed this advice. As soon as Antigonus came within sight of his camp, he drew out in battle formation and tried unsuccessfully to provoke Lysimachus to a fight. Antigonus captured all the passes that could be used to supply food for the camp. Thereupon Lysimachus feared least when his food ran out, he might be taken alive by Antigonus. Therefore he moved his camp by night and marched 50 miles to Dorylaeum and there camped. In those parts, there was an abundant supply of grain with other provisions and he had a river at his back. Therefore, they there raised a work and enclosed it with an exceeding deep trench with 3 rows of stakes on the top of it. He made the camp as sure as he could make it. When Antigonus found that the enemy was gone, he pursued as fast as he could and came near the place where he was entrenched. When he saw that Lysimachus did not want to fight, he started to make another trench around his camp to besiege him there. For that purpose, he had all kind of instruments for a siege, as darts, arrows and catapults brought there. Although many skirmishes were fought about the trenches because Lysimachus' men fought from their works to hinder the enemy, Antigonus' side prevailed. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  3. In time Antigonus' works were almost finished around him and Lysimachus' provisions began to fail. Therefore Lysimachus took the advantage of a stormy night and got away with his army. They travelled through mountainous countries and came to his winter quarters. The next morning when Antigonus saw that the enemy was gone, he marched after him through the plain country. Because there had been so much rain and the way was poor and full of sloughs, he lost many of his wagons and some of his men on that journey. The whole army was greatly distressed. Therefore, to spare his army and because the winter was approaching, he abandoned the pursuit for that time. He looked around for the best places to winter in and distributed his army to them. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  4. In like manner, Lysimachus sent his army to winter in the country of Salmonia. He had made generous provisions for them from Heraclea. He had made an alliance with that city by marrying Amestris, the widow of Dionysius, guardian of his two young children and governess of that city, [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119. with Menmon, in Photius, c.5.]
     
  5. At this time Demetrius made a truce with Cassander and was sent for by his father from Greece. He steered a straight course through the islands of the Aegean Sea and came to Ephesus. He landed his army there and camped before it and made it submit to him as before. He allowed the garrison which Prepelaus had put there, to depart safely. He put a strong garrison of his own into the citadel and marched away with the rest of his army as far as Hellespont. He subdued the Lampsacenians and Parians here. From there he went to the mouth of Pontus and camped near a place called the temple of the Chalcedonians. He fortified it and left 3000 foot soldiers to keep it with 30 ships. He sent the rest of his army to winter in various places around there. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  6. About this time, Mithridates who was subject to Antigonus was suspected of favouring Cassander's party. He was slain at Cius in the country of Mysia. He had reigned for 35 years at Arthinas. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.] Various authors mention him. This Mithridates was the son of Ariobarzanes, a man of the royal blood of Persia. He was descended from one of those 7 which destroyed the Magi there, as we may gather from [Polyubius, l.5. p. 388. & Florus, l.3. c.5. & Sext. Aurelius, Victor. de Vir. Illustr. c.76.] He was surnamed the "Builder" and left the succession of the kingdom of Pontus after him down to Eupator or that Mithradates who maintained so long a war against the Romans. [Strabo [l. 12. p. 562.] Tertullian also mentions this. [l. de Anima.] "I learn from Strabo that Mithridates got the kingdom of Pontus by a dream."
     
  7. The story is this. Antigonus in a dream thought that he had a field full of a golden harvest. Mithradates came and cut it and carried it away into Pontus. Thereupon Antigonus planned to capture and kill him. When Mithridates was told this by Demetrius, he fled away with 6 cavalry only in his company and fortified a certain town in Cappadocia. Here many men joined his cause and so he obtained both Cappadocia and also many other countries of Pontus. He left them to the 8th generation after him before the Romans took over his kingdom. [Plut. in Demetr. and Appian. in his Mithridatica, p. 176.] Lucian, [in his book of long lived men, p. 176.] from Hierconymus Cardianus and other writers report that he lived for 84 years and that his son, called also Mithridates, succeeded him in his kingdom. He added to his dominions, Cappadocia and Paphlagonia and held them for 36 years. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  8. Cassander sent Pleistarchus into Asia with an army of 12,000 foot soldiers and 500 cavalry to help Lysimachus. When he came to the mouth of Pontus, he found that strait held by the enemy. When he gave up trying to get through that way, he went to Odessus which lies between Appolonia and Galatia opposite Heraclea. Part of Lysimachus' men were here. He found no ships there so he divided his army into 3 parts. The 1st part that set out landed safely at Heraclea. The 2nd part was defeated by the enemy who held the strait of Pontus. The 3rd part including Pleistarchus, almost all perished in a violent storm. Most of the ships with their men perished. The ship he was in, was a good ship of six tiers of oars, sank and only 33 of the 500 men in it escaped. Pleistarchus got on a plank of the ship when it split and was cast on shore half dead. He recovered a little and was carried to Heraclea. He recovered his strength and went to Lysimachus' winter quarters. He had lost most of his army on the way. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  9. About the same time Ptolemy came with an excellently well outfitted army from Egypt and subdued all the cities of Coelosyria. When he besieged Sidon, he heard a rumour that a battle had been fought in which Seleucus and Lysimachus were beaten. They had fled to Heraclea and Antigonus was moving quickly into Syria with his victorious army. Ptolemy believed the rumour and made a truce with the Sidonians for 5 months. He put garrisons into the other cities which he had taken in those parts and returned into Egypt. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  10. While these things had happened, 2800 of Lysimachus' chief soldiers defected to Antigonus. Antigonus entertained them very courteously and furnished them the pay as they said Lysimachus owed them. In addition, he gave them a large amount of money for a reward for their actions. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 119.]
     
