Historical Writings

Ussher's "The Annals of the World"

The Sixth Age: 300 BC - 201 BC

3704 AM, 4414 JP, 300 BC
  1. On April 23rd, Seleucus offered sacrifice to Jove in the Mount Casius and consulted him concerning a place, where to build a city. An eagle came and caught away a piece of flesh from the altar. She is said to have let it fall in a place near the sea below Palaeopolis, [this was a little city built in previous times by Syrus, the son of Agenor on a hill there] in a sea town of Pieria. Thereupon, Seleucus started to lay the foundation of a large city which he built there and called after his own name, Seleucia. [Johan. Malela, in his Chron. not printed.] However, others say that he followed not that act of the eagle but the flash of some lightening that appeared to him. Thereupon the lightening was always after this in that place celebrated with set hymns and praises as if it were a god itself. [Appia. in Syriac. p. 125.]
     
  2. Seleucus came to Iopolis, a city built in the hill country of Silphium. There on the third day after his arrival, which was the 1st Artemisium or our May, he offered sacrifice to Jove the Thunderer in a certain shrine. It was said to have been built there in ancient times by Perseus the son of Danae. Later when he arrived at Antigonia, he offered there sacrifice to Jove on the alters recently built there by Antigonus. Seleucus with Amphion the priest, prayed that Jove would show him by some sign whether he should live in Antigonia and rename the place or whether he should go and build a new city in another place. Then again it is said that an eagle came and caught away a piece of the flesh from the altar and let it fall near the hill of Siliphum. Hence it was that he laid the foundation of his wall opposite that hill on which Iopolis was built near the Orontes River where there was a town called Botzia. This was on the 22nd day of the month Artemisium at sun rise. This city he named after his son, Antiochus. In it Estsooners built a temple to Jupiter Botzius. This and other things are related by Johannes Malela of Antioch concerning the origin of this city. Also, Eusebius in his Chron. affirms that this city was built by Seleucus in the 12th year of his reign. This city of Syria was later made a tetrapolis, that is a fourfold city. It was divided into 4 regions, creating 4 cities. Everyone of them, had a proper wall built around it and one common one which enclosed them all. The first was built by this Seleucus Nicator. The second was the work of the inhabitants themselves. The third was finished by Seleucus Callinicus. The fourth, by Antiochus Epiphanes. [Strabo, l.16. p. 750.]
     
  3. Seleucus named this city after the name of his son Antiochus. This is confirmed by Malela and Cedremus, Julian the Apostate, in his Misopogon. However Strabo, Appianus and Trogus Pompeius tell us that he called it Antioch after the name of his father Antiochus. Justin from Trogus Pompeius [l. 15. c.4.] says, that here he consecrated the memorial of a twofold beginning. He says that he called the city after the name of his father Antiochus and consecrated its fields to Apollo. He did this because his mother, Laodice, wanted him to believe that he was born of her by Apollo. Therefore Daphne was consecrated to Apollo. It is a suburb of Antioch, a place famous for the grove of laurel trees that grew there, and no less than 10 miles around. Hence to this day it is called Daphne near Antioch. /APC (2 Maccabees 4:33) So the city itself of Antioch, is called Antioch near to Daphne by other writers.
     
  4. Seleucus utterly demolished Antigonia and carried the materials down the Orontes River to Antioch. He relocated 5300 Macedonians and Athenians whom Antigonus moved there to his new city. [Jo. Malela,] Although Diodorus says that Seleucus did destroy Antigonia but adds that he relocated its inhabitants to his new city of Seleucia. [l. 20. year. 2. Olymp. 118.] However, Strabo also makes mention of the inhabitants of Antigonus, being relocated to Antioch, [l. 16. p. 750.] and adds that some of the families and offspring of Triptolemus and Argivians who were long ago sent with him to seek out Io were settled there by Seleucus. These were those Greeks from Peloponese of whom Stephanus Byzantius says were settled in Antioch by Daphne. Jo. Malela also states that: "Seleucus personally sought out some of the Greeks from Ionia and relocated those Greeks who lived in Iopolis, to Antioch. He made them citizens there as men of a more sacred and generous kind than the rest." [cf. Sacaliger's notes on the 1713. number of the Eusib. Chron.]
     
  5. Lysimachus, the king of Thrace married Arsinoe, the daughter of Ptolemy. This was not Ptolemy Philadelphus, as Memnon states [c. 5.] but of Ptolemy the First, the son of Lagus, surnamed "The Deliverer". This we learn from Plutarch in Demetr. and Justin, [l. 17. c.2. & l. 24. c.2.] and even from Memnon himself, [in Excerpt c.9.] of Ptolemy the First and Euridice, as we find in Pansan his Attic. [p. 8.] His former wife Amestris, the widow of Dionysius, the tyrant or a usurper of Heraclea, grew so offended, that she left him and returned to Heraclea. She built a city there near the Euxian Sea which she called after her own name Amastris and sent for men from Selsamus, Cytorus, Cromnus, Teios and other places to live there. [Memnon. Excerpt. c.5. with Strabo l.12. p. 544.]
     
3705 AM, 4415 JP, 299 BC
  1. Seleucus followed the example of Lysimachus and sent his ambassadors and through them desired to marry Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius, who was surnamed Poliorcetes and Paila. Thereupon, Demetrius, took his daughter along with him and sailed for Syria with his whole fleet which attended him at Athens. On the way they landed in Cilicia which Plistarchus the brother of Cassander, held. This was allotted to him by a general consent of the kings, after the battle in which Antigonus, his father was slain. Plistarchus was offended that Demetrius landed in his territory and complained about Seleucus. For without the consent of the other kings, Ptolemy and Lysimachus, Seleucus had entered into a league with Demetrius, a common enemy to them all. Demetrius was quite upset by this and went from there to Quinda. He found what remained of the old treasure of Alexander's 1200 talents. He took it all away with him, and weighed anchor and sailed away as fast as he could. [Plut. in Demet.]
     
  2. Seleucus came to meet Demetrius and his wife Phila at a place called Orossus and invited them to dine with him at his pavilion in his camp. After this, Demetrius invited him on board his ship of 13 tiers of oars high. They spent whole days in friendly conversation together without arms or guards around them. At length Seleucus married Stratonice and returned with her in great pomp to Antioch.
     
  3. When Demetrius had taken over Cilicia, he sent his wife Phila to her brother Cassander to excuse such matters as Plistarchus, might have charged him with. While she was away, his other wife, Deidamia came to him to Athens where after a short while she died. [Plut. in Demet.]
     
  4. Seleucus wanted Demetrius to sell him Cilicia for a certain sum of money. He refused. Seleucus in anger, demanded to have Sidon and Tyre from him. This seemed an injurious act of his that having made himself lord and possessing all from India to the Syrian Sea, yet he was of so poor a spirit as to trouble his father-in-law who was under a cloud of adverse fortune for two such poor cities, as Tyre and Sidon. Therefore Demetrius stoutly answered that if he were a thousand times defeated yet he would never buy a son-in-law at so dear a rate. Thereupon he started to fortify those two cities which were such thorns in Seleucus side. [Plut. in Demet.]
     
3707 AM, 4417 JP, 297 BC
  1. Cassander died after ruling Macedonia for 19 years. He left 3 sons, Philip, Antipater and Alexander, who were born by Thessalonice, the sister of Alexander the Great. All these reigned after their father for only 42 months. [Dexippus & Porphyrius, in Scaliger's Greek Eusebius, p. (48). 228.]
     
  2. Philip the older of the three, died shortly after his father's death of consumption. His two younger brothers, Antipater and Alexander died fighting about the kingdom. [Justin l.16. c.1. Pausa, in his Boeot. p. 287. & Plut. in Pyrrho and Alexan.]
     
  3. This Antipater, Dexippus and Euseb. in Chron. call by the name of Antigonus. Hermippus means the same person when he says, that Demetrius Phalereus, after the death of Cassander and for the fear he had of Antigonus, fled to Ptolemy, surnamed "The Deliverer". [Diog. Laertius, in Demet. Phal.]
     
  4. At the same time, Pyrrhus remained with Ptolemy, in excile in Egypt. He married Antigone, the daughter of Bernice the queen, by Philip, her former husband. [Plut. in Pyrrho. Pausan. in Attic. p. 10.]
     
  5. Pyrrhus with the help of Antigone his wife, obtained a fleet of ships and money from Ptolemy. He set sail for his old kingdom Epirus. He came to an agreement with Neoptolemus, who had usurped his kingdom, to hold it jointly with him. [Plut. in Pyrrho. Pausan. in Attic. p. (10).]
     
  6. Eupolemus, the historian, traces his chronology from Adam and the coming of the children of Israel from Egypt down to the 5th year of Demetrius. This was calculated from the death of his father Antigonus, and to the 12th year of Ptolemy and from the death of Alexander the Great's seed. [See end of note 3695 AM] He did this in his book of the kings of Judah, as we find in the [1st book of Strom. of Clemen. Alexan.]
     
3708 AM, 4418 JP, 296 BC
  1. Demetrius Poliorceres, that is "city besieger", wasted the city of Samaria, which Perdiccas had formerly rebuilt. [Euseb. Chron.]
     
3709 AM, 4419 JP, 295 BC
  1. Velleius Paterculus, in the 1st book of his history, tells us that Pyrrhus began his reign when Fabius Maximus and Q. Decius Mur were both for the 5th time consuls of Rome. That is the time when Neoptolemus was killed, Pyrrhus took the sole possession of Epirus. He remembered how much he had been indebted to Berenice and Ptolemy through whose favour he had recovered his kingdom. He called his son, whom Antigone gave him, after Ptolemy. When he had built a new city on a neck of land in Epirus, he named it after his wife's mother, Berenice. [Plut. in Pyrrho.]
     
3710 AM, 4420 JP, 294 BC
  1. In the 36th year of the period Calippus, the 25th day of the month Possideon, in the 454th year Nabonassar, the 16th day of Paophus, 3 hours after midnight, the 21st day of our December, Timochares observed at Alexandria in Egypt the following. The moon rose to her farthest height north and touched the most northerly star in the head of Scorpio. [Ptol. in his great Syntax. l.7. c.3.]
     
  2. In the same year, on the 15th day of Elaphebolion, the 5th of Tybus, 4 hours before midnight on the 9th of our May, Timochares observed the conjunction of the moon with Spica in Virgo. [Ptol. in his great Syntax. l.7. c.3.]
     
  3. Thessalonice the queen and widow of Cassander, the daughter of Philip who was the father of Alexander the Great, born by the daughter of Nicasipolus, was murdered by Antipater, her own son. She pleaded for her life because she was his mother but to no avail. The reason was that when the kingdom was divided between him and his brother, she seemed to favour her youngest son, Alexander. Alexander sought to avenge the murder of his mother and asked the help from all his friends, Pyrrhus, king of Epirus and Demetrius Poliorcetes in Peloponesus. [Justin, l.16. c.1. Plut. in Pyrrho. & Demetr. Pausan. in Boeot. p. 287.]
     
  4. Lysimachus the king of Thrace feared Demetrius' arrival. He persuaded his son-in-law, Antipater to fight an old common enemy and set past differences aside. [Justin, l.16. c.1.] He knew well that Pyrrhus would do anything for Ptolemy's sake. Therefore he sent some forged letters to Pyrrhus from Ptolemy. These advised him, to receive a gratuity of 300 talents from Antipater and to stop his expedition into Macedon for the support of Alexander against his brother. Pyrrhus perceived this trick of his. When he opened the letter, he did not find the usual greeting from Ptolemy to him which was, "Pater filio", that is, "the father to his son". Instead of this, it was written, "King Ptolemy to King Pyrrhus, sends greeting". When Demetrius suddenly attacked Macedon, he foiled all these schemes of Lysimachus. [Plut. in Pyrrho.]
     
  5. Ptolemy of Egypt, captured the whole isle of Cyprus from Demetrius, except for the city of Salamis. He besieged Demetrius' mother and children that were there. When he finally captured the city, he sent them home to Demetrius with an honourable escort and with rich presents for their journey. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  6. When Demetrius captured Alexander, he killed him and took over the kingdom of Macedon. [Justin, l.16. c.1. Pausan. Boeot. p. 287. Plut. in Pyrr. & Demetr. & in his Treatise of Shamefacedness]. He held it for 7 years as Plutarch affirms.
     
3711 AM, 4421 JP, 293 BC
  1. At that time, Lysimachus was fighting a war started against him by Dromichetes, the king of the Getes. So he would not be forced to fight against the king of Getes and Demetrius at the same time, he gave up that part of Macedon which belonged to his son-in-law Antipater and so made peace with him. [Justin l.16. c.1. with Strab. l.7. p. 302,305.]
     
  2. Dromichaetes captured Lysimachus but treated him very kindly. [Strabo. l.7. p. 302,305. Diodorus, in Excerpt. H. Vales. p. 257,258.] Lysimachus gave him his daughter in marriage and part of Thrace which lay beyond the Ister, for a dowry. [Pansan. in Attica. p. 8.]
     
  3. Clearchus, the king of Heraclea in Pontus went to help Lysimachus in his war against the Getes and was taken prisoner together with Lysimachus. When Lysimachus had gotten liberty for himself, he wisely secured his liberty also. [Atemnon. in Excerpt. c.6.]
     
3712 AM, 4422 JP, 292 BC
  1. When Simon, surnamed the Just, the high priest at Jerusalem, died he left behind him only one son, Onias. Simon's brother, Eleazar, became high priest of the Jews, [Joseph. l.12. c.2.] and is said to have held that office for 32 years according to Scaliger's Greek Eusebian fragments. [p. 50. & 162.]
     
  2. After Lysimachus returned from the war in Getes, Agathocles, his oldest son and who was taken prisoner in the first battle that he was in, as some report, was married. He took Lysandra for a wife who was the daughter of Ptolemy of Egypt, surnamed "The Deliverer" and his wife Eutidice. [Pausan. in his Attic. p. 8.]
     
  3. After this, Lysimachus sailed into Asia with his navy and captured those who were in subjection to Antigonus and Demetrius. [Pausan. in his Attic. p. 8. with Plut. in Demet.] While he besieged Ephesus,they were helped by Mardro, an old pirate. He often brought to them rich prises which he had captured. Lysimachus bribed him and had him betray the city to him. He gave Mardro some valiant Macedonians. He had their hands bound behind them and brought them like prisoners into Ephesus. These men waited for the right time and got weapons in the citadel where they were kept. They took the city for Lysimachus. [Jul. Fronti. Stratag. l.3. c.3.] The city of Ephesus was located on low ground and a while later was completely flooded by the sea. Concerning this flood, we may read an epigram in Stephanus Byzantinus made by Duris. Lysimachus now moved it into another place and rebuilt it. He called it after his new wife Arsinot but after his death, the city quickly assumed its old name of Ephesus. [Strabo. l.14, p. (640). & Stephanus in Ephesus.] To populate his new city, he destroyed the two cities of Lebedus and Colophos and relocated their inhabitants to the new city. Concerning the destruction of those two famous cities, Phoenix in his Iambics, grievously deplores this action. [Pansan. in Attica. p. 8.]
     
3713 AM, 4423 JP, 291 BC
  1. Seleucus wanted to populate the cities he had built in Asia and the lower Syria and especially Antioch which was the metropolis of all the rest. He relocated the Jews from their own dwellings into them and gave them equal privileges, prerogatives and immunities that the Macedonians had both in towns and cities. [Euseb. Chron. Joseph. Antiquit. l.12. c.3. & l.Cont. Apio. p. 1063.] Seleucus named 16 of the cities Antioch, after his father Antioch. He named 6 of them, Laodicea after his mother Laodice. He named 9 of them Seleucia after himself. He named 3 of them Apamea, after his wife. He named one after his former wife, Stratonice. He called the rest Greek and Macedonian names as he though best, e.g. Berraea, Edesla, Peila, and so forth. [Appian. in Syria.]
     
3715 AM, 4425 JP, 289 BC
  1. When Agathocles, the tyrant of Sicily was about to die, he shipped away to Egypt his wife Thoxena with his two children whom he had by her and who were very young. Along with them he sent all his treasure, family and costly furniture. He was one of the richest kings. His wife had originally come from Egypt. He feared that as soon as he was dead, they would suffer and his kingdom would be plundered. His wife begged to stay with him to the end for she said she married him for better or worse. At last she and her children left him but not without many a doleful cry. Even his young children could scarcely be pulled away from him. As soon as they were gone, he died. [Justin, l.23. c.2.]
     
  2. Clearchus and Oxathres, the two kings of Heraclea in Pontus, murdered their mother. When Amestris was on board a ship to leave them, she was thrown overboard in a most barbarous manner and drowned in the sea. [Memnon Excerp. c.6.]
     
3716 AM, 4426 JP, 288 BC
  1. Lysimachus desired to revenge the death of Amistris whom he was married to for a long time. He came into Heraclea and showed all fatherly affection to Clearchus and those who were nearest him. First he killed him and then his brother Oxathres. [Memnon Excerp. c.7.] This was 17 years after the death of the father of Clearchus as recorded in Diodorus. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 118.] When he had conquered that city and its territory, he took all the treasure that belonged to those kings and whatever they had of value and left the city in full liberty by its own laws. He returned to his own kingdom. [Memnon, c.7.]
     
  2. Strato of Lampsacus, the son of Arcesilaus, and surnamed Physicus, succeeded Theophrastus in his school. Strato was the teacher and tutor to Ptolemaeus Philadelphus. He gave Strato 80 talents for educating him. [Diog. Laert. in Strabone.]
     
  3. Demetrius Poliorcetes was trying to recover all his father, Antigonus' dominions. He was now ready to land in Asia with so large an army that no man after the days of Alexander the Great to that time had a larger army. He had more than 98,000 foot soldiers and little less than 12,000 cavalry. His fleet had 500 ships. Some were extremely large as 15 or 16 tiers of oars. Before his going on this expedition, he made a firm league with Pyrrhus. He feared lest Pyrrhus create trouble in his absence and interfere with his plans. [Plut. in Demetr. and Pyrrho.]
     
3717 AM, 4427 JP, 287 BC
  1. Seleucus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus also feared what Demetrius' intentions were. They combined their forces into one body and made war on Demetrius in Europe. All three sent ambassadors to Pyrrhus in Epirus and requested that he invade Macedonia. He should disregard that league he had made with Demetrius since Demetrius had no intention of peace but planned to be free to wage war where he pleased. Pyrrhus readily agreed to this. He defeated Demetrius' army, routed him and took over the kingdom of Macedonia. [Plut. in Demetr. and Pyrrho. Justin, l.16. c.2.] This was the first time, as [Pausan. in Attic. p. 11.] notes that Pyrrhus was the owner of some elephants.
     
  2. Lysimachus came and pretended that he had a hand in the defeat Demetrius as well as Pyrrhus. He wanted half the kingdom of Macedonia. Pyrrhus doubted the loyalty of the Macedonians to him and agreed. Hence, Macedonia was divided with him by cities and regions, [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  3. In these machinations, Lysimachus found that his son-in-law, Antipater, complained publicly that his father-in-law had cheated him of the kingdom of Macedonia. Therefore Lysimachus killed him. His daughter Euridice, Antipater's widow was grieved by the death of her husband. Therefore he committed her to prison. So the whole house of Cassander paid Alexander the Great the price, whether of his own death or whether of the destruction of his family, partly by murders, partly by torments, partly by patricide. This was committed in his own family to the utter destruction of it. [Justin, l.16. c.2.]
     
  4. When Demetrius was stripped of his kingdom, he fled to Cassandria. His wife Phila was consumed with grief and could not endure to see her husband become a private citizen in a foreign country. She gave up all hope in the future and poisoned herself. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  5. When Demetrius besieged Athens which had revolted from him to Pyrthus, Crates the Philosopher was sent in an embassy to him. He persuaded Demetrius to lift his siege. Thereupon he assembled all his ships and boarded them with his 11,000 foot soldiers in addition to his cavalry. He sailed away into Asia and captured all Caria and Lydia from Lysimachus. There Euridice, the sister of his wife Phila, met him not far from Miletus and brought with her Ptolemais, her daughter by Ptolemy of Egypt. His son-in-law Seleucus, had previously spoken to Ptolemy to give her to him. Therefore Demetrius now married her, by the good will of Euridice. By her Demetrius begat Demetrius, who later reigned in Cyrenia. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  6. In this expedition, Demetrius captured many towns and cities. Some he persuaded to defect to him, others he took by force. Some defected from Lysimachus to him. These gave him a good supply of men and war materials. When Agathocles the son of Lysimachus came towards him with an army, he marched up into Phrygia. He planned to invade Armenia and thereby to make a rebellion in Media. He hoped to see how loyal the upper provinces of Asia were to him. He hoped to find a good refuge there if required. He had often beaten Agathocles, who followed him, in small fights but never had a main battle with him. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  7. Nevertheless, many times he lacked food for himself and fodder for his horses. He found himself sorely distressed especially by an error he made in crossing the Lycus River. He lost many of his soldiers who were swept away by that violent river. After a famine, a pestilence killed 8000 of his troops. He was forced to return with the rest to Tarsus in Cilicia. He planned to refrain from any oppression of the people of Seleucus, whom he would not offend in any way. This was not to be. When he considered the extreme necessity that his army was in and Agathocles kept all the passes of the Taurus Mountains, he wrote letters to Seleucus. He complained of his own bad fortune and humbly besought him to be compassionate to him since he was a poor kinsman of his and one that desired to be pitied even by an enemy. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
3718 AM, 4428 JP, 286 BC
  1. Seleucus had compassion on the distressing state of his father-in-law. He wrote to his commanders and officers in those parts to supply him with all necessaries in a kingly manner and not to allow his army to be short of anything. However, Procles, an intimate friend of Seleucus, planted suspicions in Seleucus' head against Demetrius. Seleucus led an army against him into Cilicia. Demetrius, wondered at this sudden change in Seleucus and withdrew into the craggy Taurus Mountains. From there he sent his agents to Seleucus to desire that by his permission he might attack some free state of the barbarians. He would spend the remainder of his life there without ranging over the world any longer. If Seleucus would not permit this, then he asked permission to winter quietly where he was and not to expose him in the extremity he now was in to the force and fury of his enraged enemy. Seleucus took these requests as unfriendly to him. Therefore he granted him only that after he surrendered his best friends to him for hostages, then he should spend two months of his winter quarters in Cataonia. This was a country bordering upon Cappadocia. Seleucus blocked all passes which led from there into Syria. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  2. Demetrius was now trapped like a wild beast in a den. He had Agathocles the son of Lysmachus on the one hand and Seleucus on the other to watch him. He then used force and wasted some of the provinces which belonged to Seleucus. In every encounter, he had the better of him. When Seleucus let his iron chariots attack him, Demetrius at various times routed them also and put his enemies to flight. He took the passes of the mountains, and drove out the garrisons which Seleucus had placed there to hold them. He was now growing confident of his own strength and resolved to settle the matter in a pitched battle with Seleucus. Suddenly he became very sick. This laid him low and dashed his hopes of better things in the world. In that sickness all his soldiers abandoned him. Some defected to his enemies and others disbanded and went where they pleased. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  3. While Demetrius was trapped by Seleucus in Syria, Lysimachus attacked Pyrrhus in Macedonia. In 5 years and 6 months time, he won it all from him. [Dexip. and Porphy.]
     
  4. At the end of 40 days, Demetrius recovered from his sickness. He took the remaining soldiers and moved his camp and let on that he would march into Cilicia. The next night, without sound of trumpet, he turned around another way. When he passed the hill Amanus, he ravaged and plundered all that country as far as Cyrrhestica, a region in Syria. When Seleucus came there with his army and camped not far from him, Demetrius with his men attacked him at night while he slept. However, Seleucus had notice of his coming by some that defected to him. He got out of his bed and commanded an alarm to be sounded. While he was putting on his shoes, he cried out to his friends that he had to deal with a fierce wild beast. When Demetrius knew his attack was no longer a surprise by the noise which he heard in the enemies camp, he retired and went his way. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  5. As soon as it was day, Seleucus followed and overtook him. Demetrius gave one wing to be led by a captain of his and led the other himself. He routed the wing of the enemy on his side. Then Seleucus, leaped off his horse and took off his helmet. With a shield in his hand, he showed himself bare faced to the mercenaries of Demetrius' army and exhorted them to leave Demetrius and defect to him. He urged them to know that it was more in favour to them than to Demetrius that he had refrained for so long from attacking them. Thereupon they all cried out, "God save Seleucus", and called him their king and abandoned Demetrius to serve Seleucus. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  6. Demetrius thought this would be the last reverse of his fortunes and the worst thing that could befall him. He retired to the passes of the Amanus Mountain and spent that night in a thick wood with those few friends who he had left. He planned to go from there to the city of Caunus and hoped to get shipping to flee to some other country. When he saw that he had not so much as one day's provision for those who were with him, it happened that an old friend of his, Sosigines, came and brought him 400 crowns. He hoped this money would pay for his needs on his journey to the sea side. Therefore he went by night to cross the top of the mountain. When he saw the enemy campfires everywhere and that the enemy was in his way, in great despair he was forced to return to the place where he set out from. When one of the company told him that he would do well to surrender to Seleucus, Demetrius drew his sword and would have killed himself there. However his friends persuaded him not to and he sent to Seleucus and surrendered himself and all that he had to him. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  7. When Seleucus heard the message, he ordered his servants to outfit a royal pavilion in a most regal manner to receive Demetrius. He sent Apollonides, who had formerly been an intimate friend of Demetrius, to comfort him and to tell him that there was no cause of fear since he was to come to an old friend and son-in-law of his. When Seleucus' servants heard this, first one by one and then later they all flocked in great multitudes to Demetrius. Their action provoked envy instead of compassion toward Demetrius. This made his foes to void Seleucus' good intentions to him. They told Seleucus that no sooner would Demetrius be seen in the camp but he would find strange alterations and innovations in it. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  8. Thereupon, Pausanias was sent with a company of about 1000 men, cavalry and foot soldiers together. They put all others from him and instead of bringing him to Seleucus, they carried him away to a certain cape in Syria. In that place he was kept for the rest of his days with a strong guard on him. He was given sufficient allowance and lacked no money, no walks, no gardens, nor places of hunting, or other recreations that his heart could wish for. His friends that had followed him, were free to see and talk with him anytime. Not a day passed there, that someone came to see him from Seleucus with friendly messages from him and to encourage him to be of good comfort and hope for further liberty upon reasonable conditions. Soon Antiochus [who was Seleucus' son] and his wife Stratonice were come to court. [Plut. in Demetr.] However, [Diod. Sic. l.21.] tells us that he was all this time kept prisoner at Pella. [Hen. Vales. in Excerpt. p. 262.]
     
  9. When Demetrius was in this state, he wrote to his son, other captains and his friends at Athens, Corinth and other places. He said that they should give no credence to any letters that might happen to come to them as being sent by him or sealed with his seal. They should act as if he were dead and respect his son Antigonus in the kingdom. [Plut. in Demetr.] It is from this time that Porphyrie starts Antigonus' reign over Greece. That is from the 10th year before he added the kingdom of Macedonia to his other dominions. Porphyrie further tells us that Antigonus was surnamed Gonates from a place called Goni in Thessalia, where he grew up. [Scalig. in Grac. Euseb. p. 226.] When Antigonus heard the news of his father's captivity, he took it very hard. He clothed himself in mourning clothes and wrote letters to various kings and to Seleucus. He did this in humble manner and offered himself and whatever he could call his as a pledge to Seleucus for his father. Similar letters and messages came to Seleucus from various cities and kings on Demetrius' behalf. [Plut. in Demetr.]
     
  10. Only Lysimachus in his letters advised Seleucus to take heed how he let the man go. He said Demetrius was ambitious and turbulent a spirit, so ambitious of sovereignty and so encroaching upon the rights of all the other kings. He offered Seleucus 2000 talents if he would kill him. However, Seleucus, who never had any good opinion of Lysimachus, utterly detested him after reading his letter and thought he was a barbarous and execrable person. He spared no foul words to his ambassadors in that they tried to persuade him to break the promise which he had given and to murder one who was so closely related to him. Nevertheless Seleucus wrote letters immediately to his son Antiochus who was then in Media. He advised him what he should do with Demetrius now that he had him. Seleucus planned to free him and to restore him to his former glory as a king. Therefore he thought it fitting to communicate to Demetrius because he had married his daughter Stratonice and had children by her. [Plut. in Demet. & Diod. Sic. in Excerpt. Published by Hen. Vales. l.21.]
     
3719 AM, 4429 JP, 285 BC
  1. Demetrius was confined to that Chersonese or cape. At first he exercised himself in hunting and other sports. But gradually grew idle and reckless and spent most of of his time eating and playing dice. [Plut. in Demet.]
     
  2. Ptolemy of Egypt, surnamed Soter, had children first by Euridice, the daughter of Antipater and then by Berenice whom Antipater sent as a companion only with his daughter into Egypt. He was near death and he appointed Ptolemy, surnamed Philadelphus, one of his sons, whom he had by Bernice to succeed him in the kingdom, according to Pausan. in Attic. Justin [l. (16). c.2.] tells us, that while he was still in very good health, he turned his kingdom over to his son and that he told the people his reasons for doing this. However, Lucianus in Macrobiis, and Porphyrie in the Greek Eusebian fragments, [p. 225.] tell us that when he had reigned 38 years by himself, he then made his son viceroy in the kingdom and so held the kingdom jointly with him for 2 years. However, I calculate that it was in the 39th year after the death of Alexander, that he took his son Philadelphus into the consortship of the kingdom with him. In memory of this, Dionysius the astronomer started a new era starting from the summer of this year, 3719 AM as Clan. Ptolemy shows in his Great Syntaxis from Dionysius' celestial observations. This Dionysius is the same man and none other whom Ptolemy Philadelphus sent into India. [Pliny l. 6. c.17.]
     
  3. Hermippus says that Demetrius Phalereus advised Ptolemy, to make viceroy one of his sons born by Euridice and not a son by Berenice. Heraclides, [reported by Diog. Laertius in Demetr. Phaler. in his Epitome of the Successions of Sotion,] states that when the Ptolemy wanted the kingdom to his son Philadelphus, Demetrius said to him: "Sir, take heed what you do; if you give it away once, you will never have it again;"
     
  4. In spite of this, the father publicly gave his son the kingdom and served him as one of his ordinary guard. He said that it was much better to be the father of a king than having a kingdom. [Justin l.16. c.2.]
     
  5. Ptolemy was surnamed "Ceraunus", that is "lightning". This was either for his quickness and celerity in handling business or for his fierceness of nature. Memnon states that when the son of Euridice saw his younger brother made king before him, he fled to Seleucus for fear. Seleucus pitied his situation as of the son of a friend and entertained him with a generous and honourable allowance. He promised that whenever his father died, he would set him in his throne in Egypt. [Memnon in Excerpt, c.9. and 13. Appian on Syriac. p. 128.]
     
  6. In the 124Olympiad, as we find in Cyril of Alexandria, [l. 1. cont. Julia.] the image of Serapis was brought from Sinope on the Euxine Sea to Alexandria in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus as some think. This was under Ptolemy the first, his father, for in the beginning of this olympiad, they reigned jointly as was noted before. Ambassadors were sent from him concerning this very thing to Scydrothenus, who was at that time king of Sinope in Pontus. Cornelius Tacitus describes this in detail toward the end of the 4th book of his history.
     
3720 AM, 4430 JP, 284 BC
  1. In the same olympiad, as we find in Euseb. Chron. that Sostratus of Cnidus built the Pharos or lighthouse at Alexandria. Pliny, [l. 36. c.12.] describes it thus: "The lighthouse built by a king in the Isle of Pharos at the port of Alexandria, is very famous. This cost 800 talents to build. Ptolemy the king was very generous in that he allowed Sostratus, the architect of that great work, to name it. The use of the tower was to hold a light in it to help those who travelled by sea at night. By day it showed them the way into the port and how to avoid the shoals in front of it."
     
  2. Strabo [l. 17. p. 791.] calls Sostratus, the "friend of kings". He means of the two Ptolemys, father and son, who, as I showed before, at this time held that kingdom in consortship together. He gives the inscription which Sostratus made there himself: "Sostratus, of Cnidia, the son of Dexiphanes, to the gods the deliverers, for the benefit of the seamen."
     
  3. Lucian at the end of his book of the correct writing of a history, has the same, except that he says that Sostrates inserted it somewhere cunningly "and of himself", and not, as Pliny, "by the permission and good liking of the two kings." For when he built the lighthouse, he engraved this inscription somewhere on the inside of it. Then he plastered it over and on that plaister wrote the name of the Ptolemy, whoever it was that then reigned. He thought that it would come to pass in some short time, [as indeed it did] that the upper inscription together with the plaster would fall off and then his own name that was engraved under in good stone would appear.
     
  4. To ensure a safe means of getting supplies to Pharos which lay about a mile from the main land, a huge causeway was made to join the island to the continent so it was no longer a distinct island. A Chersonese or peninsula and a part of the continent joined to Rhacotis a suburb of the city of Alexandria. Julius Caesar [in l.3. Comminta. De Bello civi.] toward the end of the book said this: "Pharos, is a lighthouse in that island of a fantastic height and sumptuously built. It is named after the island on which it stands. This island lies opposite Alexandria and makes an arm of the sea between a sure haven for the cities use, but a "superioribus Regibus"."
     
  5. [For so it should be , Broadaeus, Scaliger and Salianus have noted, not "a superioribus Regionibus" as the common printed copies have it.] That is: "By their kings in former ages had a narrow causeway of 920 paces long been made through the sea which connects to the town by a bridge."
     
  6. For we may in no way give credit to that fable of Ammian Marcel. [l. 22. of Johann. Malela, l.9. c.2. of the author of the Fasti Siculi of George Cadrenius & Johann. Tzetza,] who imagines that both the lighthouse itself and its causeway were the work of Cleopatra, the last queen of Egypt.
     
  7. Spartacus, the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius died after he had reigned 20 years. Diodorus states this happened in year 1 of the 119th Olympiad. He was succeeded by his son Parysates. [See note on 3695 AM]
     
  8. Demetrius Poliorcetes who had been confined for 3 whole years in a cape of Syria became sick and died. This was caused partly by laziness and partly by over eating. [Plut. in Demetr.] This was 17 years after his father, Antigonus, died. [Dexippus, Porphrie and Eusebius say:] Seleucus was illspoken of in the world because of his death. Indeed, he repented often and blamed himself for being so jealous and suspicious of him. Antigonus, Demetrius' son, when he heard that the body of his father was on its way to him, put to sea with all the ships that he could find and met them around the isles. There he received the ashes of his body and placed them in a golden urn. He covered it with a scarlet vail and put a diadem or golden crown on it. He gave him a royal funeral and carried it along with him to Corinth first. Then he went to Demetrias, a city called after his father's name and populated by him with men taken from the smaller towns and villages of Iolcos in Thessalie.
     
  9. Seleucus had now gotten all that which Demetrius possessed in Syria and Asia. He made both those kingdoms one entire empire. [Euseb. Chron.] At that time the Jews paid him 300 talents yearly for their tribute. However they had no foreign ruler over them but were governed by their high priests and according to the customs of their country. [Sever. Sulpic. Sacr. Histor. l.2.]
     
3721 AM, 4431 JP, 283 BC
  1. In this year, Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, surnamed Soter, died. He had made his son viceroy with him in the kingdom for almost 15 months according to the calendar of Dionysian. This was about 39 years and 4 months after the death of Alexander the Great. [Others say a full 40 years, but Clau. Ptol. in Reg. Can. says only 39 years.] He had lived a full 84 years. [Lucian, in Macrobils.] The countries and kingdoms which he held in his possession, are all listed by Theocritus the poet [Idyll. 17.]. They were Egypt, Phoenicia, Arabia, Syria, Libya, Ethiopia, Pamphilia, Cilicia, Lycia, Caria and the isles of the Cyclades. The truth is that he is said to have allied himself with Seleucus against Demetrius upon the express conditions that the dominion of all Asia should go to Seleucus but Phoenicia and Coelosyria would be his. However, Seleucians deny this and say that Ptolemy entered into an alliance against Antigonus not to gain any thing by it for himself but to help Seleucus in the claim which he laid to Coelosyria. After the death of Antigonus, Cassander and Lysimachus gave Coelosyria to Seleucus. [Polyb. l.5. p. 410.] Now there is no doubt that Phoenicia and Syria, as Theocritus also states, belonged at certain times to Ptolemy. After the death of Antigonus who had wrested them from Ptolemy, he subdued Syria again for himself. [Pausan. in Attic.] Yet we have already showed, that Tyre and Sidon were in the possession of Demetrius Poliorcetes. After his death, if not before, both those two places and all the rest of Syria were controlled by Seleucus.
     
  2. Josephus, [l. 12. c2] says that Ptolemy Philadelphus reigned for 39 years. It seems he counts from the time that he first reigned jointly with his father, for after his father's death, Clemens Alexandrinus says he reigned only 37 years, [Claud. Ptolemy, in Reg. Can. say 38.] and so do Porphrie, Eusebius and others. Whereas, according to my account he reigned after his father's death, 37 years and almost 8 months but in all 39 years less a month. Although the length of his reign is uncertain it is known for sure that he put to death his younger brother Argaeus because he was guilty of plotting his death. He executed another brother of his born by Euridice because he was found to be instigating a revolt in the isle of Cyprus. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 6.] By this he little deserved that generous name of "Philadelphus", that is, "a lover of his brethren". Theocritus in his 17th Idyllion says, that he had in his dominions 33,339 cities and is said to have been of so great power that he exceeded his father Ptolemy the First. Jerome confirms this from Histories, upon (Daniel 11) and so does Appianus Alexandrinus, from the records of the kings of Egypt, in his preface to his History of the Romans. To further support this we may add, what Athenaeus, [l. 5. Deipnosoph. c.5.] relates of his fleets and the incredible size of his ships.
     
  3. In the 47th year of the first period of Calippus, in the 8th day of the month Anthisterion, 465th year of Nabonassars' account, the 29th day of the month Athyr, 3 hours before midnight, at the end of the 29th day of our January according to the Julian calendar, Timochares observed at Alexandria that the 4th part of the moon covered the part of the Virgilia's, to a 3rd part or nearly half. [Ptolemy. l.7. c.3.]
     
  4. Lysimachus was now king of Thrace and Macedonia. He was persuaded by his wife Arsinoe, [by whom he had also children] to murder his oldest son Agathocles. He had intended him to be his successor in his kingdom and by him, Lysimachus had achieved so many glorious victories. Whether he was killed by poison or by the hand of Ptolemy Ceraunus, the brother to his wife Arsinoe, I do not know. [Strabo. l.13. p. 623. Justin l.17. c.1. Pausan. in Attic. p. 9. Memnons Excerpt. c.9.]
     
  5. Having killed his son, he did not hesitate to kill his nobles who lamented his son's death. Thereupon, they who escaped and the captains of his armies in all parts fled away to Seleucus. [Justin l.17. c.1.] The murders of his nobles made all the people abhor him. Whole cities defected from him to Seleucus. [Memnons Excerpt. c.9.]
     
  6. Lysandra, the daughter of Ptolemy Soter and sister to Arsinoe defected to Seleucus along with her brothers and her children born to her through Agathocles. Alexander, another son of Lysimachus' other wife, Odryssias, fled also to Seleucus. All these came to Babylon and petitioned to Seleucus to make war on Lysimachus. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 9. with Appian in Syriac. p. 130.]
     
  7. At the same time also, Philetaerus a Paphlagonian and an eunuch who had had a good education in his youth was the keeper of all Lysimachus' treasure that was stored at Pergamus. He was grieved by the murder of Agathocles and by Arsinoe who daily accused him to Lysimachus. He seized the city of Pergamos, which stands on the river Caicus and then sent to Seleucus. He offered to Seleucus, himself and all the treasure which he had there under his charge that belonged to Lysimachus. He sided with the strongest and kept them in line with good promises and offices as occasions arose. He held the citadel there and principality of the place for 20 years. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 7,9. Strabo l.13. p. 623.] Appianus [in Syriac. p. 129.] calls him, "The Prince of Pergamos", but some old annals in Huber, Goltsis Thesauro. have him, "Regem". that is "King". For indeed this was the man that was the founder of that new principality in Pergamos. He was 60 years old according to Lucian in Mucrobiis.
     
3722 AM, 4431 JP, 283 BC
  1. In the 48th year of the first period of Calippus, on the 25th day of the month of Pyanepsion, 466th year of Nabonassar, the 7th day of the month Thoth, 3.5 hours before midnight, on the 9th day of our November, Timochares at Alexandria observed the conjunction of the moon with Spica Virginis, in its northern parts. [Ptolem. l.7. c.3.]
     
  2. Antiochus, surnamed Soter, son of Seleucus Nicator fell in love with Stratonice, one of his father's wives whom his father had had a son. He was aware of the strength of his own desire and neither attempted anything on her nor disclosed anything of that which troubled him. He lay in bed and in that melancholy would have died. [This was discovered by Leptines, a mathematician, or as others say, Erasistratus, a physician, Aristotle's grandchild by a daughter of his, and a disciple of Chrysippus according to Pliny. [l. 29. c.1.] That is by Chrysippuis a Cnidian and a physician. Likewise, as Laertius in the life of Chrysippus states. Although some others say he was a scholar under Theophrastus, as the same Laertius, in the life of Theophrastus toward its end. His followers went by the name of Erasistrataeans. Later Galen wrote a book of Phlebotomie, or "opening of a vein", that is still extant.] Erasistratus who was sitting by Antiochus, noticed that when Stratonice came, his colour always rose and his pulse beat high. When she went away, he grew pale and waned again and was short of breath and panted. He discovered what his problem was and told the matter to Seleucus. Thereupon he was content to part with her to his son although she was most dearly beloved to him. Seleucus called his army together and before them all married her to his son. Seleucus had at that time 72 provinces under him. He gave the greater part of them, that is the upper provinces which were all east of the Euphrates River to his son. He reserved only such countries as lay on the west between the Euphrates and Mediterranean Sea. [Appian. in Syriac. with Valer. Max. l.5. c.7. Plut. in Demet. Lucian. De Syria Dea. Galen. of foreknowing, and Julia in Misopogone.]
     
3723 AM, 4433 JP, 281 BC
  1. Lysimachus crossed over into Asia to made war on Seleucus. This was the last battle fought between the survivors of Alexander the Great. 34 were already dead and these were the last two alive. This battle was fought in Phrygia bordering on the Hellespont, pzit pqbngnwohan. [in Porphyrie, in Grec. Euseb. Scaliger, p. 228.] Lysimachus personally fought very bravely. After he had lost many of his men, he was wounded with a large spear by Malacon, one of Heraclea. Lysimachus had lived to see the death of 15 of his children and was one of the last surviving members of his family. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 9. Memnon, Excerpt. c.9. Appian, in Syriac. p. 128. 131. Justin, l.17. c.1,2. Oros. l.3. c.ult.] Appian says he lived 70 years, Justin and Ordsius say 74, but Hieronymus Cardianus, the historian who lived at that time and was held in great esteem, says that he died at 80. [Lucian, in Macroiis]
     
  2. When Lysimachus had fallen, his dog stayed by the body and drove away all the birds and animals from it. Finally, Thorax, from the country of Pharsalia, found the almost putrefied body after a long search and knew it by his dog that lay by it. Alexander, his son by Odrysias, got the body from Lysandra after much adieu and many requests. He carried it into the Chersonese of Thrace and buried it there. His bones were later moved to the temple in Lysimacia by the citizens of the place. The bones were placed in an urn and the name of the temple after that was called Lysimachium. [Pausan. and Appia.]
     
  3. When Lysimachus was dead, his kingdom became part of Seleucus' kingdom. [Memnon.] Seleucus was very pleased with himself after so great a victory because he now saw himself the last one alive of all that company which went by the name of Alexander's companions in arms. He said that to be a Conqueror of Conquerors was a gift from god not man. [Justin.]
     