  11. At the same time, Seleucus with a large army came down from the upper provinces into Cappadocia and wintered his army in tents which he brought already made for them. His army consisted of 20,000 foot soldiers, 12,000 cavalry including his archers on horseback, 480 elephants and 100 iron chariots. These kings' forces assembled to fight it out next summer to see who would be the master.
     
  12. Pythagoras was the former soothsayer of Alexander the Great and for Perdiccas and now was employed by Antigonus. He started his divinations of the bowels of beasts that were offered in sacrifices. When he found the strings or filets in the liver missing, he told Antigonus that this indicated his death [Arrian. lib. 7. pag. 160.]
     
  13. Alexander the Great also appeared to Demetrius in his sleep. He was gloriously armed and asked Demetrius what was the word which he and his father planned to give. Demetrius replied: "Jove and victory."
     
  14. Then Alexander replied: "Therefore will I go over to thine enemies for they will take me for theirs." [Plut. in Demetrio.]
     
  15. When Antigonus heard that there were so many kings assembled against him, he vauntingly said that he would scatter them all like so many birds out of a bush. However, when the enemies approached, he was observed to be more quiet than usual. He showed his son to his army and told them that this was the man that must be his successor. They marvelled all the more at this, especially Demetrius. Antigonus talked with him alone in his tent many times. Before this he would never share any secret at all with his son. When his army was all ready in battle array, Antigonus stumbled as he was leaving his pavilion to go to them. He fell flat on his face and was greatly troubled by this. He got up again and he begged the gods to send him either a victory that day or a death devoid of pain, [Plut. in Demetrio.]
     
  16. This battle between these many kings was fought in the beginning of the year at Ipsus, a town in Phrygia. [Arrian. l.7. Plutarch in Pyrrho, Appian. in Syriacis, p. 122. Diod. Sic. & Porphy year 4. Olymp. 119.] In this battle Antigonus and Demetrius had between them more than 70,000 foot soldiers, 10,000 cavalry, 75 elephants and 120 chariots. Demetrius with the most of his cavalry charged Antiochus the son of Seleucus and his successor later in the kingdom. Demetrius most valiantly routed him but rashly pursued him too far. This was the reason for his father's defeat that day. In that pursuit Pyrrhus displayed valour and his worth conspicuously. He was only 17 years old and was expelled from his kingdom by the Epirotes, his subjects. He allied himself with Demetrius who had married his sister Derdamia who was intended for Alexander, the son of Alexander the Great, by Roxane. [Plutarch in Pyrrho.]
     
  17. When Seleucus saw that Antigonus' battalion was destitute of all help from their cavalry, he made as if he would have attacked them. Instead he wisely invited them to defect to him. Thereupon a large part of them did so and the rest fled. Seleucus turned on Antigonus. One of them cried out, saying: "These come upon thee, O king."
     
  18. He answered: "But Demetrius, will come and help us."
     
  19. While he stood waiting for Demetrius' return to rescue him, the enemy came on and showered their arrows as thick as hail on him. In that storm he fell and died. Thereupon all forsook him and shifted for themselves. Only Thorax of Larissa stayed by the body of him. [Plut. in Demetr.] His body was later taken up and buried in a royal manner. [Diod. Sic. l.21.] Plutarch tells us that when Antigonus was on his recent expedition into Egypt, he was then a little less than 80 years old. Appian states that he was over 80 years old on that expedition. He lived 86 years according to Porphyrie as cited by Scaliger in his Greek fragments of Eusebius. [l. Ult.] However Hieronysmus Cardianus the historian who lived with him [as Lacianus, in his book of long lived men, testifies of him] affirms that he only lived 81 years.
     
  20. When Demetrius saw that all was lost, he fled away as fast as he could with 5000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry to Ephesus. All men began to fear lest for lack of money, he would plunder the temple of Diana. When he thought he would not be able to restrain his soldiers from that, he left there as quickly as he could. [Plut. in Demetr.] He took his mother Stratonice and all his treasure with him and sailed to Salamis in the isle of Cyprus which was at that time under his command. [Diod. Sic. l.21.]
     
  21. After the kings that had gotten this great victory, they started dividing up this large kingdom of Antigonus and Demetrius among themselves. These new lands were added to their existing kingdoms. [Plut. in Demetr. Appian. in Syriac. p. 122. with Polyb. l.5. p. 410.]
     
  22. When they could not agree how to divide of the spoil, they split into two sides. Seleucus allied himself with Demetrius and Ptolemy joined with Lysimachus. [Justin, l.15. c.4.] Seleucus and Ptolemy were the strongest two of the group. Therefore the dispute between them was continued by their posterities under the names of the Seleucians, or kings of the north and the kings of Ptolemy, or the kings of the south. This was foretold in (Daniel 11:5-20).
     
  23. Simon the son of Omias, succeeded him in the priesthood at Jerusalem. He was surnamed "The Just", because of his great zeal and fervency in the worship of God and the great love which he had for his country men, the Jews. [Josephus, l.12. c.2.] In the book of /APC (Sirach 50:1-5) we find this testimony given about him: "Simon, was the high priest, the son of Onias, who in his lifetime repaired the house again and in his days fortified the temple. He had built from the foundation the double height [or curtain] the high fortress of the wall about the temple. In his days the cistern to receive water, being round like the sea, was covered with plates of brass. He took care of the temple that it should not fall and fortified the city against besieging. How was he honoured in the midst of the people at his coming from the sanctuary!"
     
  24. [See Salian. his Annals book 5,3675 AM. & Scaliger, in his Animadversions, on Euseb. (Numbers 1785).] This man is said to have been high priest for 9 years. [Scalig. in Grac. Euseb. p. 50.]