  4. The men of Heraclea in Pontus heard that Lysimachus was dead and that he was slain by a country man of theirs. In the 84th year after Clearchus the First subdued them, they wanted to recover their native liberty which Lysimachus had again taken from them after their local tyrants were dead. They behaved valiantly to recover it. After the death of the two brothers, Clearchus the second and Oxarhres, Lysimachus had restored their liberty for a while. Afterward, through the requests of his wife Arsinoe, he made a new war on them. [Justin, l.17. c.3.] When he had taken their city, he made Heraclitus Cimaeus, a man loyal to Arsinoe, governor over them. After Lysimachus' death, the men of Heraclea offered Herachitus, safe passage and a large sum of money to leave on the condition that they would again have their liberty. Thereupon he was very angry and ordered some of them to be executed. When the citizens knew this, they secretly agreed with the chief officers of the garrison under Herachitus to free them and to pay them all their back wages. The officers took Heraclitus and put him in prison where they kept him for a while. When they saw they were free from all danger, they demolished the citadel, which Lysimachus had built to control them. They sent an embassy to Seleucus to tell him what they had done and they made Phocritus, governor of their state. [Memnon, Excerpt. c.8. & 10.]
     
  5. Zipoetus, a petty king of Bithynia was angry with the men of Heraclea first for Lysimachus and now for Seleucus' sake because they were both his enemys. He attacked them and did as much damage as he could. Although his men were not caught, they often received as much harm as they inflicted. [Memnon, Excerpt. c.11.]
     
  6. Meanwhile, Seleucus sent Aphrodisius to the cities of Phrygia, and nearby places to take care of his tribute and affairs. After he had settled the business he was sent on, he returned to Seleucus. He praised many cities but accused the Heraclians of many things especially, that they were not loyal to Seleucus. Thereupon the king was enraged and scorned the embassy sent by the Heraclians to him. He spoke harshly to them. However, there was one of them, called Camaelcon, who was not intimidated. He spoke to Seleucus: "Sir, Hercules, Carron."
     
  7. "Carron" in the Dorian Dialect or language, means, "he that is the strongest". When Seleucus did not know what the word meant, he continued his tirade against them and ordered them to leave. Thereupon the messengers that were sent, knew that it was no good for them either to stay there or to return home again. When Heraclea heard the news, they fortified their city as best they could and sought foreign help. They sent their ambassadors for help to Mithridates king of Pontus and to the states of Byzantium and Chalcedon. [Memnon, Excerpt. c. 12.]
     
  8. Those who were banished and lived in exile from the state of Heraclea, met together and came to an agreement among themselves. The deal was this. There Nymphidin persuaded them to labour for a restitution to their country. He told them it would not be hard to do this, if they would desire restitution of what their ancestors had lost in a fair and not in a violent way. They were all easily persuaded by him. Thereupon all things happened according the their desires. It was hard to tell who was happier, the returning exiles or the citizens who received them. They who returned used the citizens who had expelled them very lovingly. The citizens allowed none of them to lack any necessaries of life. By this means they grew more united into one body again and returned into their original state of government. [Memnon, Excerpt. c.12.]
     
3724 AM, 4434 JP, 280 BC
  1. Seleucus planned to end his days in his old and native country of Macedonia. He crossed over the Hellespont and went to Lysimachia. By chance, he saw a certain altar standing in a conspicuous place and asked what the name of that altar was. He was told that it was called "Argos". Now it is said that he had been forewarned by an oracle to beware of Argos. He further asked why it was called Argos. Whether it was from the Argonants, who passed that way in olden time, when they went with Jason to Colchos. Or was it named after the Argivi, who went to the siege of Troy or that the great Argos in which Jason went, was cast away there on their return or that it was the country of the Arridae, Agamemnon and Menelaus. As he was thus questioning about the name of that altar, Ptolemy Ceraunus, who was standing behind him, ran him through with his sword and killed him. Ptolemy was the son of Ptolemy the First, by his wife Euridice and brother to Arsinoe the widow of Lysimachus. He killed his great benefactor who kept him and always wanted him with him. So Seleucus within 7 months after the death of Lysimachus, lost both the kingdom of Macedonia, which he had taken from him and his life.
     
  2. Arrian tells us that Seleucus was the greatest man that lived after Alexander the Great and had the most noble spirit of all the rest. He had the largest dominions of all others. [l. de Reb. Alexand.] He died in the 43rd year after the death of Alexander, the 32nd year of the Greek or Seleucian Calendar. Appian said he lived 73 years but Justin says 78 years. His body was buried by Philetaerus the king of Pergamus, which he redeemed from Ceraunus with a great sum of money. After he had buried it in a most solemn manner, he sent his ashes to his son Antiochus. He burned it in Seleucia which stands on the sea coast. He built a shrine to his tomb which was called Nicatorium after his surname. [Appian, in Syriac. p. 129.] Justin tells us that both he, his sons and grand children after him, were all born with the sign of an anchor on one of their thighs. This was a natural birthmark of that family. [l. 15. c.4.] Ausonius in his book "de Claris Urbius", that is, "of famous cities", spoke of Antioch and said: [l. 2.] --Illa Selucum. &c. She for her founder did Seleucus praise, Who ware a native anchor in his thigh; A true impress of his nativity, And cognisance on all his progeny.
     
  3. However Polybius, [l. 2. p. 128.] notes, that Ptolemy the First, Lysimachus, Seleucus and Ptolemy Ceraunus, all died about the 124th olympiad. Ptolemy the First, died in the first year of it and Lysimachus and Seleucus in the last year. However, Ceraunus did not die until the latter end of the first year of the next olympiad. Therefore Polybius mentioning the concurrence of their deaths in the [same book, p. 155.] seems of to have omitted him. [??]
     
  4. After Ceraunus had murdered Seleucus, he escaped on a swift horse to Lysimachia. He proclaimed himself king and surrounded himself with bodyguards. He went to the army who of pure necessity, received him and cried, "God save the king". Only a short time before they had sworn allegiance to Seleucus. [Memnon, Excerp. c.13.]
     
  5. When Antigonus, surnamed Gonatas, the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, heard how Seleucus was murdered, he made an expedition into Macedonia. He planned to get there before Ceraunus could with his army and naval forces. However, Ceraunus had all Lysimachus' fleet in a readiness, and set out and met him in a good battle formation at sea. In his navy, ships were sent from Heraclea in Pontus. Some of 6, some of 5 tiers of oars and these kinds of ships were called Aphracta. The largest ship of all had 8 tiers of oars and was called the Leontifera. She was admired by all for her huge size and exquisite building. In her were 100 oars per tier, so that on each side there were 800 rowers which made 1600 in all. On the upper deck or hatches there were 1200 fighting men who were under two special commanders. When the battle began, Ceraunus won and Antigonus was forced to flee with all his navy. In this fight the ships from Heraclea performed the best and among them the Leontifera did the best of all. After Antigonus was routed, he fled into Boeotia and Ptolemy Ceraunus went into Macedonia. He stayed quietly for two years. [Memnon, Excerp. c.14,15.] That is for 17 months according Dexippus and Porphyrie who more precisely relate this matter.
     
  6. Ceraunus grew in favour in the eyes of the people because of his father Ptolemy the First of Egypt and for the revenge which he took on Lysimachus' death. He tried first to win over Lysimachus' sons and desired to marry Arsinoe their mother and his own sister. He told them that he would adopt them for his children. He hoped they would not attempt anything against him out of respect for their mother or to him as their new father. He sent letters soliciting friendship of his brother Ptolemy Philadelphus king of Egypt. He claimed that he had utterly forgotten his loss of his father's kingdom and that he would never seek to get that from his brother which he had already more honestly attained to by getting it from an enemy. [Justin. l. 17. c.1.] He also made peace with Antiochus the son of Seleucus, whom he had murdered. [Justin. l.24. c.1.]
     
  7. Neither did he forget to solicit the friendship of Pyrrhus the king of Epirus. He thought Pyrrhus' support would sway many to his side. Pyrrhus made generous use of everyone else's estate and used it as if it was his own. In this spirit, he began to help the Tarentines in Italy against the Romans. He sent to borrow ships from Antigonus Gonatas to transport his army into Italy. He sent to Antiochus the son of the deceased Seleucus, to borrow money because he seemed to have much more wealth than men. He asked Ptolemy Ceraunus to furnish him with some companies of soldiers from Macedonia. Ceraunus lent Pyrrhus 5000 foot soldiers, 4000 cavalry and 50 elephants for 2 years of service only. For this favour, Pyrrhus married his daughter and left him as protector of his kingdom of Epirus during his absence. He feared that while he was away with the best of his army in Italy, someone might take advantage and plunder his kingdom. [Justin l.17. c.2.]
     
  8. Therefore, Pyrrhus made his 15 year old son Ptolemy, whom he had by Antigone the daughter of Berenice, governor of his kingdom yet as it was under the authority of the Ptolemy Ceraunus, the king of Macedonia. Pyrrhus sailed with his army and landed in the port of Tarentum, now called Otranto in Italy. He took his 2 younger sons, Alexander and Helenus. They were very young and he took them for comfort in this distant war. [Justin l.18. c.1.] He did not wait for spring but sailed there in the middle of the winter, according to Zonara's report from Dionysius Halicarnassaeus. This was in the 4th year of 124th olympiad. [Polybius, l.2. p. (129).]
     
  9. After the death of his father Seleucus, Antiochus Soter held the kingdom of Syria for 19 years. [Porphyrie, Eusebius & Serv. Sulpitius] After many battles, he had barely recovered all his father's dominions. In the end, he sent an army under the command of Patrocles, to cross the Taurus Mountains. He chose for him as captain, Hermones, born at Aspendus. Patrocles was to attack Heraclea in the country of Pontus. When he received satisfaction from an embassy who they sent to him, he halted the expedition and made a firm league with them. He turned his course and passed through the country of Phrygia and came into Bithynia. The Bithynians ambushed him and he and all his army perished. In the battle Patrocles behaved most valiantly and personally did many exploits against the enemy. [Memnon, Excerpt, c.16.] When Zipaetes the king of Bithynia, had thus destroyed Antiochus' army, he built a city at the foot of the hill, Liparus and called it after his own name. [Memnon, Excerpt, c.21.]
     
  10. At the end of the 50th year of the 1st period of Calippus, being the 44th from the death of Alexander the Great, Aristarchus of Samos, observed the summer solstice. This was after Menton first observed the lunar cycle, 152 or 8 complete lunar cycles earlier. [Cl. Ptolemy in his book De anni Magnitudine, states from Hipparchus, l3Syntax. c.2.] See note on 3572 AM.
     
  11. Arsinoe, the widow of Lysimachus, married her own brother, Ptolemy Ceraunus and received him into her city of Cassandrea. He seized the citadel and took and killed her two sons, who she had by Lysimachus. One was called Lysimachus who was 16 years old and the other, Philippus was only 3 years old. He killed them both in their mother's arms. She tore her clothes and pulled out her hair. She was hauled out the gates of the city with only two servants and banished to the Isle of Samothracia. [Justin, l.24. c.2. & 3. Memnon, Excerpt. c.15.]
     
3725 AM, 4435 JP, 279 BC
  1. In the beginning of the 2nd year after Pyrrhus' arrival in Italy, the Gauls invaded Greece. [Polyb. l.1. p. 6.] They divided their whole army into 3 parts and assigned each part a task. One part led by Cerethrius attacked the Thracians and Triballi. The second group attacked Pannonias and were led by Brennus and Acichorius. The third group led by Belgius, attacked Macedonia and Illyrium. [Justin, l.24. c.5. & l.25. c.2. calls him Belgius] Pausanias calls him Bolgius. [Pausanias, in Phocieis. p. 335.]
     
  2. Ptolemy Ceraunus was driven on by madness of his wicked mind. He with a small poorly organised company went to war with Belius. Ptolemy thought wars were as easily waged as murders are committed. When the king of the Dardans offered to help him against these newly come Gauls with 20,000 men, Ptolemy refused the offer. When the Gauls sent messengers to him offering him peace for money, he replied that he would not give them peace unless they surrendered their arms and the leaders of their army for hostages as signs of their loyalty to him. Not able to agree, they fought a battle and the Macedonians were defeated and fled. Ptolemy was grievously wounded and the elephant on which he rode was also wounded. It became unruly and threw him off its back. He was captured by the Gauls and torn in pieces. His head was cut off and put on the point of a spear. It was carried about to terrify the enemy. Few of the Macedonians escaped. The rest were either slain or taken prisoners. [Justin, l.24. c.4,5. l.23. c. 2. with Memnon's Excerpt. c.15. Diod. Sic. l.22. c.3. Pausamias in Phoc. p. 335.]
     
  3. Ptolemy's brother Meleager succeeded him in the kingdom of Macedonia. After 2 months, the Macedonians kicked him out as not being worthy of the position. They replaced him with Antipater, the son of Philip, who was brother to Cassander. [Justin, l.12. c.14.] He was nicknamed "the Etesian" because he held the office for only 45 days. This is about how long that the Etesian winds used to blow on that coast each year. [Porphy. in Grac. Euseb. p. 228.]
     
  4. When Brennus, [who, some say, was by birth a Prausian, as we read in Strabo, l.4. p. (187).] heard of this great victory by Belgius, he did not want to let slip from his hands this golden opportunity of getting all the riches of the east. He gathered together 150,000 foot soldiers and 15,000 cavalry of his Gauls and marched in quickly to Macedonia. [Justin, l.24. c.6.] When he came into the country of the Dardans, a people in Illyrum, he was forced to stay there because of a rebellion which rose in his army. About 20,000 of his men, [this number Suidas also has in the word, Galatae] with Leonorius and Lutarius as their captains defected from him and went into Thracia. By fighting and selling peace to those that would buy it from them, they came finally to Byzantium. After they had wasted the country of Propontis for a while and made it a tributary to them, they took over all the cities in those parts. [Liv. l.38.]
     
3726 AM, 4436 JP, 278 BC
  1. Sosthenes, a leader in Macedonia, assembled the youth and brave men of the country and attacked the Gauls that were there. He quelled them after many encounters and defended the country from their further plundering. For this great service he was chosen to be king when many of the nobles strove for the kingdom. He was selected even though he was a man of humble birth and parentage and of no royal blood. When they wanted to make him king, he refused and made them take their oath to him as their captain only. [Justin, l.24. c.5.] In that capacity, he governed that country for 2 years. [Polyrie and Euseb.]
     
  2. When Brennus came into Macedonia he started plundering the country. Sosthenes met him with his army but was hopelessly outnumbered. The Macedonians were quickly defeated and fled to their cities. While they stayed confined to their cities, Brennus with his army overran and plundered all the country. [Justin, l.24. c.6.]
     
  3. Leonorus and Lutarius used trickery to capture Lysimachia and took over the whole area. They came down from there into the Hellespont and saw how short a distance it was across to Asia and planned to go there. They sent their agents to Antipater the governor of Hellespont, to help them make the journey. [Livy l.38.]
     
  4. When Zipaetes had reigned in Bithynia for a full 48 years and lived 76 years, he died leaving 4 sons. The oldest was Nicomedes and he succeeded his father in the kingdom. He proved to his brothers that he was not a brother but a butcher. [Memnon, Excerpt. c.21.] The youngest who was called Zipaetes and whom Livy [l. 38.] calls Zibnaeas, held the sea coast of Bithynia. This was called Thracia Thyniaca or Asiatica. [Livy c.18.]
     
  5. After Zipaetes died, Antiochus Soter prepared to make war upon Bithynia. Nicomedes sent and asked help from the city of Heraclea and promised to help them if the need arose. Thereupon they sent him help. By this occasion they later recovered at great expense Cierus, Tius and the land of Thinis. When they went to recover the city and territory of Amestris, [which had also been taken from them] they spared neither for war nor money to recover it. However, Eumenes who held it as governor only, chose for very spite to turn it over gratis to Ariobarzanes the son of Mithridates the king of Pontus. He did this rather than to surrender it to the state of Heraclea on any terms. [Livy c.17.]
     
  6. Brennus and Acichorius with the Illyrians, [as Appianus in Illyricis tells us] whom they call Autarians and Celts, whom they call Cimbrians, left Macedonia. They went into Greece with an army of 152,000 foot soldiers and 20,400 cavalry. Every cavalry man had two footmen attending him. If the cavalry man was killed, one of them could take his place. When they went to plunder the temple at Delphi, they were driven off with thunder and lightening. There were earthquakes and the ground sank from under them in the Mount Olympus. Because it was winter, there were bitter frosts and snow. They were miserably distressed in many ways. The Phocenses killed less than 6000 of them. Panic and fear struck the whole army. A frost that night killed more than 10,000 men and as many more perished from hunger in the place. Brennus their leader, was wounded. Because of this shameful defeat, he drank himself drunk and fell on his own sword and died. When Acichorius saw how the leaders of this war were punished, he hastily left Greece with a company of 10,000 poor maimed soldiers. However, the continual storms of rain and snow, with bitter frosts and famine and which was worst of all perpetual walking, utterly consumed the bodies of this unlikely army. All nations through which they passed on their return journey, attacked them as they went, scattering them and making a prey of them. [Pausan. in Phoc. and Attic. Justin, l.24. c.6-8. Eclog. Diod. Sic. l.22. S. 13. Appian. Illyr. p 758.] Polybius, [l. 2. p. 108.] notes that this disaster happened to them in year 2 of the 125th olympiad and when Anaxicrates was archon of Athens. [Pausan in Phoc. p. 340.]
     
  7. When those of Illyrium, called Autarians, who escaped this misfortune came home into their own country, they found themselves plagued with huge numbers of frogs. They killed so many that they polluted the very rivers with their rotting bodies. The foul air rising from their dead bodies, caused a pestilence to spread throughout all the country. They were forced to flee from their native land but carried the plague along with them. No country would receive them and so they were forced to go on a 23 day journey until they came into the country of the Basturnians. There they built cities to live in. The land of the Celts was plagued with earthquakes and whole cites were swallowed up. These plagues still followed them until at last they also were forced to leave their habitation and went wandering until they came to the country of the Illyrians, who were partners with them in their action at Delphi. They easily defeated them since the inhabitants were consumed with the plagues. However, they got the infection by touching their goods. They were forced again to leave and wandered until they came to Pyrene. [Appian. Illyr. p 758.] All these horrid, strange and miraculous plagues and punishments happened to these Gauls and others for their sacrilegious acts committed against their idols. We may truly say that to be most true which the wise man says of them who swore falsely by them: "That it was not the power of the gods by whom they swore, nor of the gods whom these have robbed but the just vengeance on sinners, from the true God who always punishes the offences of the ungodly," [Wild. c.14. v.ult.]
     
  8. The Cordistae were a part of these Gauls who attempted the plundering of Delphi. It is said that Bathanasius their captain, settled them near the bank of the Ister River from whom it is that the way by which they returned was later called Bathanasius' way. [Athenaus, l.6. c.4.] These are the same Gauls, whom Strabo calls, the Scordisci. They settled on the bank of the Ister River and they expelled the Autarians or Autoriates from their lands. [l. 7. p. 293,296, 313,317, 318.]
     
  9. Those Gauls, whom as I said before, went from Thrace down to the strait of Hellespont. After a rebellion among them, Leonorias with the most of his men, returned to Byzantium from where he came. Lutarius took 5 ships from the Macedonians, who were sent by Antipater to him as ambassadors but were really spies. He used the ships to transport his men into Asia a few at a time. [Livy, l38.]
     
  10. Zipaetes and Bithynians defeated the state of Heraclea. When help came to them from other parts, Zipaetes was forced to flee. The Heraclians gathered the bodies of their slain, burnt them and carried their bones into the city. They laid them up in their sepulchres with the bones of men who with others who had excellently served their country. [Memnons Excerpt. c.18.]
     
  11. About the same time, Antiochus Soter and Antigonus Gonatas made elaborate preparations to go to war against each other. Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, sided with Antigonus but others with Antiochus. Therefore, Antiochus set aside the war with Antigonus for the present and marched first against Nicomedes. He was forced to get what help he could from other parts. He sent to his friends the Heracleans and got from them 13 ships of three tiers of oars a piece. With these he went to engage Antiochus at sea. They met and after looking at each other for a while, each side withdrew and nothing happened. [Memnons Excerpt. c.19.]
     
  12. The men of Byzantium were worn out with the continual attacks and plundering of the Gauls. They sent their ambassadors to their friends and got from the Heracleans, 1000 crowns, [some say, 4000]. Not long after this, Nicomedes came to an agreement with these Gauls. The terms were these: "Thus they should forever continue firm and fast friends to Nicomedes and his heirs. That without his knowledge and consent, they should lend no helping hand to any that by embassies should implore their aid in their wars. They should be friends to his friends and foes to his foes. ITEM, That they should help them of Byzantium, if occasion arose. ITEM, That they should maintain league and friendship with the Tianians, Heracleans, Chalcedonians, Cierians and some other states which had other nations under their jurisdiction", [Memnons Excerpt. c.20, (21).]
     
  13. Leonorius, with the help of Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, crossed from Byzantium into Asia. [Livy l.38. Strabo l.12. p. 566.] This crossing of the Gauls into Asia happened in year 3 of olympiad 125. [Pausan. in Phoc. p. 340.]
     
  14. However, the people of Byzantium were not rid of those plundering Gauls yet. For some of those who were at Delphi with Brennus and escaped that danger came into Hellespont under their captain, Comontorius. They planned to go no further since they liked the country around Byzantium. They settled there and after they had conquered the Thracians, they made Tyla the capital city of their kingdom. They made Byzantium to fear them as the other Gauls had done before. [Polyb. l.4. p. 313.]
     
3727 AM, 4437 JP, 277 BC
  1. Ptolemy Philadelphus was a great patron of learning and all liberal arts and sciences. He built a most famous library at Alexandria, in that quarter of the city which was called Brachium. He committed the care of getting books of all sorts and from all countries to Demetrius Phalereus. Upon his advise, he also sent to have the holy writings of the Jews to be translated from Hebrew into Greek by 72 translators in the 7th year of his reign. [Epiphanius in his book of weights and measures] Concerning this Tertullian, [c. 18. Apologet.] writes: "The most learned king of all the Ptolemys was surnamed Philadephus and was most interested in all kinds of literature. I think he studied to out do Philistrasus in the matter of libraries. These are but monuments, which either antiquity or curiosity could afford for perpetuating man's fame to posterity. He was guided in this by Demetrius Phalereus, a most excellent scholar and humanitarian in those days whom he had set over that work. He desired of the Jews to have their books also."
     
  2. This Ptolemy, if there ever was any king, was very zealous in the studies of human learning. This is confirmed by Phylarchus and vouched by Athenaeus. [l. 12. c.17. Deipnos.] It is given in more detail by Vitruvins, in his preface to his book of Architecture. He shows that when he finished this great library at Alexandria, he instituted certain games in honour of Apollo and the Muses. He invited, all writers in the common arts and sciences, [as others were wont to do, wrestlers and the like] to put in for the prizes. He gave generous prizes to the winners. Vitruvins also relates how Ptolemy entertained Zollus, surnamed Homeromastigem, that is, "the scourge of Homer", when he came to him.
     
  3. Ptolemy acquired Arsitole's books. When Aristotle died, he left his library to Theophrastus. Theophrastus in his last will and testament, which we find in [Diog. Leortius,] left it to Nileus Scopsins. [Strabo. l.13. p. 608. Plut in Sylla.] Ptolemy bought them from him besides others which he bought at Athens and Rhodes. He brought them all to Alexandria. [Athenaus l.1. c.1.] Although Strabo and Plutarch [Strabo. l.13. p. 608. Plut in Sylla.] and Atheneus elsewhere in his writings, [l. 5. c.11.] states that Theophrastus' books and with them all Aristotle's library came to the hands of Neleus and his heirs. A long time after in the days of Sylla, his descendants sold them for a great sum of money to Apellicon the Teian.
     
  4. Demetrius Phalerus was a great grammarian whom Tertullian commends and was an outstanding philosopher and one who had been previously a great Statesman and an excellent governor in Athens. He was succeeded by Zenodotus of Ephesus who was the first editor of Homer's books, according to Suidas. After him came Aristophanes, who with great diligence and industry read all the books of that great library in order as they were placed. Vitruvius in his previously mentioned preface to his book of Architecture affirms this. This was much later. [Aristraeas in his Treatise of the 70 interpreters, Josephus, l.12. Antiq. c.2. & Euseb. l.8. de Prapar. Evangel.].
     
  5. When Demetrius Phalereus was asked by king Ptolemy, how many Myriads or ten thousands of books he had gotten, he answered, about 20 Myriads, but hoped ere long to make them 50 Myriads. He accumulated about 200,000 books. We find this from Aristaeas and in those copies which Josephus and Eusebius used. The smaller sum of 54,800 found in Epiphanius, who wrote long after them, is incorrect.
     
  6. Demtrius Phalereus advised the king, as I said before, to get those sacred writings of the Jews. Aristaeas, who was an attendant about him at that time, advised him to buy them by giving all the Jews who were then slaves in Egypt their freedom and send them home. It is said that the number of them came to 100,000. In our copy of Aristaeas, it is said that everyone of them cost the king, 20 drachmas, or 120, as it is in Josephus. 120 drachmas make 30 shekels or shaoeres in silver. This was the full price of a slave in (Exodus 21:32) This was the amount that our Saviour was sold by Judas the traitor. The 20 drachmas which we find in our Aristaeas, being multiplied by 100,000 amounts to 2,000,000 drachmas. When divided by 6000 it makes an Attic talent. The total amount was 333 1/3Attic talents. The price which Ptolemy paid to redeem the Jews from their masters came to more than 400 talents as is affirmed by Josephus and by Aristaeas. There were more than 10,000 slaves freed. In this redemption of the Jewish slaves from their masters, a similar price was paid for every nursing child of them together with the mothers who nursed them. Hence it is that Josephus says that Ptolemy paid about 460 talents instead of which our common editions of Aristaeas have, 660 talents.
     
  7. Ptolemy selected from these Jews, the younger sort and ablest of them for his army. He employed the rest in his private affairs. This is confirmed in his letters to Eliezer the high priest. For in the one true letter of the king's, Epiphanius gives us two forged ones. They are both different both in style and meaning from that which we find in Aristaeas and Josephus. The last one begins thus: "For a treasure that is hidden and a fountain sealed up, what profit is there?"
     
  8. Whereas in the Greek one attributed to the king, who did not know a Hebrew proverb that was taken from /APC (Sirach 20:30) "wisdom if be hidden, and a treasure unseen, what profit is there of either of them?"
     
  9. With his letter, he also sent expensive gifts for the use of the temple at Jerusalem. Andraeas and Aristaeas, his two servants, delivered these to Eliezer the high priest. The gifts were a golden table of 2 cubits long, [2.5 cubits according to Josephus] and not less than half a cubit thick. It was solid gold and not gold plate. He sent 20 goblets of solid gold and 30 of solid silver. To make these he used more than 50 talents of gold, 70 talents of silver and 5000 precious stones. The value of these stones was about 250 talents of gold. Besides all this, he sent 100 talents for sacrifices and other uses of the temple.
     
  10. Eliezer the Priest received these presents. [After the captivity there remained some of the 10 tribes of the twelve. See note on 3468c AM.] From everyone of the twelve tribes, he chose six men who were most eminent above all others. These were mature in age, of noble birth and well educated. These men were to translate God's Law, from Hebrew into Greek. The names of the 72 elders are recorded by Aristaeas. The last one was called Ezekiel. I think he is the same man whom Eusebius [in the 9th book, de Prapart. Evangel.] states to have written a tragedy about the deliverance of the children of Israel from Egypt. The name of Ezekiel shows that he was Jewish and not a Greek as Clemens Alexandrinus and Eusebius thought he was.
     
  11. Eliezer also wrote back a letter to the king. Aristaeas gives us the salutation, "God save you". Eusebius, more correctly has: "If you and the Queen Arsinoe your sister are well, then all is well and as we desire it should be". Philadelphus was married to Arsinoe, the daughter of Lysimachus king of Thrace and Macedonia, by whom he had Ptolemy Euergetes and Berenice. After she died he married a second Arsinoe, his own sister. After the death of Lysimachus, her first husband, she was married to Ptolemeus Ceraunus her own brother. But she died before she bare any child to Philadelphus. He loved her so much that he called a province in Egypt, Arsinoitis, after her name. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 7.] He made her a statue of topaz, 6 feet high and consecrated it in a temple which was called the golden temple. [Pliny l.17. c.8.] By his orders, Dinoerates the architect, made an arched roof over her all of lodestone. This was so that an image of her made of iron would cling to it and seem to hang there in mid-air. [Pliny. l.14. c. 14.] Concerning Dinocrates, Ausonius [in his 9 Idyllion], says: "Who for a monument of incestuous love, By Ptolemy command did make to hang, Arsinoe in the air of an Egyptian temple."
     
  12. These 72 translators came to Alexandria and gave to the king the things Eliezer had sent to him. These included various parchments on which the law was intricately written with golden letters in the language of the Jews. The parchments so joined together that the seams could not be discerned by the eye of man. It happened that they came there at the time when news came to Ptolemy of a great victory gotten by him at sea against Antigonus. Concerning this naval battle, the writers who wrote say it happened about this time. I can not agree with those who refer it to that time, when Antigonus Gonatas made war on the Athenians and besieged their cities by sea and land. What we find in Justin, [l. 26. and by Pausan, in Laconic.] happened not until after the death of Pyrrhus and before the death of Aretas or Areus, the first king of Lacedemon. This was between the years 4442,4450 JP. For although that Areus with his army and Patrocles with Ptolemy's fleet came at that time to the help of the Athenians, Areus returned home without any battle fought. Pausanias shows, that Patrocles did nothing either for their relief. [In Attic. p. 7. and in Laonic. 87.]
     
  13. Ptolemy entertained and feasted the 72 translators for 7 days, [Josephus has 12 days], in a most sumptuous and magnificent manner. After that, he appointed Dorotheus to take care of them and to supply them with all the needs and not let them lack anything. The king himself would now and then question them concerning affairs of state and of morality. They extemporaneously answered him with very prudent and well thought out answers, according to Arstaeas, who took all that he wrote from the king's diaries. The king gave them each 3 talents and the boy servant.
     
  14. Three days later, Demetrius walked along the causeway, called the Heptastadium, that is a 7/8 of a mile long with the translators. He led them over the bridge into the Isle of Pharos and there settled them in a good house on the north shore of the island and far from any noise or tumult. They started to work on the translation as exactly as possible from the original manuscripts. Demetrius had each day's work copied exactly. Every day they worked until three o'clock in the afternoon and then went and relaxed. They had all things abundantly provided for them. Their meals were the same lavish kind that was provided for the king's own table. Dorotheus had them fed by the king's orders. Moreover, every morning very early they came to court and they bid the king good morning and returned to their place. They washed their hands, as their custom was and said their prayers. Then they applied themselves to read and to interpret from point to point. Epiphanius, differs in the account from Aristeas and Josephus. He says that they were put into 36 rooms, 2 to a room. They worked there from the break of day until the that evening. Then they were put into 36 boats, two to a boat, and brought back to the king's palace to eat supper. In the previous part of this narration, he follows I know not whom. In the latter, it seems, is a product of their fables. They imagined that the causeway was not made or at least not finished until Cleopatra's time.
     
  15. It happened that the work of the 72 translators was finished in 72 days, as if it had been so planned on purpose. When it was completed, Demetrius called all the Jews together in the place where it was done and read it all in the presence of the translators. When they had completed such a good work, they were highly commended and magnified by all the Jews who were there. Demetrius was also highly praised by the Jews. They asked him to deliver a copy of the translated law to their rulers. When it had been all read to them, then the priests and elders of the translators and the officers of the Jews stood up and said: "Forasmuch as this translation was carefully and accurately done, it is befitting that it should remain as it is and that no changes be made to it."
     
  16. When all had approved of this with a great acclamation, then Demetrius declared a great curse [as the manner was] on any man that should alter it either by adding anything to it or by taking anything from it.
     
  17. When the king had read it completely, he greatly admired the wisdom of God. He commanded that all possible care be taken of those books and that they should be carefully stored and kept. He also desired that the translators after they returned home would often come and visit him. He gave each of them 3 good changes of clothes, 2 talents of gold, a cup of one whole talent and the complete furniture for a room.
     
  18. In addition he gave them for Eleazar the high priest, ten beds with silver feet and expensive furniture belonging to it. He also sent a cup of 30 talents, ten scarlet raiments, an expensive crown, 100 pieces of linen as fine as silk, viols, mazers and two golden goblets to sacrifice with. In his letters, he desired Eleazar that if any of these men had at any time a desire to come and visit him, he would let them come. Ptolemy really wanted to talk with such kind of men and would rather spend his money on them than in any other way.
     
  19. The Gauls, who were left by Brennus when he went into Greece to keep Macedonia, did not want to be idle while their companions were working. They outfitted 15,000 foot soldiers and 3000 cavalry and attacked the Getes and the Triballi and routed them. [Justin, l.25. c.1.]
     
3728 AM, 4438 JP, 276 BC
  1. When Antigonus Gonatus had lost a battle at sea as was said before to Ptolemy Philadephas, he made a peace with Antiochus Soter. [Justin, l.25. c1] He went into Macedonia where his father Demetrius Poliorceres had reigned at times. Antigonus went there in the 10th year after he first became king of Greece and reigned for 34 years. [Parphyrie, in Grec. Eusebia. p. 229.] His heirs reigned there until Perseus who was defeated by the Romans, thus ending the kingdom of Macedonia. [Plut. in Demetrius.]
     
  2. When the Gauls had defeated the Getes and the Triballi, they sent their ambassadors to Antigonus the king of Macedonia to offer him peace for his money. At the same time they want to spy on his army and see his camp. Antigonus entertained and feasted them in a sumptuous manner. However, the Gauls saw and enormous amount of silver and gold brought out for the feast. They were greedy and wanted it. Therefore they returned more his enemies than when they came. Thereupon they all resolved to attack him. Antigonus suspected this and ordered that every man should take with him what he could and hide in a nearby wood. When the Gauls came, they took what they found there and went to the seaside. While they were busy preparing the ships, the sailors and a part of Antigonus' army who had fled there with their wives and children to save themselves, attacked them suddenly. They killed them and made such a havock of them that Antigonus had quite a reputation after this among the Gauls and all the surrounding nations. [Justin l.25. c.1. & 2.]
     
  3. These Gauls were under 17 commanders of whom Leonorius and Lutarius were the main leaders. They passed over several times into Asia. They all came again into one body and offered their assistance to Nicomedes against Aibaeas or Zibetus the younger who held the coast of Bithynia lying by the sea. These forces and others who came from Heraclea in Pontus crushed poor Zibetus to pieces. Hence all Bithynia came into the hands of Nicomedes. When the Gauls had wasted all that country, they shared its spoil among themselves. They divided the kingdom between them and Nicomedes and called their portion, Gallogracia. [Livy l.38. Justin. l.25. c. 2. Memnon Excerpt, c.20.]
     
  4. Of the 20,000 men the Gauls had, only 10,000 were armed. Even these few troops struck terror into all the countries on this side the Taurus Mountains. Not only the places they went into but the ones they did not go to, submitted to them whether they were far away or close to them. They consisted of three nations of their own, the Tohstobogians or the Tolistoboians, [coming, as was thought from the Gauls who were called the Boii] the Troemi and the Tectosagi. They divided all Asia between them and they settled there. Troemies settled in the Hellespont and all that region. Eolia and Ionia was allotted to the Tosistobogii. The Tectosagi occupied the inland or middle part of Asia. They made headquarters on the bank of the Halys River. [Liv. l.28, and Suidas in the word, Galata.]
     
  5. Demetrius Byzantius wrote 13 books concerning this crossing of the Gauls from Europe into Asia. [Laert. in the life of Demetrius Phalerius] Phaennis, who lived a whole age before this happened is said by way of oracle to have foretold this event in these words. The Gauls shall pass the straits of Hellespont, And ravage all the land of Asia. Yet worse things hath God in store for them, Who on the sea coast of that land do dwell.
     
3729 AM, 4439 JP, 275 BC
  1. In the 126th Olympiad, Eratosthenes Cyrenaeus, the son of Aglai, or according to others, of Ambrosius, was born. He was a scholar of Aristo Chius the philosopher, of Lysanias of Cyrene the grammarian and of Callismachus of Cyrene a poet. [Suidas, in the word, Eratosthenes.]
     
3730 AM, 4440 JP, 274 BC
  1. This year, Curius Dentatus fought with Pyrrhus in Italy. He killed 23,000 of his men and captured his camp, forcing him to retreat to Tarentum. [Eutrep. l.2.]
     
  2. The ambassadors returned who Pyrrhus had sent to the kings of Asia and to Antigonus Gonatas for help with men and money. They returned without either. Pyrrhus called the princes of the Epirotes and Tarentines together and concealed the contents of the letters and told them that supplies would come very speedily. When news of this came to the Roman camp and that there were great supplies coming to him from Macedonia and Asia both, the Romans did not attempt any more actions against him. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 11.] Pyrrhus acted as if he would move with his army from Tarentum. He never said why. Meanwhile, he wanted his confederates to continue the war and committed the keeping of the citadel at Tarentum to his son Helenus and to Milo, one of his friends. [Instin. l.25. c.3.] When he had spent 6 whole years in the war in Italy and Sicily, he had lost many of his men. With no hope left of doing any good, he returned to Epirus with the 8000 foot soldiers and 500 cavalry whom he had left. [Plut. in Pyrr.]
     
  3. Curius when he was consul, held a triumph for the defeat of Pyrrhus. He was the first that brought elephants [4 in total] to Rome. [Eusrop. l.2.] The people were eager in that triumph to get a look at those beasts with turrets on their backs of them and of which they were very afraid. The very beasts seemed to have sensed their captivity by holding down their heads as they followed the victorious horses in the triumph. [Florus, Rer. Rom. l.1. c.18.] This triumph happened in the month of January or February as gathered from the marble fragments of the record of their triumphs.
     
  4. Pyrrhus with the help of some of the Gauls made some inroads upon Macedonia where Antigonus Gonatas reigned. He captured many cities and 2000 of Antigonus' soldiers revolted from him. This raised Pyrrhus' hopes still more and he marched directly against Antigonus himself to force a battle with all his forces, Macedonians and Gauls. The Gauls who brought up the rear, fought that day very bravely. Many were cut to pieces and died in the place. The captains of the elephants were vexed by the enemy and surrendered with their elephants to Pyrrhus. The Macedonian foot soldiers were shocked at this defeat and heard Pyrrhus calling them all in general, on their captains and on chief officers by name to surrender to him. They left Antigonus and defected to Pyrrhus. Antigonus saved himself by fleeing but Pyrrhus pursued him to the seaside. [Plut. in Pyrrho. Pansan. in Attic. p. 11,12.]
     
  5. After this victory, Pyrrhus took the richest and best spoils from Gauls and hung them in the temple of Pallas in Itonia. It is between Phera and Larissa. He subdued all upper Macedonia and Thessalie. [Plut. in Lyrrho. Pansan. in Attic. p. 11,12.] He figured this made up for the loss of Italy and Sicily. He sent for his son Helenus from the citadel of Tarentum where he had left him. [Justin, l.25. c.3.]
     
  6. Pyrrhus had plundered the city of Egeas, which was the royal seat and burial ground of the previous kings of Macedonia. He left the Gauls to keep it, who had followed him in this war. When some told them that in the tombs of the kings much treasure was stored, they acted according to the custom of the times. They broke into the tombs and took away any treasure that was there. They threw the kings' bones about the streets and trampled them under their feet. When Pyrrhus found that their actions caused the Macedonians to murmur against him, he did not rebuke them publicly. He knew he needed them for future wars. [Plut. in Pyrrho. Diod. Sic. l.22. in the Exerpt. by Vales. p. 266.]
     
  7. Antigonus, with some few cavalry that followed him came to Thessalonica. He waited to see how events would unfold and what would become of Macedonia now that he had lost it. He planned to capture it again with the help of any mercenary Gauls he could hire. Ptolemy, the young son of Pyrrhus utterly defeated him. He escaped with only 7 in his company. He skulked up and down and did not try to recover his kingdom any longer but only to save his own skin. [Justin, l.25. c.3.] Pyrrhus reproached him and called him an impudent fellow. In spite of the condition he was in, he would not ware a cloak as other Greeks did, but still wore his scarlet robe. [Plut. in Pyrrho.]
     
3731 AM, 4441 JP, 273 BC
  1. In the year when Caius Fabius Licinius and Caius Claudius Caninas were consuls of Rome, Ptolemy Philadelphus heard of the great defeat of Pyrrhus by the Romans and how the Roman power began to grow in the world. He sent his ambassadors with presents from Alexandria to Rome, and made a league with them. [Eutrop. l.2. Livy l.14. Dio. in Excerpt. Legatio. published at Rome by Fulio Vursino, and Jo. Zonar. Chron. l.2.] The Romans were glad to see that so great a king as he was, had sought their friendship. Likewise they sent to him their ambassadors, Q. Fabius Gurges, Cn. Fabius Pictor and Quin. Ogulnius. These received expensive presents from the king. As soon as they came home and before they went to relate what happened to the senate, they went and gave all that they had received from him into the treasury. They rightly knew that from a public service for the commonwealth, they should not reap any benefits except for only praise and honour. All was restored to them again by a decree of the senate and by the general vote of the people. The quaesters were commanded to go and return to each of them what the king had given them. So that in this one thing, the bounty and magnificence of Ptolemy, the sincerity of the ambassadors, the equity of the senate and the whole people of Rome, they had the praise and honour due to them. [Diod. Sic. l.22. Valer. Max. l.4. c.3.]
     
3732 AM, 4442 JP, 272 BC
  1. In the 13th year, according to Dionysius, on the 25th day of Egon or Capricorn, in the 52nd year from the death of Alexander the Great, the 476th from the beginning of Nabonassar's account, on the 20th day of Athyr, [17th of our January] the planet of Mars was observed to be in the morning under the northerly part of the forehead of Scorpio. [Cl. Ptol. l.10. c.9.]
     
  2. When Pyrrhus had subdued the kingdom of Macedonia, he began now to look for the sovereignty of all Greece and Asia. [Justin l.25. c.4.] Before he had entirely subdued all Macedonia, he was sent for by Cleonymus of Sparta to come and help him in his wars at Laconia. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 12.] Areus their king was away in Crete helping the men of Gorryna who were then oppressed with a war. Therefore, Pyrrhus went to help him with 25,000 foot soldiers, 2000 cavalry and 24 elephants. With so large an army Pyrrhus thought that instead of recovering Sparta for Cleonymus, he could take over all of Peloponese. [Plutarch in Pyrrho.]
     
3733 AM, 4443 JP, 271 BC
  1. In the 13th year of Ptolemy Philadelphus [in some copies it is incorrectly written, "and a half"] in the 476th year of Nabonassar, in the 17th day of the month Masor, the 11th of our October 12 hours after the setting of the sun, Timochares observed the planet of Venus in the morning to be completely eclipsed. [Cl. Ptolemy. l.10. c.4.]
     
  2. While Pyrrhus besieged Sparta, a company of women led by Archidamia, defended it against him until the return of Areus from Crete. Acrotatus the son of Areus, valiantly drove Ptolemy the son of Pyrrhus back when he made an assault and would have broken into Sparta with 2000 Gauls and some select companies from Chaonia. Thereupon Pyrrhus, despaired of accomplishing anything and withdrew. He took the spoil of the country and planned to winter there.
     
  3. Now while the war was going on in Laconia, Antigonus recovered the cities of Macedonia and marched down with his army into Peloponese. He wanted to fight again with Pyrrhus for he knew if Pyrrhus succeeded there, he would return to continue the war in Macedonia. [Pausan. in Attic. p. 12.] When Pyrrhus was on his way to Argos, Areus the king attacked him from the rear. He then cut off some of the Gauls and Molossians which brought up the rear. Orasus of Crete, slew Ptolemy the son of Pyrrhus, who fought valiantly for his father. [Plutarch] When Pyrrhus saw his son's dead body, he said that this death happened to him not as soon as he feared it would or for his much rashness in actions deserved. [Justin. l.25. c.4.]
     
  4. In the very night that Pyrrhus entered into Argos, it is said that a screech owl came and sat on the top of his spear. [Elia. de Histo. Animal, l.10 c.37.] The next day Pyrrhus was killed with a brick which a poor old woman threw down on his head. His head was cut off by Zophyrus, a soldier of Antigonus, and carried to Aleyoneus, the son of Antignous. He took it and dashed it on the ground at Antigonus' feet where he sat with his friends about him. Antigonus rebuked him very sharply for so greatly insulting so great a person for he did not consider the weakness of the human condition. He took the head and put his hood over it which he then wore for an attire after the manner of the Macedonians. He buried his body very honourably. When Helenus, the son of Pyrrhus was brought prisoner to him, Antigonus wanted him to take on him both the manner and the spirit of a king. He gave him the bones of his father in a golden urn. He wanted him to carry it into Epirus to his brother Alexander. Antigonus treated Pyrrhus' friends who were captured with all the due respect he could.. [Plut. in the end of his Pyrrhus, l.25. c.5. Val. Max. l.5. c.1.]
     
  5. When those of Tarentum heard of the death of Pyrrhus, they sent to Carthage to ask for help against the Romans and against Milo, who held the city with a strong garrison of Epirotes. When Milo was besieged on all sides by the Romans on land and Carthaginians at sea, he surrendered the citadel to Papyrius Curso, the Roman consul. They agreed to let Milo and his soldiers with their money and other baggage leave safely for their own country. The city was also surrendered to Papyrius by its townsmen. They gave up their arms, ships and themselves to him. This was the end of the war of Tarentum against the Romans. [Zonaras from Dionoros. l.4. c.3. Fontin. Stratag. l.3.]
     
3734 AM, 4444 JP, 270 BC
  1. After the death of Strato, who was the master of the school of the Peripaticks for 18 years, Lycon of Troas, the son of Astyanax, succeeded him. He was an eloquent man and very capable to instruct and bring up youth. [Laert.]
     
3735 AM, 4445 JP, 269 BC
  1. Attalus the younger, the brother of Philitar had a son born whom he also called Attalus. The son reigned later in Pergamus and lived for 72 years. [Polybius, in Excerpt. Hen. Vales. & Suid. in Attalus, and Livy l.33.]
     
3736 AM, 4446 JP, 268 BC
  1. Jubilee 24.
     
3739 AM, 4449 JP, 265 BC
  1. Mithradates died after reigning in Pontus for 36 years, and his son, Ariobarzanes, succeeded him. [Diod. Sic. l.30. year 3. Olymp. 119. with Excerpt. Memnon. c.17, & 25.]
     
3740 AM, 4450 JP, 264 BC
  1. In the 21st year according to Dionysius on the 22nd and 26th day of the month Scorpion, in the 484th year of Nabonassar, on the 18th and 22nd day of the month Thoth and in the 14th and 18th of November according to the Julian calendar,the planet Mercury was observed in the morning. [Plan. Ptol. l.9. c.10,11.]
     
3741 AM, 4451 JP, 263 BC
  1. Philetaeus the Teian who was born at Teii in Pontus ruled Pergamus for 20 years and died when he was 80 years old. He was succeeded by Eumenes the First, the son of his older brother. He ruled for 22 years. [Strabo l.12. p. 543 & l.13. p. 623,624. with Lucian, in his Macrobis.]
     
  2. The first Punic or Sicilian war started this year between the Romans, and the Carthaginians. This was the first time the Romans had left Italy and fought their first naval battle. The Carthaginians had invaded Sicily. This war lasted 24 years without stopping. [Polyb. l.1.]
     
  3. In this same year, when Diognetus was archon at Athens, the chronologer of Paros made his canon or order of times. Mr. Selden recently published this in his "Marmora Arundelliana".
     
3742 AM, 4452 JP, 262 BC
  1. Dionysius the astronomer, observed Mercury 3 times. The first time was in the 23rd year, according to Dionysius, in the 29th [it should be the 19th or 20th according to the point to the sun assigned] of Hydron or Aquarion, in the 486th year of Nabonassar on the 17th of the month Choeac [on the 11th of our February] in the morning. The second time was on the 4th of the month Tauron or 1st of Phamenoth the Egyptian month, [for in Cl. Ptolem. we must here write A for L]. This was on the 26th of our April in the first hour of the evening. The third time was in the same year of Nabonassar but the 24th of the Dionysian account on the 24th of Leonion or 30th of Paynus or the 23rd of our August in the evening. Dionysius' observations are noted by Cl. Ptolemy from the writings of Hipparchus, [l. 9. c.7.] in his book called his Great Work.
     
  2. Nicomedes king of Bithynia enlarged the city Astacus and renamed Nicomedia, after himself. [Euseb. Chron. with Pausan. in his Ellac. l.2. p. 159. Trebel. Pollio. in Gallienis. & Ammia. Marcel. l.22.] Memnon, [Excerpt. c.21.] says that he built Nicomedia opposite the city Astacus, as do both Strabo and Pliny. They think they were really two distinct cities.
     
  3. When Eumenes the First had taken many cities and places around Pergamus, he defeated Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, near Sardis. [Strabo. l.13. p. 624.]
     
3743 AM, 4453 JP, 261 BC
  1. Antiochus of Syria died after he had killed one of his sons and declared the other, his successor. [Prolog. of Trog. Pompeius, l.26.] For his great victory over the Gauls who came over to Asia from Europe, Antiochus was surnamed "Soter", that is "their deliverer". [Appian in Syriac. p. 130.] For more detail of this victory over the Gauls, read Lucian, in his book, "of failing in men's speech", and in his "Zeuxis" or "Antiochus". He was succeeded by his son Antiochus, whom he had by Stratonice, the Milesian. The Milesians were the first, who surnamed him "god", because he ridded them of their tyrant, Timarchus. [Appian in Syriac. p. (130).] Tatianus the Assyrian, in his oration against the Gentiles, infers that Gerosus, who was a priest of Belus in Babylon, dedicated his three books of the Chaldean History to this Antiochus. Gerosus [Pliny l.17. c.56.] published the observations of the Celestial Motions among the Babylonians for a period of 480 years. This is the number of years from the beginning of the Epoch of Nabonassar's account as other learned men understand this. We also find this to have ended six years before the start of the reign of this Antiochus. Porphyrie, Eusebius, Severus Sulpitius, Johannes Malela of Antioch and all others agree that he reigned 15 years.
     
  2. Antiochus gave the Jews living in Ionia, equal rights and privileges with the Gentiles and allowed them to live according to their own religion and customs of their nation. [Josephus l.12. c.3.] At various times, he made war on Ptolemy Philadelphus and fought with him with all the forces he could raise from Babylon and all the east. Ptolemy wanted to end this bloody war and gave him his daughter, Bernice for a wife, while his former wife Laodice was still living. Laodice had born him two sons, Seleucus Callinicus and Antiochus Heirax that is "Hawk". Ptolemy accompanied his daughter as far as Pelusium and there gave him an enormous quantity of gold and silver for a dowry with her. Hence Ptolemy was called the dowry giver. [Jerome on (Daniel 11) At great expense, he supplied her with water from the Nile River. This was to be carried to her, so that wherever she was, she would only drink that water. [Atheneus, l.2. c.2. reports from of Polybies] Appian is wrong where he says that Bernice and Laodice were both daughters of this Ptolemy. [in Syria. p. 130.]
     
3745 AM, 4455 JP, 259 BC
  1. Josephus, [l. 12. c.4.] writes that after Eleazar the son of Onias, his uncle Manasseh, the son of Jaddus, succeeded him in the priesthood at Jerusalem. He was the high priest for 26 years. [Scaliger, in Grac. Eusebia. p. 50.]
     
3746 AM, 4456 JP, 258 BC
  1. Laodice bore to Antiochus Theos, a son called Antiochus, who, as I said before, was called Hierax. For more of him, see note on 3760 AM.
     
3747 AM, 4457 JP, 257 BC
  1. In the year 28, according to Dionysius' calendar, the 7th day of the month Didymon, in the 491st of Nabonassar, day 5 of the month Parmuth, the 28th of our July, the planet Mercury was seen near the sign of Gemini in the evening toward its southern head. [Cl. Ptol. l.9. c.7.]
     
3750 AM, 4460 JP, 254 BC
  1. The second Period of Calippus began in this year.
     
3753 AM, 4463 JP, 251 BC
  1. Aratus of Sicyone, at the age of 20 years, delivered his native country from the tyranny and oppression of Nicocles and joined it to the state of Achaia. [Polyb. l.2. p. 130.] He sent to Ptolemy Philadelphus in Egypt and got from him 150 talents which he bestowed among his poor country men. This was partly used in redeeming those who had been taken prisoners. Those that had been expelled from their country, were now restored. They would give no rest to those who now possessed their lands and estates. Therefore, Aratus made another journey to Ptolemy and asked for money of him to settle all differences among his country men and settle all legal actions between them. On the journey, he sailed through a violent storm and contrary winds. He finally came to Egypt where he obtained a boon of 150 talents more for his country's good. He took 40 talents along with him and returned into Peloponese. [Plut. in Arata.]
     
3754 AM, 4464 JP, 250 BC
  1. This year Maulins Vulso and Attilius Regulus were consuls in Rome as noted by Polybius. This was the 14th year of this first Carthagainian war. The Parthians, under their captain Arsaces, broke off the Macedonian rule and revolted from them. [Trog. Pomp. l.41.] This man Arsaces, the later Persian writers call Aski or Askam. Mircondus Chapur says he began his reign there in the 72nd year after the death of Alexander the Great. This was one year before the consulship of Manlius and Attilius in Rome and 3 years before Olymp. 133. At that time Eusebius in his Chron. notes that this Arsaces and his Parthians defected and rebelled against Antiochus Theos. However, the Parthians observe a holiday when Arsaces defeated Seleucus Callinicus, the son and successor of Antiochus, and took Callinicus himself prisoner. This holiday is kept with a great festival and is observed on the aniversary of their liberty. [Justin relates from Trogas, l.41. c.4.] Therefore both [Justin, and Appian, in Syriac. p. 130.] thought that the Parthians began their revolt under Seleucus and not under Antiochus his father. The Parthians moreover honoured Arsaces by calling their dynasty of kings after him, by the name of Arsaces. [Justin, l.41. c.5. Strabo, l.15. p. 702.]
     
  2. Now that the Parthians together with the Persians revolted from the Persian Empire. Arrian, in Perlicis, shows this as we find him in [Photius, his Bibliotheca, cod. 58.] Later Persian writers confound and make the two all one people called the Parthians. [Concerning this we may see more in Schikard, Tarick. p. 101,102. and our 3rd note upon the acts of Ignatius.] Arrian also shows the reason for this revolt from the Persian Empire. It was that this Arsaces and Tyridates, the sons of Phripites or Priapatius, the son of Arsaces had first killed Pherecles. [or Agathocles, as we find him called by Geor. Syncellus] He was the governor of that country and appointed by Antiochus Theos. The governor and 5 others wanted to have homosexual intercourse with Tirdates. They expelled the Macedonians and took over the kingdom. Their successors later fought with the Romans and contended with them for the empire of the world. [Strabo, l.11. p. 515.]
     
  3. At the same time, Theodotus, who had under him 1000 cities of the Bactrians, revolted from the Macedonians. The whole east followed their example and revolted. [Justin. l.41. c.4. from Trogus.] Others say, that the two kings of Syria and Media, defected. Euthydemus persuaded the Greeks who inhabited Bactria to revolt from the Macedonians. Thereupon when Arsaces saw Diotus or Theodotus, grow so powerful among the Bactrians, he made the Parthians revolt from the Macedonians also. Apollodorus in his books of the Parthian affairs, tells us that those Greeks who dwelt in Bactria, became very strong and invaded India. They went so far that after they crossed the Hypanis River, they went as far as the Isamus, farther then Alexander went in his conquest of India. [Strabo. l.11. p. 515. & l.15. p. 686.]
     
3758 AM, 4468 JP, 246 BC
  1. Seleucus king of Syria was overcome with love for his former wife Laodice and her children and began to court her again. A short time later she began to fear his fickleness and thought that his affections might return again to Bernice, his second wife. She poisoned him. [Jerome on (Daniel 11) Appia. in Syrac. p. 130.] To conceal this wicked deed of hers, she had Arremon, who looked very much like him, lie in his bed and pretend to be sick. By his face and imitation of his speech, he deceived all that came to see and visit him in his sickness. By this means, she concealed the death of the true king, until she had arranged a suitable successor. [Valer. Max. l.9. c.14. Pliny, l.7. c.11. Solic, c.1.] Through her, Seleucus, the oldest son of Seleucus by Laodice, succeeded him in the kingdom. He was surnamed Callinicus because of the many victories which he won. [There were none that I know of.] From his large beard he was called Pogon, which means "a beard". [Polyb. l.2. p. 155.] He ruled for 20 years. [Eusib. Chron.]
     
  2. In Egypt, Ptolemy Philadelphus died. He lived luxuriously and did not hesitate to say that he would live for ever and that only he had found the way to immortality after the death of Ptolemy the First, his father. Ptolemy, surnamed Euergeres, his son, succeeded him. He was born by Arsinoe, the daughter of Lysimachus, and reigned 25 years. [Cl. Ptolem. in Canone, Clemens Alexand. in l.1. Strom. & Jerome on (Daniel 9)] In his time it is said that there appeared a phoenix, which came to Helopolis, followed by a large flock of other birds. Everone marvelled at the beauty of the phoenix. [Tacit. Annal. l.6.]
     
  3. Laodice turned Berenice with her young son, who she had by Ptolemy, over to Icadion and Genneus [or Coeneus.] to have them murdered. They were two important men in Antioch. [Jerome on (Daniel 11) and Appia. in Syriac. p. 130.] When Berenice heard that they were coming to murder her, she shut herself up in Daphne, a citadel or suburb of Antioch of which I spoke before. When the cities of Asia heard that she with her young son were besieged, they remembered and reverenced her high calling and her sons. Out of compassion, they sent her help from all parts. Also, her brother Ptolemy surnamed Euergetes, feared for the danger his sister was in. He left his kingdom and went as quickly as he could with as many forces as he could gather to help her. [Justin in l.27. c.1.] Before any help arrived, the young son was taken by the schemes of Laodice and carried away. When Berenice the mother heard of this, she armed herself and got into a chariot. She pursued Coeneus, the butcher of that cruel act. When she overtook him, she could do nothing against him with her spear. She took a stone and knocked him down. She forced her chariot over the very body of the knave and broke through the middle of the companies. She went directly to the house, where she heard that they had laid the murdered body of her son. [Val. Max. l.9. c.10.]
     
  4. The murderers of the child took another child very like him and brought him out. They showed him to the people, with a royal guard about him, as if it had been the same child. However, they had a strong guard of mercenary Gauls attack Bernice. They turned over to her the strongest part of the place or citadel of Antioch. They gave her their oath to be loyal to her and entered into a covenant with her. She listened to Aristarchus her physician, who persuaded her to make a covenant of friendship with them. However, they used their oath as a stratagem, to get near her. They tried to cut her throat. The women about her, defended her as well as they could and many of them there died in the fight. However 3 of them, Panxriste, Maria and Gethosyne, took her body and laid it in her bed as if she had been wounded only and not quite dead. They let it be known that she might recover and held the people in suspense until the coming of Ptolemy. [Polyanus. Stratag. l.1.]
     
  5. All the cities of Asia, which had revolted from Seleucus, sent their ships and joined with Ptolemy. They were either going to defend Berenice if she was still alive or to revenge her murder if she was dead. [Justin l.27. c.1.] When Ptolemy came, he killed Laodice and entered Syria marching as far as Babylon. [Appian. in Syriac. pag. 130.] He took over Coelosyria with Seleucia. [Polyg. l.5. p. 402,403.] Syria, Cilicia, the upper provinces beyond the Euphrates and almost all Asia became his. [Jerome on (Daniel 11).] Even from the Taurus Mountains to India, he took all without fighting a battle. That is if we can believe Polyenus, in the place cited above with which we may also compare what we find on the monument of Euergetes, called the monument in Aduliteanum, published at Rome in the year 1631 by Leo Allatrus. It says: "After his father died, Ptolemy became king of Egypt, Libya, Syria Phoenicia, Cyprus, Lycra, Caria, and the Cychadian Isle. He gathered an army of foot soldiers and cavalry with a fleet of ships and elephants from Trogloditica and Ethiopia. Some of the elephants had been taken there by his father and the rest he brought from there into Egypt. He trained these forces in the art of war and they were well equipped. With these forces he sailed into Asia and conquered all the land on this side the Euphrates, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Ionia, Hellespont and Thracia together with all their forces and other elephants from India and all the kings of these countries. He crossed over the Euphrates and conquered Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Susia, Persia, Media and all the country as far as Bactria."
     
  6. When Euergetes had conquered all Syria, he came down to Jerusalem, and offered many sacrifices of thanksgiving to God. He dedicated to him gifts worthy of such a great victory. [Josephus l.2. cont. Apion. p. 1064.]
     
3759 AM, 4469 JP, 245 BC
  1. Euergetes was called back by a rebellion of his own people in Egypt. He held Syria personally and entrusted Antiochus, one of his friends, with Cilicia. He put Xanthippus in control of the provinces beyond the Euphrates. He wasting all the kingdom of Seleucus and carried from there 40,000 talents of silver and all the rich vessels that were there. He took 2500 images of their gods. Among these images were those images which Cambyses had taken previously from Egypt to Persia. By this action the Egyptians surnamed him, "Euergetes" when they saw their gods come home. [Jerome on (Daniel 11).] Concerning him in that monument mentioned earlier, called Monumentum Adulitanum, we find written: "Ptolemy had returned those gods which the Persians had taken and carried from Egypt previously along with other treasures stored there. He sent his army to let in the water in ditches recently dug for that purpose."
     
  2. After the departure of Ptolemy from Syria, Seleucus outfitted a huge fleet to attack the cities that had revolted from him. A sudden storm sank the whole fleet. Thereupon the cities and countries which had defected to Ptolemy because they hated Seleucus, all returned to him because of this great disaster at sea. [Justin, l.27. c.2.]
     
3760 AM, 4470 JP, 244 BC
  1. In the year 67 according to the Chaldeans, on the 5th day of the month Apelleus, and in the year 504 of Nabonassar, 27th of the month Thoth, the 18th day of our November, the planet Mercury was observed in the morning to have been to the northward of the uppermost star in the head of Scorpio. [Cl. Ptol. l.9. c.7.]
     
  2. Seleucus Callinicus began to make war on Ptolemy Euergetes and was utterly routed and fled to Antioch. From there he wrote to his brother Antiochus and begged his help. He offered him for his trouble, all Asia on this side the Taurus Mountains. Antiochus, at this time was not more than 14 years old and was very greedy for a kingdom. He seized on the occasion but not out of brotherly love. He acted like a robber ["laron", Ussher cited in Oxford English Dictionary as using this term] and sought to strip his brother of all that he had in his time of need. Although he was a child, yet he behaved more like a man with this impious resolve. From this, he was surnamed "Hierax", that is "greedy hawk". He was more like a harpy eagle because he was always ready to fall upon every man's estate. [Justin, l.17. c.2. with Strabo, l.16. p. 754.]
     
3761 AM, 4471 JP, 243 BC
  1. At this time, the people of Smyrna and Magnesia, in the month Lenaeon, entered a league between themselves to maintain the honour and greatness of Seleucus. This league we find preserved to this very day and is transcribed from those Marmora Arundeliana; i.e.those marble stones which the Earl of Arundel brought from those parts and published by Mr. J. Selden, as noted before.
     
  2. When Ptolemy saw that this young Antiochus sided with Seleucus, he made a 10 year truce with Seleucus lest he should be forced to fight both of them. [Justin, l.27. c.2.] In this long time of peace, he sent for Eratosthenes Cyrenaeus from Athens and made him keeper of his library at Alexandria. [Suidas, in Eratosthenes, and in the word, Apollonius.] Ptolemy Euergetes followed after his father Philadelphus in promoting the magnificence of this library and with it, all kinds of learning. He was a scholar of Aristarchus the philosopher and wrote certain historical commentaries himself. [Athena. l.2. c.33.] Concerning his diligence in getting works into his library from the ancient writers, Galen, on the 3rd book of Hippocrates, [of Epidemical diseases,] says: "He ordered all the books of them which came into Egypt to be brought to him. He had copies made of them and gave the copies back to the owners who brought them. The originals were placed in his own library with this inscription, "from out of ships" so that it might appear that they came from such ships as had arrived there."
     
  3. He left 15 talents in Athens as a security deposit so he could borrow the works of Sophocles, Eurypides and Escylus to transcribe them. When he resturned them, he would get his money back. He had them written out most exquisitely in excellent parchment and then kept the originals. He sent those copies back to them again and wished that they would keep his deposit of 15 talents and to allow the originals to remain with him.
     
3762 AM, 4471 JP, 243 BC
  1. Antigonus Gonatas died after he had reigned in Macedonia 34 years and in Greece for 44 years. He lived 80 years, according to Medius and other writers. Porphyry says he lived 83 years. [Lucian, in Macrobius, Porphyr. in Grec. Eusebanus, Scalig. p. 220.]
     
  2. Antigonus Gonatas was succeeded by his son Demetrius who reigned 10 years. [Porphyr. in Grec., Polyb. l.2. p. 131.] During this time he subdued all of Cyrene and Libya. [Porphyr. in Grec.] After the death of her husband and brother, Alexander, Olympias, the daughter of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus gave her daughter Pthias to Demetrius, who was already married to the sister of Antiochus, king of Syria. When Demetrius turned her out, she went to her brother Antiochus and stirred him up to make war on her husband because of the wrong he did to her. [Justin, l.28. c.1.] In all this time there was no other man named Antiochus who was a king, except Antiochus Hierax. He wanted to take the whole kingdom from Seleucus his older brother. Justin from Trogus, [l. 441. c.4.] calls both these brothers, by the name of kings. These writers. [Trogus, l.27. in the Prologue to it, & Polya. l.Stratag. 4. in Antio. Hierax] show, that Antiochus went into Mesopotamia where Seleucus had built a city called Callimicopolis according to the Fasti Seculi. At that time, neither Antiochus nor Seleucus controlled Syria for Ptolemy Euergetes king of Egypt governed it.
     
  3. At this time, Antiochus tried to take over all Asia proper, from his brother Seleucus. He raised a mercenary army of the Gauls to fight against him. They fought near the city Ancyra, Seleucus was defeated by the extraordinary prowess of those Gauls. Thereupon, these Gauls supposing that Seleucus had been slain in the battle, turned on Antiochus who had hired them. When he knew what was happening, he bought their loyalty and was forced to make a league with these mercenaries. However, Eumenes with a fresh army of his own, attacked and routed Antiochus and his Gauls. They were all tired out and many were wounded from the recent battle with Seleucus. By this he got most of Asia under his control. [Justin, l.27. c.2. & 3 with the Prologue of Trogus, l.27.]
     
3763 AM, 4473 JP, 241 BC
  1. Eumenes, the son of Eumenes the older, who was the son of Philetaerus, drank himself drunk and died. [Athenaus, l.12. c.16. from Ctesicles, l.3. de Temporibus,] Attalus, his son, succeeded him. He was the younger brother to Philetairus, and born by Antiochis, the daughter of Achaeus. Attalus used his great wealth cautiously and magnificently. He thought that he should be called a king and then convinced other men too that he deserved to be a king. Therefore, after he had defeated the Gauls, he assumed the title of a king. He ruled wisely and his house continued to the 3rd generation. [Polyb. l.18. in the Excerpt. of him, published by Vales. p. 102.] Suidas reports an oracle which was given to him by the prophetess at Delphi: It said: Go on Taurocerus, thou a crown shall wear, And thy sons and there an end shall be.
     
  2. Now it is thought that this Eumenes was surnamed Taurocerus because there were a pair of bull's horns added to a statue of him. Also in that oracle by Poaennes, is mentioned the slaughter which he would one day make of the Gauls. He is called, "Tauri Silius", i.e.the "son of a Bull". [Pausan. in Phocicis, p. 334.] It said this: For Jove shall quickly send them a saviour. Son of a Bull and by Jove nurtured, Which on the Gauls shall bring a dismal day.
     
  3. Concerning this battle fought between Attalus and the Gauls, Livy says: [l. 38.] "Attalus was the first in Asia who refused to pay tribute to the Gauls. Fortune here, beyond all expectation of men, favoured this bold attempt of his and in a battle he fought and defeated them."
     
  4. However, Polyanus, [l. 4. Stratag. in Attalo] told of a scheme which Sudines, a Chaldaean soothsayer, used to enliven his soldiers for this fight when they were quite dispirited. Sudines was that Babylonian mathematician whom we find mentioned by Strabo. [l. 16. p. 739.] Vettius Valens of Antioch says he used his astronomical tables to determine the motions of the moon.
     
  5. In the 45th year according to Dionysius' calendar, on the 10th day of the month Parthenion or Virginion, 83 years after the death of Alexander, on the 17th day of the month Epiphus, [September 3rd] the planet Jupiter eclipsed the southern star of the constellation of the Asellus, that is, "the little Ass. [Cl. Ptolem. lib. 11. cap. 3.] [Aselli is two stars in the constellation of Cancer, Pliny Nat. l.18. s. 353.]
     
3764 AM, 4474 JP, 240 BC
  1. Lacides Cyrenaeus, the rector of the new academy, succeeded Arcesilaus of Pitane in Eolia. He kept his academy in a certain garden which Attalus the king had provided there for that purpose. He began to read in year 4 of the 134th Olympiad. [Laert. in Laces.]
     
3768 AM, 4478 JP, 236 BC
  1. In the 25th year according to the Chaldeans, on the 14th day of the month Dios in the 512th year of Nabonassar, the 9th of the month Thoth, [July 29th] the planet of Mercury, in the morning, was seen near to the beam star in the sign of Libra. [Cl. Ptol. l.9. c.7.]
     
3771 AM, 4481 JP, 233 BC
  1. Onias the Second became high priest. He was the son of Simon the just. After Simon, Eleasarus had executed the office of the high priest at Jerusalem, because Onias was still quite young. After Eleasarus, Manasses became high priest until Onias came of age. Josephus says he was a dim witted man and in his old age finally came to be prince and high priest among the Jews. In this office, he behaved most unworthily and basely and was only concerned about money. [Josephus Antiq. l.12. c.3. in Grac. Euseb. p. 50.] It is said that he was the high priest for 14 years.
     
  2. In his days, the Samaritans grievously vexed the Jews. They plundered the country and carried away the people captives. Onias refused to pay the 20 talents of silver imposed by the kings upon the land. He was very covetous of money. This sum was paid by his predecessors from their own wealth to relieve the people. In a rage, Ptolemy Euergetes sent a messenger to Jerusalem and threatened Onias that if he did not quickly send in his arrears of tribute, he would immediately distribute the land among his soldiers and settle new colonies of his own there. There was at that time a man named Gasifies, the son of Tibias. Although a young man, yet he was in high regard among all men for his prudence, justice and other virtues. He lived in the country at a place called Phicola, where he was born. He was told by his mother, who was the daughter of Simon the Just and sister to this Onias the priest, of the arrival of these ambassadors to Jerusalem. Thereupon he came to Jerusalem and undertook to be part of an embassy to Euergetes concerning this matter. He so ingratiated himself to King Ptolemy and his queen Cleopatra that he appeased his wrath. He also obtained a company of 2000 soldiers to collect the tributes and other profits to the king from Coelosyria, Phoenicia, Samaria and Judaea. He held that office for 22 years and in that time doubled the king's revenues. He increased the revenue from 8000 to 16,000 talents a year. He brought this into the king's treasury all the goods of thieves and confiscated goods which the tax collectors had kept and divided among themselves. [Gasifies 16. c.3. & 4.]
     
3772 AM, 4482 JP, 232 BC
  1. In Macedonia, Demetrius died leaving his very young son Philip as king. Antigonus was made his guardian. He was known for his great and extraordinary promises which he made to all sorts of men. He was nicknamed, "Doson", i.e.one that was ever full of promises and of no action. He married the mother of Philip and took over the kingdom. [Justin l.28. c.3.] He ruled for 12 years. [Dexippus, Porphy. & Euseb.]
     
3774 AM, 4484 JP, 230 BC
  1. Lycon of Troas died. He was head of the school of the Peripateticks for 42 years. Strato Lapsacenus was the previous head of the school until his death. Lycon lived 74 years.
     
3775 AM, 4485 JP, 229 BC
  1. In the 82nd year according to the Chaldean account, the 5th day of the month Xanthicus, in the 519th year of Nabonassar, the 14th day of the month Tybi, [March 1] in the evening, Saturn was observed to be two fingers width below the southern shoulder of Virgo. [Cl. Ptol. l. 11. c.7.]
     
3778 AM, 4488 JP, 226 BC
  1. When Antiochus Hierax was in trouble, he fled to Ptolemy Euergetes in Egypt. He threw him into prison. He escaped, by the means of a certain harlot, who used to come to him. On his escape, he fell into the hands of certain thieves who killed him. [Justin l.17. c.3.]
     
  2. About the same time, Seleucus Callinicus, the older brother of Antiochus, fell off his horse, broke his neck and died. [Justin l.17. c.3.] He left two sons. The oldest one was Seleucus Ceraunus was physically weak and poor. He could not keep order in his army. The younger was called Antiochus and surnamed later the Great. After the death of his father, he went into the upper Asia. [Polyb, l.4. p. 315 & l.5. p. 386 with Appian. in Syriac. p. 86,131.] Seleucus Ceraunus reigned only 3 years. [Porphy. Euseb. Severus Sulpitius.]
     
3781 AM, 4491 JP, 223 BC
  1. Seleucus Ceraunus marched against Attalus, who had controlled all of Asia on this side the Taurus Mountains. He left his kingdom to the care of Hermias, a Carian, and crossed over the Taurus Mountains with a large army. [Polyb. l.4. p. 315. & l.5. p. 386.]
     
  2. Seleucus was poisoned in Phrygia by his two friends, Apatarias, and Nicanor. [Polyb. ib. Appianus, in Syriac. p. 131. Jerome, upon (Daniel 11), Justin, l.29. c.1.] At that time in his army, Achaeus, the son of Andronicus, brother to Laodice, Seleucus' wife, was in exile with Ptolemy in Egypt. Achaeus, as a kinsman to Seleucus, avenged his death and killed the two men who murdered Seleucus. He managed all matters in the army with a extraordinary dexterity, wisdom and magnanimity. Even though he could now crown himself king and all men wanted him to, he would not do it. He kept it for Antiochus, the young son of Seleucus Callinicus. He marched with the army from place to place throughout Asia and recovered all that his father had lost on this side of the Taurus Mountains. [Polyb. l.4. p. 315,317.]
     
  3. The army that was in Syria sent to Antiochus who was in Babylon. They wanted him to come and assume the kingdom. [Jerome, on (Daniel 11)] This he did when he was less than 14 years old. [Justin, l.29. c.1.] Polyb. [l. 4. p. 271.] says he reigned 36 years. We find the same in Porphyrie & Eusebius.
     
  4. Antiochus committed the whole rule and government of all Asia, on this side of the Taurus Mountains to Achaeus. He made Molon governor of Media, and Alexander, Molon's brother, president of Persia. In court, Hermias the Carian, controlled all. He was a man of a fierce and cruel nature. He punished very severely even small offences and made them seem all the greater by the aggravating words he said. He made false charges on various people and was a merciless and inexorable judge against them. [Polyb. l.5. p. 386.]
     
  5. Cleomenes, the king of Lacedemon, was defeated by Antigonus Doson, king of Macedonia near Sellasia. He was kicked out of his kingdom and sailed from Gythium in a ship he had prepared beforehand in case it was needed. He took some of his friends along with him and he sailed into Egypt to Ptolemy Euergetes. [He had previously sent to Ptolemy as pledges, his children and his mother Cratesiclea when Ptolemy had first promised him help.] When he came, Ptolemy honourably entertained him. [Polyb. l.2. p. 154. Justin, l.28. c.4. Pausan. in Corinth. p. 52. Plut. in Cleome.]
     
3782 AM, 4492 JP, 222 BC
  1. The two brothers, Molon, the governor of Media and Alexander, the president of Persia, despised the youth of Antiochus their king. [They thought that Achaeus would easily be persuaded to join with them since all feared the power of Hermias in the court and his malice and cruelty.] They conspired together with their provinces to revolt from Antiochus, [Polyb. l.5. p. 386.]
     
  2. In the parts of Caria and the isle of Rhodes, there was a very strong earthquake which destroyed their houses. The huge colossus or image of Jupiter at Rhodes was destroyed also. [Euseb. Chron. Oros. l.4. c.13.]
     
  3. Ptolemy Euergetes gave Cleomenes some hopes that he would send him back into Greece with a well furnished navy and restore him again to his kingdom. Ptolemy by his loving behaviour grew each day more intimate with him than any other man. Meanwhile he gave him 24 talents yearly for his entertainment. With this he lived frugally and maintained himself and those with him. [Plut. in Cleom.]
     
3783 AM, 4493 JP, 221 BC
  1. Ptolemy died before he could help Cleomenes. [Plut. in Cleom.] He either died of a natural sickness, [Polybius, l.2. p. 155.] or through the wicked practise of his own son, called Philopater. That name means "a lover of his father" and is said to have been given to him in a sarcastic manner. Justin [l. 29. c.1.] says this: "When Ptolemy had murdered his father and his mother, [whom Strabo calls Agathoclea] he took Egypt into his hands. Because of his vile deed of murdering his parents, he was surnamed "Philopater" by the country."
     
  2. We read in Pliny, [l. 7. c.56.] that this Ptolemy was by another nickname, called Triphon, from his effeminate and luxurious fashion of living. In the Fasti Siculi, we find this: "Ptolemy Philopator, who was also called Gallus, son of Ptolemy Euergetes, was surnamed also Triphon, &c."
     
  3. An incorrect copy in the prologue of [Trog. Pompei. 27,30.] wrongly attributed the surname of "Tirphon" to his father Euergetes. The collector of the great Etymology concurs with him that the other name of "Gallus" was given to Philopator. He notes, that Philopater was called Gallus because he was wont to go with an ivy bush about his head and other parts of his body as was the custom of the Gauls, who were priests of Cybele. He did this when he observed the holy days of Bacchus. He was so effeminate and debauched with homosexuality and drinking that when he was in his best state and extraordinarily sober, he would even then run about the streets with the dancers and bells gangling about him. [Plut. in Cleom.] Polybius notes that he spent the whole time of his reign in revellings. He gave himself over to all sensual and filthy lusts of the flesh and to daily drinking and carousing. [Polyb. l.5. p. 380,381.] Strabo adds, [l. 17. p. 796.] that he and all the Ptolemy's came after him grew rich and never managed that state well. This Philopater reigned for 17 years. [Cl. Ptol. in Reg. Canone, Clem. Alexan. Porphy. Euseb.]
     
  4. Philopator feared his brother, Magas who by the means of his mother Berenice, had ingratiated himself with the army. He consulted with Sosibius, who was his right hand man and with others how to get rid of both of them. This business worried these men quite a lot. They feared lest the great courage of Berenice prevailed and all this matter would come to nothing. Therefore they were forced to flatter all the court and gave them their agreement in great matters in case the business went on and succeeded as they planned. However, Sosibius went further. He talked to Cleomenes, the king of Sparta, who at that time greatly needed the king's help. He was a very wise and politicly astute man and had much experience in matters of the world. When he told Cleomenes of the plot, Cleomenes disuaded him from it. He said that the king had more need of sons and brothers for the security and preservation of his kingdom than to destroy those who he already had. Sosibius had told him that the king could never be sure of the mercenary soldiers as long as Magas was alive. Cleomenes told him not to worry about that for among his mercenaries he had 3000 Greeks from Peloponesus and 1000 from Crete who would follow him if he gave the word. Thereupon Sosibius was encouraged and murdered Berenice and her son Magas, and all their relatives. [Polyb. l.5. p. 380,382. & l.15, in Excerpt. p. 65. and Plut. in Cleom.]
     
  5. Philopator had first murdered his father then his mother and now had killed his brother too. As if all had been well with him, he gave himself over to wanton living more than ever. All the court followed him in this life style including his friends at court and his main commanders in the army. The whole body of the army from the highest to the lowest eschewed martial discipline and indulged themselves in taverns and brothels. [Justin l.13. p. 1.]
     
  6. Antiochus was advised by his counsel, how to put down that rebellion of the two brothers, Molon and Alexander in Media and Persia. Epigenes was the man that secured for Antiochus the loyalty of the army who were gathered together for Seleucus. He and was of great credit and reputation in the army. He advised that Antiochus personally with his army should march against them. However, Hermias, advised the king to go himself into Coelosyria and recover that. He should send Xenon and Theodorus Hemiolius, to subdue the two brothers. [Polyb. l.5. p. 387.]
     
  7. During this rebellion and while Antiochus besieged Zeugma in Seleucia, Diognetus his admiral came to him from Cappadocia escorting Laodice the daughter of Mithridates king of Pontus. As soon as she came, Antiochus married her. When he came from the upper regions unto Antioch, he had her proclaimed queen. After this he prepared for the war. [Polyb. l.5. p. (388).]
     
  8. At the same time Molon, who had his brother Alexander as his helper in all his affairs, marched with a large army against Xenon and Theodorus, the king's commanders. They were sent into those parts and scared Molon so much that he dared not stay in the fields but secured themselves in walled cities. In this case, Molon had the country of Apollonia behind him and had plenty of provisions. [Polyb. l.5. p. 388.]
     
3784 AM, 4494 JP, 220 BC
  1. Meanwhile, Philip the son of Demetrius in Macedonia became king after the death of Antiogonus, his guardian and father-in-law. He was 14 years old [Justin l.28. c.ult. & l.29. c. 1.] and reigned 42 years. Dexip. Porphy. Euseb. and Polybius [l. 2. p. 155.] note that these three, Philip of Macedonia, Ptolemy Philopator of Egypt and Antiochus Magnus of Syria came to their kingdom within the time of the 139th Olympiad. Antiochus became king in the first year of it. Ptolemy Philapator succeeded his father in the 3rd year. Philip of Macedonia became king in the 4th year. Polybius, [l. 4. p. 271.] notes further that about that time almost all the kingdoms of the world had new kings. Justin [l. 29. c.1.] and Polybius also note that Ariarathes, about the same time, became king of Cappadocia.
     
  2. After the death of Antigonus, the Etolians united with the Lacedonians and fought with the Acaeans and Macedonians. Cleomenes asked Philopator of Egypt if he would furnish him with means and some soldiers and allow him to return to his own country. When he knew that Philopator was not going to do this, he then began asking the king more often to allow him and his small company to leave. The king cared little for the business of the state or what would be the result of his actions and paid no attention to Cleomenes. However, Sosibius, who was the chief man of all the rest about the king in the matters of the kingdom, advised along with the rest of the council, to keep Cleomenes. [Polyb. l.5. p. 381.]
     
  3. Molon tried to cross the Tigris River to besiege Seleucia. He was prevented by Zeuxis, who had taken all the boats of the river. Molon changed his plans and went to Ctesiphon and made his winter quarters. [Polyb. l.5. p. 389.]
     
  4. Antiochus was told that Molon was coming and that his men yielded ground to him. He resolved to abandon going against Ptolemy in Coelosyria, and to march in person against Molon. However, Hermias, did not change his original plans and sent Xonaetas, an Achaean, against Molon with a well outfitted army. Xonaetas had absolute power to use the army to accomplish his ends. Hermias brought the young king back again to Apamaea and there assembled an army for him. [Polyb. l.5. p. 390.]
     
  5. Xenaetas came with his army to Seleucia and sent for Diogenes, the king's governor of the province of Susa and for Pythiades the admiral of the Red Sea. [Indian Ocean, ed.] With their forces he marched with the Tigris River at his back. He camped with his army in the very face of the enemy. The next day, he seized Molon's camp which Molon had left that night. The invading army started drinking and rioting in the camp. When Molon saw his opportunity, he came back the following night and in the dead of night, attacked and recovered his camp. He captured the enemy camp also. Xonaetas was killed while fighting in the darkness by an unknown soldier. Molon came with his army before Seleucia and took it with the first assault because Zeuxis had fled from it along with Diomedon, the governor of the place. He then subdued the whole province of Babylonia, with that which bordered the Red Sea [Indian Ocean, ed.] and he took the city of Susa. He left some troops there to besiege the citadel into which Diogenes, their commander had fled. He then returned to Seleucia on the Tigris River and refreshed his army. Of the country that bordered that river, he took it all over as far as Europus, a city in those parts. In Mesopotamia, he controlled all as far as Dura. [Polyb. l.5. p. 391-393.]
     
  6. After that meeting held by Sosibius, Cloemens was committed to custody. He waited for the time when Philopator with his court had gone to Canopus. He let the keepers believe that the king would let him go free soon. While they grew careless about him and lay fast asleep by their heavy drinking, he with his friends, broke out of prison at noon day. He wanted to instigate a rebellion among the people but could not do it. Therefore when he had no hope of escape left, he and his followers killed themselves. [Polyb. l.5 p. 385.] This was 3 years after his defeat in Laconia. [Polyb. l.4. p. 304.] When Philopator heard of this, he commanded Cleomenes' body to be hung on a cross and executed his mother Cratesiclea and her sons with all the women that attended her. [Plut. in Cleome.]
     
  7. Antiochus set out with his whole army from Laodicea and when he crossed the desert, he came to the Dale of Marsyas, which lies between the Lebanus and Antilebanus. He spent many days in marching through this dale and captured those places that were on his way or close to it. He finally came to Gerra and Brochos which are two citadels built on the narrow pass which leads into this dale. These were held by Theodotus who was an Etolian and governor of Coelosyria for Philopator. When Antiochus saw these citadels, he planned to attack them. However, when he knew this was a very strong fortification and that Theodotus was very courageous, he abandoned the place and left. [Polyb. l.5. p. 390.] Theodotus was not rewarded by Philopator for this. On the contrary, when he was summoned to Alexandria, he barely escaped with his life. [Polyb. p. 385,405.]
     
  8. Antiochus heard of the utter destruction and slaughter of his men with their general Xenoetas and of Molon's victory. By this all the upper provinces were lost and controlled by Molon. He abandoned his intended journey and thought about how to regain this lost territory. [Polyb. l.5. p. 390.] Hermias could not oppose the general vote of all the rest in the council who persuaded the king to go. Yet Hermias had his way in one thing. He forged certain letters as written from Molon to Epigenes and put them in a packet with other letters to him. By that means, he had Epigenes put to death, as an informer for Molon. The king marched against Molon. When he came to the Euphrates River, he added to his army the rest of his forces that were there and came to Antioch which is in Mygdonia. This was about the beginning of winter and he stayed there until the next spring. [Polyb. p. 393-395.]
     
  9. He left there on the 40th day after he came to Lybia. He followed the advice of Zeuxis and not of Hermaias and crossed over the Tigris River with all his army. He marched toward Dura. At the news of his approach, the captains of Molon raised the siege of Dura. He went from there and never camped two days in one place. After 8 days, he passed Oricus and came to Apollonia. [Polyb. p. 395,396.]
     
  10. Although Molon was quite afraid lest his army would abandon him, he still attacked the king. He made two wings. He put his brother Neolaus in charge of the left wing and led the other himself. When the battle started, his right wing remained loyal to him and fought very stoutly against their kinsmen. However, the left defected to the king. When Molon knew this and saw that he was about to be wholly surrounded by the enemy, he fell upon his own sword. The rest of his friends who had been part of this conspiracy against the king, escaped to their homes and killed themselves. When the wing which Neolaus led surrendered to the king, Neolaus escaped to Persia to Alexander, Molon's brother. When he had killed Molon's mother and his children, he advised Alexander to kill himself and then he committed suicide. The king commanded Molon's body to be hung on a cross in a high place and he castigated his rebel army with bitter words for their foul and disloyal actions toward him. Finally he gave them his hand and received them into his favour and service again. He appointed some to escort them back into Media from where they came and to settle in that province again. Meanwhile, he went down from those upper parts to Seleucia, where Hermias used the inhabitants very harshly. He planned to extract a 1000 talent fine from them. The king reduced the fine to 150 talents and left Diogenes to govern Media. He made Apollodorus to be president of the province of Susiana. He sent Tychon, the master of the scribes and general of the army into the regions lying upon the Red Sea [Indian Ocean, ed.] to govern them. [Polyb. l.5. p. 396-399.]
     
  11. At the time when Antiochus made this war on Molon, Theodotus, the Etolian who was governor under Philopator of Coelosyria, returned from Alexandria. He though that Philopator was a useless fellow and he would have no good thing from his princes. With the troops he had with him, he seized on Ptolemais and Tyre. Through Pamuetolus, he resolved to come to some agreement with Antiochus to place all Coelosyria under his control. This he did a little later. [Polyb. l.5. p. 385,405.]
     
  12. Attalus king of Pergamus had a son born by Apollinis of Cyzicum called Attalus Philadephus who lived 82 years according to Lucian. [in his Macrobiis] About the same time, Antiochus had a son born to him, called Seleucus and surnamed [as it seems] Philopator.
     
3785 AM, 4495 JP, 219 BC
  1. Jubilee 25
     
  2. After Antiochus' son was born, he planned at attack Ariobarzanes, who had obtained the kingdom of the Atropatians and the other counties in that area. Ariobarzanes feared the coming of the king. He was now old and decrepit and made peace with the king on the best terms he could get. [Polyb. l.5. p. 399,400.]
     
  3. While the war went on between Antiochus and Ariobarzanes, Achaeus besieged Attalus in his capital city of Pergamus and took all the places around there. He made a league with Ptolemy Philopator of Egypt and planned to capture Syria before Antiochus could return to defend it. With the help of the Cyrrhestians, who had revolted from Antiochus, he planned to take over that kingdom. Therefore with his whole army, he left Lydia and marched toward there. When he came to Laodicea in Phrygia, he there placed a crown on his head and began to assume the title of a king. He did this when he received ambassadors from other princes. When he had the opportunity of writing to them, he entertained Siveris, who was banished from his own country. Siveris was the main one who urged him on to be a king. He continued his journey toward Syria. When he came near Lycaonia, his army began to rebel complaining that they were fighting against Antiochus who was their natural king. Thereupon when Achaeus saw that his plans incited such a response, he abandoned them and went no farther. Moreover he told the army that he never planned to lead them into Syria against Antiochus but only to waste the country of Pisidia where he was leading them. That they did and when they enriched themselves with its spoil they returned home again as loyal as ever to him. [Polyb. l.4. p. 271,314, 315. & (5). p. 401,402.]
     
  4. After the war between Antiochus and Ariobarzanes was over, Apollophanes a physician of Seleucia greatly feared Hermias. He figured out a way to bring him into disfavour with the king. Thereupon, the king feigned to be sick and had Hermias taken from his house and murdered by some men he had assigned the task to. It happened at the same time, the wives of Apamea took Hermias' wife and children from her house and stoned them all to death. [Polyb. l. 5. p. 400,401.]
     
  5. When Antiochus returned home and sent his soldiers to their winter quarters, he sent messages to Achaeus that contained many threatening words. [Polyb. l.5. p. 401,402.]
     
  6. The Jewish high priest Onias the 2nd died and was succeeded by his son Simon the 2nd. [Joseph. l.12. c.4.] He is said by Scal. [In Grac. Euseb.] to have been high priest for 20 years.
     
  7. At the beginning of spring, Antiochus called all his army to Apameas. Apollophanes his physician persuaded him to go to Seleucia which is called Pieria. He sent Diognetus his admiral there with his fleet. He sent Theodotus Hermiolius with a suitable company of troops to take over the passes into Coelosyria. He had information from some informers of the Seleucians in the town whom he had won over to him by large amounts of money and greater promises. He captured one of the suburbs and then the city opened their gates to him. When he was inside, he treated the inhabitants very kindly but put garrisons into their citadel and port. [Polyb. l.5. p. 402-405.]
     
  8. While the king was busy in settling matters there, he received letters from Theodotus the Eolian, to ask him to go into Coelosyria. He was now ready to turn it over to the king. Thereupon the king marched toward there. Nicolaus, a captain of Philopator's, discovered this plot and besieged Theodotus in Ptolemais. He was unable to get out to carry out his plans. He sent Lagoras, a Cretian, with Dorymon of Etolia, with troops to hold the pass that entered to Coelosyria near Berytus. Antiochus easily defeated these troops. When Theodotus and Panaetolus saw the siege raised from before Ptolemais where they and their friends were confined, they went and met Antiochus on the way. They turned over Tyre and Ptolemais and all that was in them to Antiochus. They found in both ports, 40 ships which were turned over to Diognetus the admiral. [Polyb. l.5. p. 405,406. with l.4. p. 305.]
     
  9. Antiochus was told that Philopator had gone to Memphis, all Ptolemy's forces were met at Peleusium and the sluices of the Nile were all opened to let the sea in to spoil all the fresh water there. He changed his plans of marching to Peleusium and went into Coelosyria. He went from one place to another and sought to subdue them all. Some he took by force and others surrendered based on the reasonable conditions he offered them. The weaker places mainly yielded to him the first time he asked. The rest remained loyal to Philopator their king and Antiochus spent much time besieging them. [Polyb. l.5. p. 405.]
     
  10. Meanwhile, Philopator took no care for anything. However Agathocles and Cosibius, who managed everything under him, prepared for war. They kept everything as secret as they could so Antiochus would not know what was happening. They secretly solicited help from the states of Cyzieum, Byzantium, Rhodes, Etolia and others to mediate for a peace between the two kings. In the interim, they made all provisions for the war they could. They trained and exercised their men in all kind of feats of chivalry and martial discipline to the best of their ability. [Polyb. l.5. p. 405,407. l.4. p. 305.]
     
  11. There was at this time a new war between the Byzantines and the Rhodians. The cause of the war was that the Byzantines were forced to pay a heavy tribute to the Gauls. Hence they charged a toll on every ship that passed by them into the Pontus Sea. [Polyb. l.1. p. 158. & l.4. p. 305,306, 314.]
     
  12. Thereupon the Rhodians sent to Prusias, king of Bithynia. [That is Prusia who in Excerpt. Memnon. c.29. is surnamed the Lame.] They made an alliance with him. Previously, he was normally their enemy. The Byzantines where trying to form an alliance with Attalus and Achaeus who were hostile to Prusias. Therefore he came to this agreement with the Rhodians. They would take the charge of the war at sea and he would conduct the war on land. He immediately seized Hieron which was a port of theirs on the Asian side. This place was previously owned by the merchants who traded into the Pontus but the Byzantines had recently bought them out. They used it for themselves together with all that portion of Mysia in Asia which they had controlled many ages before. [Polyb. l.4. p. 314-316.]
     
  13. When the Byzantines saw what the Rhodians had done with Prusias, they tried to get help from Attalus and Achaeus. Attalus wanted to help but Achaeus was pressing so heavily on him, he could offer very little help. Achaeus, whose dominions stretched far and near on this side the Taurus Mountains and who had recently assumed the title of king, promised them all the help that he could give. [Polyb. l.4. p. 314.] They also sent for Tibites from Macedonia to be their general in this war against Prusias. It was thought that the whole kingdom of Bithynia, belonged as well to Tibites as to Prusias the nephew of Tibites. [Polyb. l.4. p. 316.]
     
  14. Prusias feared the coming of his uncle Tibites and pulled down all citadels and places of any strength that were in the kingdom. [Polyb. l.4. p. 318.]
     
  15. The Rhodians tried to draw away Achaeus from helping the Byzantines. They sent to Ptolemy and desired him to give them Andromachus, who was at that time a prisoner in Alexandria. They wanted to present him as a gift of their own to his son Achaeus. When this was done along with some other deeds of honour done to him by the Rhodians, the Byzantines lost their main supporter in the war. When Tibites was being escorted from Macedonia, he died in the way. This greatly thwarted their purposes. Cavarus was a petty king of those Gauls who were in Thrace, [according to Polybius, in Excerpt. Balesii p. 26. and Athenaus l.6. c.6.] He came at that time to Byzantium and mediated a peace between them, Prusias and the Rhodians. The Byzantines agreed to stop charging any more tolls on their ships and Prusias was to restore what he had taken from Byzantium. [Polyb. l.4. p. 317,318.]
     
  16. At the same time, Mithridates king of Pontus made war on the people of Sinope, who borrowed 140,000 drachmas from the Rhodians. They used the money to fortify their city and all that peninsula on which their city was located. [Polyb. l.4. p. 323.]
     
3786 AM, 4495 JP, 219 BC
  1. Antiochus besieged Dura in Phoenicia, a city which Cl. Ptolemey calls Dora. Because the place was naturally well fortified, he could not take it. Nicloaus, a captain of Philopater's sent them relief. Because winter was coming, he was contented to make a truce with them for 4 months. Some ambassadors sent by Philopator persuaded him to do this. He would not grant a longer truce, nor spend more time there than necessary away from his own dominions. It was obvious that Achaeus intended to invade his kingdom and there was no doubt that Philopator was helping Achaeus. Therefore he sent away the ambassadors and put garrisons in suitable places. He left the care of all things there to Theodotus and he returned to Seleucia. He sent his army to their winter quarters but took no care of keeping them in military condition. He thought that the rest of the cities would submit to him without any great deal of fighting because he had already gotten a part of Coelosyria and Phoenicia. He thought he could win the war with words rather than by fighting. [Polyb. l.4. p. 409.]
     
  2. However in the spring, events did not unfold as he planned. He took his army from their winter quarters and planned to attack his enemies by sea and land and by force to subdue the remainder of Coelosyria that withstood him. [Polyb. l.4. p. 411.]
     
  3. Pilopator committed the charge of all his wars to Nicolaus the Etolian. He made Gaza the storehouse for the war effort and place all his provisions for the war there. He sent his armies by sea and land. He appointed Perigemes the admiral of his naval forces. He had only 30 fighting ships but had 400 cargo ships. [Polyb. l.4. p. 411.]
     
  4. Antiochus marched as far as Marathos when ambassadors came to him from the isle of Aradus. They desired his friendship. He agreed to this and also settled the differences between them and their neighbours who dwelt on the continent and made them good friends after that. Antiochus entered by the way of Theu-prosopon into Phoenicia and came to Berytus. On his way he attacked the Botrys and took it. He burned Treres and Calamus to the ground. [Polyb. l. 4. p. 411.]
     
  5. Before the main battle, he divided his army into 3 parts. He gave one part to Theodotus, the other to Menedemus and the 3rd he reserved for the sea under the command of Diocles. He had made Diocles the governor of Parapotamia that bordered on the Euphrates River. He had his bodyguards around him for protection. He went to see how the battle was going and to help if needed. Diognetus prepared the naval forces for Antiochus and Perimenes did the same for Philopator. Each kept as close to the land as they possibly could. At last when a general signal was given, the battle was joined on land and sea. At sea neither side won and parted on even terms. On land after a strong fight, Theodotus routed Nicolaus. In the chase, 2000 of his men were killed and at least that many taken prisoner. The rest fled into Sidon. When Perigines saw that the land battle was lost, he retreated at sea and came to Sidon. Without delay, Antiochus came there with his whole army and besieged it. He did not attack it because there were many men inside it and they had many provisions to keep them alive. [Polyb. l.4. 412,413.]
     
  6. When P. Cornel. Scipio and T. Sempronius Longus were consuls at Rome, Hannibal made a difficult crossing of the Alps and came down into Italy in the summer of this year. [Livy l.21.] This was in the latter end of the 2nd year of Olymp. 140 and from that time we indicate the start of the second Carthaginian war or the war of Hannibal. This is described in detail by Polybius and Livy. Silius Italicus describes it in poetry and Appianus Alexandrinus, in his Hannibalica. This war enhanced the fame of the Carthagenians and Romans all over the world. The effect was first felt in Greece, then in Asia, properly so called, and its islands. All men began to look to them and not to Philip, Antiochus or Ptolemy any longer. [Polyg. l.4. p. 443.]
     
  7. In the same summer that Hannibal came into Italy, Antiochus attacked Palistine. He ordered Diognetus his admiral to take his foot soldiers to Tyre. Antiochus marched with his army to Philoteria, a city seated upon the Lake of Tiberias into which the Jordon River flows. From there the river runs through the country adjoining the city of Scythopolis, which Josephus calls Bethshan in the tribe of Manasseh. When he had captured both of these cities and left garrisons to hold them, he crossed the mountains and came to Atabyrium. This is the city called Tabor and is located on a hill whose top is almost 2 miles in circumference. Antiochus drew them out in small skirmishes. He had his vanguard go close to the walls and then feign to flee. This they did. When the townsmen came out and pursued them, they were attacked by those who lay in ambush. Many were killed. With the rest of the army, Antiochus attacked and captured the city. [Polyb. l.4. p. 413.]
     
  8. At the same time, Keraeas, a commander of Ptolemy Philopator, defected from him to Antiochus. Antiochus received him so graciously that Hippolochus a Thessalian with his 400 cavalry all defected. Antiochus left a strong garrison in Atabysium. He went and subdued Pella, Camus and Gephrus which surrendered to him. After this great success, the Arabians who bordered on those parts, unanimously joined their forces with those of Antiochus. Antiochus was encouraged by these events and trusted in the resources of Arabia. He marched into the country of Galatis and subdued the area and took the city Abyla. All those, who were under the command of Nicias, came to help them. There remained only Gadara to be taken and was reputed to be by far the strongest city in all that region. Therefore Antiochus came and showed himself before it. He began to cast up his works against them. The very sight of this terrified the inhabitants and they surrendered to him. [Polyb. l.4. p. 414.]
     
  9. In the same summer in Pamphylia, the Pednelissenses were besieged by the Slegenses and were in danger of being taken. They sent and asked for help from Achaeus. He immediately sent 6000 foot soldiers and 500 cavalry under the command of Garsieres. He planned to enter the town by the way of Mylias but found that the passes were controlled by the Selgenses. Thereupon, he feigned as if he would leave. When the Selgenses saw him go, they went their way too. Some went to the camp and others to their harvest which was ready to be gathered. When Gasieres knew this, he turned back quickly and crossed the pass of Mylias near Climax without any opposition. He left a strong guard there and then committed the whole war and defence of Pednelissa to Phaylus. He was going to Perga and stirred up all the people of Pamphylia and Pisidia to come and help the distressed. Thereupon the people of Aspendus sent them 4000 foot soldiers, those of Etenna sent 8000 men. The Slegenses by there rash actions were badly defeated and lost 10,000 men. They fled home to Selga. Phaylus closely persuaded them. They were so afraid that they immediately sent Logbasis to sue for peace. Instead, he betrayed them. When a truce was declared, the enemy soldiers came freely into Selga. The town's people sent secretly to Achaeus and put themselves at his mercy to deal with them as he thought best. Meanwhile, Logbasis plotted to betray the town to their enemies. When things were now ripe to do this, his plot was discovered. They executed him, his fellow conspirators and all the enemies in the area. Then, Achaeus seriously began to negotiate a peace between them. The men of Selga were agreeable to this. Thereupon they were to pay 400 talents of current money and 300 more later. The Pednelissens were to restore to them all their prisoners without ransom. When Achaeus had gotten Mylias and the greater part of Pamphylia into his hands, he immediately marched to Sardis. After constantly harassing Attalus in war, he began to threaten Prusias. [Polyb. l.4. p. 415-420.]
     
  10. While Achaeus was busy in making war against the men of Selga, Attalus was not idle. He enlisted the Gauls, called the Tectosagi of Europe. He sent for them from Europe to fight against Achaeus because of their reputation for valour. He marched through the cities of Eolis and other nearby cities. They had all submitted to Achaeus out of fear. All Cuma, Smyrna and Phocaea voluntarily yielded to Attalus. Those of Egea and Lemnos yielded to him from fear at his first approach. Ambassadors came to him from the Teians and Colophonians. When they had given hostages, he controlled them subject to the conditions they had before. He continued on and crossed the Lycus River. He came into the country inhabited by the Mysians. He went through that and came to the borders of the Carsenses. He so frightened these people and those who kept Didyma-tiche and Themistocles whom Achaeus had left to hold them for him, surrendered them to Attalus. He left there and ravaged all the region of Asia. He passed the hill of Pellicante and camped on the bank of the Megistus River. While he was there, the moon was totally eclipsed. The Gauls were weary of so long an expedition with their wives and children in their company. They pretended that this eclipse was a bad omen and would go no further. [Polyb. l.4. p. 240.] On September 1st, near the beginning of the of the night, the moon was eclipsed for more than an hour.
     
  11. Attalus feared lest his Gauls would defect to Achaeus and would attack his countries. They would not do this because of his word that they came from Europe to Asia. He escorted them all back safely to the Hellespont where they first landed. He gave them lands to live on and promised that if at any time later they needed his help he would be ready to aid them. He summoned those of Lampsacus, Alexandria and Ilium to him. He commended them for remaining loyal to him. After this he returned with his army to Pergamos. [Polyb. l.4. p. 421.]
     
3787 AM, 4496 JP, 218 BC
  1. Antiochus was told that a large enemy army was assembled in the Arabian city of Rabatamana or Rabbath-Ben-Ammon. After Antiochus had plundered all the country around there, he marched toward the city. He came near to the little hills where the city stood and went and viewed the enemy. He learned that there were only two ways to get into the city. Therefore he located his batteries against those two places to break down the wall. Nacarchus was in charge of the one site and Theodotus the other. When they breached the wall, much to their surprise the inhabitants quickly repaired the breaches. Antiochus' men laboured day and night without stopping with all the might they possibly could to get into the city. They were unable to because the damage was repaired as fast as they could inflict it. At last, one of the prisoners in the camp showed them an underground way the inhabitants used to get their water. He quickly sealed it up and the city was forced to surrender for lack of water. When the king had captured the place, he left Nicarchus with a sufficient garrison to hold it. He sent Hippolochus and Kiras who had defected from Ptolemy, with 5000 foot soldiers to the country adjoining Samaria to govern that province. They were to protect his friends in those parts. He went with his army to Ptolemais to winter there. [Polyb. l.4. p. 414,415.]
     
  2. Cn. Servilius started his consulship at Rome on the ides, or 7th day of March. Among the omens that happened when the senate did this was, that in Sardinia, the sun was dimmer than it normally is. In Arpi the sun and the moon seemed to fight with each other. Ca. Flamminius the other consul, who was with the army in the spring of this year was disastrously defeated by Hannibal at Lake Trasimene in Etruria. He and 15,000 of his men were killed. [Livy l.22.] On Feburary 11 there was an eclipse of the sun in Sardinia.
     
  3. Polybius [Polyb. l.5. p. 442.] states that as well as that great battle at Trasimene another battle was fought in the east between Antiochus and Philopator over Coelosyria. This was fought toward the later end of the 3rd year of the 150th Olymp. at a place called Raphia. He describes it thus: "In the beginning of this spring, Antiochus and Ptolemy had made final preparations for war. The fate of Coelosyria was to be decided in the next battle. Therefore, Ptolemy with 70,000 foot soldiers, 5000 cavalry and 73 elephants, left Alexandria. [Polyb. l.5. p. 421.] First, he camped at Pelusium, where he stayed until the rest of his army came to him. When he had given every man his allowance of grain, he marched on through a desert country near the Casius Mountains and the Barathra and came to Gaza. After a five day march, he came to his planned destination and camped within 6 miles of Raphia. This is the first city of Syria, except for Rhinocorura, which a man meets when he leaves Egypt for Coelosyria." [Polyb. l.5. p. 422.]
     
  4. At the same time Antiochus came there with his army of 72,000 foot soldiers, 6000 cavalry and 102 elephants. After he passed the walls of Raphia, he camped the first night about 1 1/4 miles and the next day came within 5/8 of a mile of Ptolemy's camp, [Polyb. l.5. p. 422.]
     
  5. At that time, Theodotus the Etolian, who was previously well known in Ptolemy's court and knew well his daily routine tried to kill Ptolemy. He and two others about break of day, came inside his trenches. The next night they got into the king's pavilion, hoping to kill him alone. However, Dositheus, who was a Jew by birth but no longer observed the Jewish religion, had moved the king to another tent. He had common men occupy the king's bed that night. When Theodotus broke into the kings tent that night, he wounded two of the guards and killed Andraeas, the king's chief physician. So the king returned untouched to his own tent again. [Polyb. l.5. p. 422. & /RAPC (3 Maccabees 1:2,3)]
     
  6. After the armies had camped there for 5 days, the battle was joined. [Polyb. l.5. p. 422.] When Antiochus appeared to be winning, Arsinoe, Ptolemy's sister, went among the soldiers with her hair hanging about her ears and cried to them that they should fight bravely and defend their own wives and children. She promised them that if they won, they would each be given two pounds in gold. This revitalized the army and they killed many of the enemy and took many prisoners. [Polyb. l.5. 424,425 & /RAPC (3 Maccabees 1:4,5)]
     
  7. In that fight, Antiochus lost almost 10,000 foot soldiers and more than 300 cavalry. 4000 were taken prisoner. 3 elephants were killed in the fight and 2 died later from their wounds. Ptolemy lost 1500 foot soldiers and 700 cavalry. 16 of his elephants were killed and the rest were captured. [Polyb. l.5. p. 427.]
     
  8. When Antiochus had buried his dead he returned home with the rest of his army. Ptolemy went back again to Raphia and the rest of the places which had been taken from him. They voluntarily surrendered to him and strove to see who would be the first at recognising his kingship. This was particularly true of the Coelosyrians because they were always inclined to serve the Ptolemys. On this occasion, they exceeded all others in honouring him with crowns, sacrifices, altars and other such expressions of their affection. [Polyb. l.5. p. 427,428.] Ptolemy visited the cities adjoining that place and bestowed gifts on their temples. By this he encouraged the people to remain loyal to him. [/RAPC (3 Maccabees 1:6,7)]
     
  9. The Jews sent some of their sanhedrin and elders to offer him their service and to present him with gifts. They congratulated him after so great a victory. It happened that he was more anxious to visit and honour their city with his presence. When he came, he greatly admired the beauty of their temple and would have gone into the Holy of Holies. Only the high priest could enter there and that once a year. When the Jews refused that request, the king wanted all the more to enter it. He went into the temple and all the temple was filled with crying and howling and the city in a tumult. Then Simon the high priest knelt down in the temple, that is between the temple and the altar and prayed to God for help in this time of trouble. Thereupon, the king fell into such a horror of mind and body that he was unable to speak and was carried half dead from the temple. [/RAPC (3 Maccabees 1:8-2:33)]
     
  10. As soon as Antiochus was returned to Antioch, he sent Antipater, his brother's son, and Theodotus Hemiolius as his ambassadors to Ptolemy to sue for peace between them. Ptolemy was content with this surprise victory and with the recovery of Coelosyria. After a few sharp words with the ambassadors and complaining about the unjust dealings of Antiochus, he granted a truce for a year. He sent Sosibius to ratify it with Antiochus. [Polyb. l.5. p. 428, with Justin l. 30. c.1.]
     
  11. When Ptolemy had spent three months in Syria and Phoenicia in settling matters there, he left Andromachus from Aspendus in Asia, to govern all that country. He with his sister Arsinoe and his friends returned to Alexandria. His subjects knowing how he lived, marvelled at how he had ended this war against Antiochus. Antiochus ratified the truce in the pretence of Sosibius. Antiochus began a war on Achaeus as he formerly planned to do. [Polyb. l.5. p. 428.]
     
3788 AM, 4498 JP, 216 BC
  1. Antiochus spent the winter in making his provisions with all possible care. The next spring he crossed the Taurus Mountains and made a league with Attalus. He started his war on Achaeus. [Polyb. l.5. p. 444-446.] He besieged Achaeus in Sardis. Daily there were skirmishes between the two sides as each side tried to get the upper hand by any means they could. [Polyb. l.7. p. 506.]
     
  2. When the Gauls, whom Attalus had settled in Hellespont, besieged the city of Ilium, the Alexandrenser, who dwelt in Troas sent their captain Themistas with 4000 men. He expelled them from all the territories of Troas. He kept all the provisions from them and attacked them everywhere. When the Gauls could no longer stay there, they went and took over the city of Arisba and the territories of Abidus. They used that as a base to take over the rest of the surrounding country. Thereupon Prusias, king of Bithynia, went out and attacked them. After he had defeated them, he attacked their camp and slaughtered their wives and children and all the rest of them. He gave their spoil to the soldiers for their reward. [Polyb. l.5. p. 447.]
     
  3. When Ptolemy returned to Egypt, he resumed his old lifestyle and wallowed in all manner of gluttony and luxury. [Polyb. l.14. in Excerpt. Hen. Vales p. 62.] He grew more and more mad by this kind of living. He indulged himself with uncleanness and lechery. He also vexed the Jews of Alexandria with infamous and false reports spread against them. He tried by all means to turn them away from the true worship of the living God. Those that refused, he commanded to be slain. He expelled them from all offices of dignity. He branded them with hot irons in the face with the sign of an ivy leaf because that was the sign of Bacchus. Those that abandoned their religion, he allowed to enjoy equal rights and privileges with the native Macedonians in Alexandria.
     
  4. Many abandoned their religion and others bought their peace with money. They saved their lives and escaped having their faces branded. Those who continued in the religion of there forefathers, remained loyal to the king but excommunicated and had no dealings those who had apostatized from their religion. By this action, their enemy assumed that they really opposed the king and tried to make his subjects defect. Philopator became very angry with the Jews in Alexandria and throughout all Egypt. He ordered that they be gathered into one place so he could destroy them all. The king's officers were allowed 40 days to do this, from the 25th day of the month Pachon to the 4th day of the month Epiphi, according to the fixed year of Alexandria. Some later historians assume without any basis that this calendar was never used until after the naval battle at Actium between Augustus and Anthony. This period was from May 20th to July 29th. Three days were allotted for the massacre. That is from the 5th to the 7th of Epiphus, inclusively.
     
  5. Upon the appointed time, the Jews of Alexandria were all brought into the hippodrome. They were first reviled and set at naught by all that passed by. Then the king called for Hermon, the master of the elephants. He ordered him before the next day to make his 500 elephants to drink with wine mingled with myrrh or frankincense. This would make them grow more fierce and stark mad. He would let them go and drive them on the Jews to tear and trample them all to pieces. The next day, the king fell into a dead sleep and did not awake until dinner time. By that time all the people that came there to see the event had gone home again. On the 3rd day, when the elephants were all prepared and ready to attack them, 2 angels appeared who were very terrible to look at. They came down from heaven and so amazed all the people who were there that they stood still and did not move. The king fell into a trance and relented of his fury toward those poor prisoners. Most interestingly, the elephants did not attack the Jews. They turned around and attacked and trampled the soldiers behind them.
     
  6. Then the king commended the Jews for their loyalty and released their fetters. He acknowledged that their God had delivered them. For 7 days long, from the 7th to the 14th of Epiphus [July 2-9th] he feasted them. After this the Jews obtained permission from the king to execute those Jews who had apostatized from their religion. They said that those who, for their belly's sake, had forsaken the laws and commandments of their God would never prove loyal to their king. They killed 300 on the way as they went and came at last to Ptolemias on the Nile River in Arsinoise Nomo. It is called Rhodophorus from the abundance of roses that grew there. Their fleet attended them for 7 days. There they altogether made a feast of thanksgiving. The king himself gave every man a generous allowance for his homeward expenses. Thereupon they returned home joyfully. Some went by land, others by sea and some by the river. This is described in detail in /RAPC (3 Maccabees 1:1) - 7:23. Phlostorgius in the beginning of his Ecclesiastical History, calls it the "Librum portentosum", that is "A book of miracles".
     
  7. The Egyptians grew insolent and proud with their success at the battle of Raphia against Antiochus. They never liked Philopator after that. They sought a captain of their own with enough power to quell the like of him. This they did shortly after. [Polyb. l.5. c.444.]
     
3789 AM, 4499 JP, 215 BC
  1. Philopator was now forced to make a war upon his rebelling subjects. [Polyb. l.5. c.444] His recent actions ensured the loyalty of the Jews. From Eusebius and Jornandes his Chron. that about this time there were about 60,000 Jews killed in a battle. Such a large slaughter has caused Demetrius, who wrote a book of the Kings of the Jews, to think it reasonable to record the years from the captivity of Babylon or the carrying away of the Jews into Assyria down to the reign of this Philopator as recorded by Clemens Alexandrinus. [l. 1. Stromat.] From there we gather that this Demetrius the historian, wrote after the days of Philopator but before that vast desolation brought upon the Jews by Antiochus Epiphanes. If he knew of the latter he would have described it in the same terms he did of the former calamities of the Jews.
     
  2. The city of Sardis except the citadel, through the work of Lagoras the Cretian, was taken by Antiochus in the 2nd year after he besieged it. [Polyb. l.7, p. 506-510.]
     
  3. Sosibius managed all matters in Egypt under Philopator. He confirmed with Bolis, a Cretian, how to deliver Achaeus, who was besieged in the citadel at Sardis from this danger. Bolis arranged with Cambylus, the captain of the Cretians, who served under Antiochus and got Achaeus out of the citadel but delivered him alive into Antiochus' hands. Antiochus first had his hands and his feet cut off. Then he had his head chopped off and sown in an asses belly. His body was hung on a cross. In the citadel, some held with Ariobazus the governor of Sardis, others with Laodice, the widow of Achaeus and daughter of Mithridates king of Pontus. They were at odds with each other but quickly resolved to surrender themselves and the citadel to Antiochus. [Polyb. l.8. p. 522,529.]
     
3790 AM, 4500 JP, 214 BC
  1. Lacydes of Cyrenia, was the master of the new academy for 26 years. He was the only man who resigned the position while he was alive. He turned it over to Telecles and Evander both of Phocaea. [Laert. in Lacyde.]
     
3792 AM, 4502 JP, 212 BC
  1. Antiochus attacked Media and Parthia and other provinces which had revolted from his ancestors. [Appian. in Syriac. in Mitio.] He made an expedition against Arsaces, who was the main founder of the Parthian Empire. This is described in detail in the 10th book of Polybius. [Polyb. l.10. p. 597-602.]
     
3793 AM, 4503 JP, 211 BC
  1. When P. Sulpitius and Cu. Fulvius, were consuls of Rome, the praetor, Laevius made a league with the Etolians in Greece and Attalus king of Pergamus in Asia. [Livy l.27. Justin, l. 29. c.4. Eutrop. l.3.] Attalus kept the agreement with the Romans until he died. [Polyb. p. 820.]
     
3794 AM, 4504 JP, 210 BC
  1. M. Attalus and Manius Acilius were sent as ambassadors from Rome to Ptolemy and Cleopatra in Egypt at Alexandria to remind them of the league and to renew it. They gave him a gown and a robe of scarlet with a throne all made of ivory. She received an embroidered gown and a scarlet fur coat. [Justin l.30. c.1.& 4.]
     
3795 AM, 4505 JP, 209 BC
  1. Ptolemy Epiphanes was born to Ptolemy Philopator by Euridice, his wife who was also his sister. When he was 5 years old, he succeeded his father in the kingdom of Egypt. [Justin l.30 c.1,2.] His birthday was first solemnly celebrated by all the great men and others of Syria and the country in his dominion. Every man made a journey to Alexandria to congratulate him on the birth of his son. Among these was Joseph the Jew, the son of Tobias and of the daughter of Simon the Just, the high priest. Joseph was the collector of his tributes throughout Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine. He sent his youngest son Hyrcanus who was born by the daughter of Solymius, his older brother, to kiss the king's hand. He sent letters to his agent Arion, who had the managing of all his money at Alexandria. He had over 3000 talents there. Arion was to supply him with money to buy the most expensive present for the king that the place had. The most expensive present the king had received was not worth more than 20 talents. Hyrcanus brought with him 100 beautiful boys and as many maidens. He gave them 1000 talents to offer to the king. The boys were a gift for the king and the girls a gift for Cleopatra the queen. The king greatly admired this so great and unexpected a present. He royally entertained the young man with all honour and royal gifts. He wrote royal letters of commendation to his father and brethren and to all his commanders and chief officers in those parts. The king dismissed him in a most honourable fashion. However, his brethren [who were 7 in number but begotten by another wife] were jealous of the great honour the king had given him. They met him on the way and planned to murder him. His father knew of this and did not care because he was angry with him for the extravagant cost of the gift he gave to the king. When his brothers attacked him, he killed two of them and various others in their company. When he came to Jerusalem, no man there would look upon him. He feared the worst, and exiled himself to the regions beyond Jordan. [Joseph. l.12. c.4.]
     
3796 AM, 4506 JP, 208 BC
  1. Philippus, king of Macedonia, fought two battles against the Etolians. Although they were helped by Rome, from Attalus the king, and ships from Prusius, king of Bithynia, they were defeated both times. Attalus and P. Sulpitius the proconsul in those parts, wintered that year in the isle of Egina, [Livy l.27. & Polyb. l.10. p. 612,613, 851.]
     
  2. In the beginning of the spring, Sulpitius and Attalus joined together and sailed to Lemnos. From there they came into Eubaea and captured Oreum and Opus. When Attalus heard Prusias had invaded his kingdom, he left the Romans and the war in Etolia and sailed into Asia. Philippus came to Etolia, where he had arranged for the ambassadors from Ptolemy and from the Rhodians to meet him. While they tried to end the war in Etolia, news arrived that Niachanidas the tyrant of Lacedemon, was ready to attack the Eleans while they were busy about their solemn games at Olympus. [Livy. l.28.] This summer began the 143rd. Olympiad.
     
3797 AM, 4507 JP, 207 BC
  1. Polybius [l. 15. p. 719.] states that Arsinoe the queen and sister of Ptolemy was murdered by Philammon as arranged for by Sosibius. See also [Hen. Vales. Excerpt. p. 65.] In Justin, [l. (30). c.1.] we find that Philopator slew Eurydice who was his wife and sister. It seems that Polybius' Arsinoe, Justin's Eurydice and Livy's and Josephus' Cleopatra were all the same person. [See notes on 3794 AM & 3795 AM.]
     
  2. When she was dead, whatever her name was, Philopator fell in love with Agathoclia, a female musician and with her brother Agathocles in a homosexual way. To everyone's amazement, he put Agathocles in charge of his kingdom. He did not know the ways of the court or the state affairs. These two arranged to have their mother Oenauthe taken care of too. She endeared herself into the king's affection also. Agathocles always stayed near the king and ruled the whole state. The women gave all the offices and military positions of the state to whomever they pleased. The king himself, who was now in their hands, could do the least of any man in his own kingdom. [Polyb. l.15. p. 720. & in Excerpt. Vales. p. 65. Justin, l.30. c.1,2, Plut. in Erotico & in Cleom. Athena. l.6. c.6. l.13. c.13. Hieronym. on (Daniel 11).]
     
  3. The people wanted a man to execute their anger on Agathocles and Agathoclia. They were forced to bide their time for the present and placed their hopes on Tlepolemus. [Polyb. p. 66. Excerpt. Vales.] This young man behaved himself well and had done military exploits. At that time, he was managing the king's treasure. He used the funds not as an officer but rather like a young heir. He soon disliked and hated the court. Ptolemy the son of Sosibius, [of whom I spoke earlier] returned from Philippus in Macedonia with the other ambassadors. It seems they had been sent there the previous year. He began to speak his mind rather freely about Tlepolemus. He found that every man at court agreed with him. [Polyb. l.16. p. 82,85. & Excerpt. Vales.]
     
3798 AM, 4508 JP, 206 BC
  1. This discontent was fanned when the courtiers in an public assembly complained about Tlepolemus. Tlepolemus on the other side planned to accuse them all to the king. Sosibius heard this. He had both the keeping of the king's seal and custody of his person. He gave the seal to Tlepolemus who did all things after this in the state as he wished. [Polyb. l.16. p. 85,86.]
     
3799 AM, 4509 JP, 205 BC
  1. During the consulship of P. Cornel. Scipio and P. Licimus Crassus, the college of the Decemviri found this written in the books of the Sibylla which they kept. It said: "Whenever a foreign enemy should make war on Italy, he might be driven out again and overcome if the image of the mother of the gods at Ida, which fell from heaven, were sent for and brought to Rome."
     
  2. Thereupon, 5 ambassadors were sent to king Attalus to desire the image from him and to bring her by sea to them. These 5, each had a ship of five tiers of oars for the journey. To obtain a favourable reply, as soon as they arrived they were to ingratiate themselves and to promote a good opinion of the Roman name and majesty of their state. Attalus received and entertained these ambassadors at Pergamus very kindly. He led them to Pessinuntis in Phrygia and turned over to them that sacred stone which the people who lived there said was the mother of the gods. He asked them to carry it to Rome as they desired. [Livy l.29.]
     
  3. In the prologue to the 30th of Trogus, it is noted that Antiochus' expedition subdued all the upper provinces of Asia as far as Bactria. There he spent a long time trying unsuccessfully to expel Euthydemus from that province. He was finally forced to come to an agreement and make a league with him. To ratify this, Euthydemus sent his own son, Demetrius, to Antiochus. Antiochus saw his behaviour and judged him a man worthy to be a king. First he promised to give him one of his daughters to marry. Then he gave his father permission to assume the title of king. Lastly, they subscribed to the other articles of the league between them. He took his oath for the true observance of them. Antiochus distributed provisions generously among his soldiers and moved his camp. Euthydemus had given him all the elephants which he had with him. [Polyb. l.11. p. 651.]
     
  4. Antiochus crossed the Caucasus Mountains and re-entered India. He renewed the league and friendship he had made previously with King Sophagasenus. He gave Antiochus more elephants. He distributed more grain among his army and so returned. He left Androsthenes of Cyzucum, to bring him later the treasure which Spophagasenus had promised him. [Polyb. l.11. p. 652,]
     
3800 AM, 4510 JP, 204 BC
  1. He then came to Arachosia. He crossed the river Erymanthus and went through the country of Drangia and came into Carmania. Since winter was coming, he placed his troops about the country. Polyb. l.11. p. 652.]
     
  2. The Romans made a peace with Philippus king of Macedonia. The parties to the league were Philippus, Prusias the king of Bithynia, the Romans, the state of Ilium and Attalus the king of Pergam. [Polyb. l.11. p. 652,]
     
  3. Philopator died at Alexandria. Ptolemy surnamed Epiphanes, that is the "noble" succeeded him. Appianus in his Syriac, surnames him also Philopator, after his father's surname. He assumed the throne when 4 years old according to Hieronym. on (Daniel 11). Justin says he was 5 years old. He reigned 24 years. [Cl. Ptolem. in Reg. Can. Clemens Alexandr. Porphys. Euseb. and Jerome]
     
  4. Philopator's death was concealed for a long time, while Agathoclia and Oenanthe her mother, rifled the king's treasury. They got all his money and put the affairs of state under the control of their lewd companions. [Justin l.40. c.3.] Finally, Agathocles assembled the leaders of the Macedonians. He came with his sister Agathoclia and the young king. He told them that when the king was dying he committed the care of the child to his sister. He produced the testimony of Critolaus, who said that Tlepolemus was about to invade the kingdom and become the next king of Egypt. He said the same things wherever he went. The people scorned him. To make his disagreement with Tlepolemus more obvious to everyone, he took Danae, Tlepolemus' mother-in-law, from the temple of Ceres. He dragged her through the open streets and put her in prison. He laid hands on Moeragenes, one of the guard, because he gave information of all these things to Tlepolemus and favoured him. [He could do no less, in regard of that friendship that was between him and Adaeus, the governor of Bubastis.] Agathocles turned him over to his secretary Nicostratus to be tortured. However, he mysteriously escaped the rack and got away stark naked. He fled to the Macedonians and stirred them up against Agathocles. [Polyb. l.15. p. 712-714.]
     
  5. When all the people came flocking to the court in a tumultuous manner, Agathocles took the king with him and went and hid himself in a place called Syringes. This was a gallery or walkway which had on all sides 3 walls and gates to go through before one could come to it. The Macedonians forced him to deliver the king to them. When they had received him, they brought him out to the people and put him on a royal throne. This was a great joy and comfort to all who saw him. Shortly after this, they brought out Agathocles who was well fettered. The first person that met him, cut his throat. Then Nico was brought and then Agathoclia with her sisters and all that generation of them. Finally Oenanthe was hauled from the temple. They were all stark naked and placed on a jade and were brought into the Piatsoe. They were all turned over to the people to do with as they liked. Some started tearing them with their teeth, some lanced them with their knives and others pulled out their eyes. Any who were killed were pulled to pieces until there wqs nothing left. At the same time also, the maidens who attended Arsinoe while she lived, heard that Philammon was come from Cyrene to Alexandria. He was mainly responsible for her murder. They broke into his house and slew him with staves and stones. They found and strangled his little child. They dragged his wife stark naked into the street and cut her throat. [Polyb. l.15. p. 716,718, 719.] When the fury of the people was spent, the management of the affairs of the kingdom was committed to Aristomenes, who was born in Acarnania. [Polyb. l. 15. p. 717, & l.17. p. 771,772.] He was made governor of the king and kingdom and administered its affairs with a great deal of moderation and wisdom. [Diod. Sic. in Excerpt. Vales. p. 294.]
     
  6. When Antiochus the king of Syria and Philippus the king of Macedonia, heard of the death of Philopator, they plotted how to get and divide his kingdom between them. They encouraged one another and planned to murder the young king. [Polyb. l.15. p. 705, Livy, l.31. Justin, l.30. c.3.] Polybius [l. 3. p. 159.] says this: "When Ptolemy the king was died, Antiochus and Philippus agreed together to share the estate of the young king between them. Philip started this wicked deed by capturing Egypt and Caria and Antiochus took over Coelosyria and Phoenicia."
     
  7. Jerome on (Daniel 11) says: "Philippus, king of Macedonia and Antiochus the Great, conspired together and made war on Agathocles, [he should have said, Aristomenes] and the young king Ptolemy Epiphanes. The condition was that each would take his dominions which bordered his own kingdom."
     
  8. Josephus [l. 18. Antiq. c.3.] gives us more information where he says: "When Antiochus Magnus reigned in Asia, both Judea and Coelosyria lived in a continual state of trouble. There was a constant war going on. First Antiochus fought with Philopator and later with Epiphanes his son. Whether he won or lost these countries were blighted by him and were tossed and tumbled between his prosperous and adverse fortunes like a ship in the sea between contrary waves. Finally Antiochus had the upper hand and added Judea to his dominions. When Philopator was dead, Epiphanes sent a large army into Coelosyria under his general Scopas. He recovered both Coelosyria and our country for him again, &c."
     
  9. He basically said that Antiochus after a long war with Philopator and Epiphanes over of the land of Judea took it finally from Epiphanes. Epiphanes by his general Scopas, recovered it from him again. However he lost it a second time to Antiochus. Eusebius missed this and says that in the 10th year of Philopater: "Antiochus had overcome Philopater and added Judea to the rest of his dominions."
     
  10. In the first year of Epiphanes, Eusebius in his Chron. says: "Ptolemy Epiphanes, by his General Scopas, took Judea."
     
  11. However after Antiochus' defeat at Raphia, we do not find anywhere that he made war on Philopater again. The league, which was made after that battle, was first broken by Antiochus in the very first year of Epiphanes. Scopas was not in charge of that war as appears later. This is shown by Jerome on (Daniel 11) where he says: "When Ptolemy Philopator was dead, Antiochus broke the league he made with him. He led an army against Ptolemy' son, who was then only 4 years old and was surnamed Epiphanes."
     
3801 AM, 4511 JP, 203 BC
  1. When Cn. Servilius Caepio and Cn. Servilius Geminus were consuls in Rome, at Frusino the sun seemed to be surrounded with a little circle and then that circle again was surrounded by a greater body of the sun, [Livy l.30.] This seems to have been the total eclipse of the sun that happened on May 6th according to the Julian Calender.
     
  2. The Carthaginians were worn down with the continual victories of P. Scipio and gave up hope of defeating him. They recalled Hannibal from Italy to help them. After Hannibal was 16 years in Italy, he left and returned to Africa. [Livy l.30.]
     
  3. Philippus, king of Macedonia, sent Heraclides a Tarentine, and a most vicious fellow to Rhodes to destroy their fleet. He then sent ambassadors to Crete to stir them up to a war against the Rhodians. [Polyb. l.13. p. 672,673.]
     
  4. There was a naval battle between Philippus king of Macedonia and the Rhodians near the Isle of Lada. He captured 2 of their ships of 5 tiers of oars a piece. The rest of their fleet fled into the open sea. They were beset by a bad storm and driven ashore, first on Myndia and the next day on Cos. The Macedonians followed the ships which they had taken at their sterns and went into Lada which is opposite Miletus. They refreshed themselves in the Rhodian camp which they had left. When the Milesians knew of this, they gave Philippus and Heraclides crowns when they entered Miletus. [Polyb. l.13. p. 672,673., in Excerpt. Vales. p. 70,73. from Zeno and Antisthenes, two Rhodian historians.]
     
3802 AM, 4512 JP, 202 BC
  1. Philippus needed grain and continued to waste all Attalus' country, even to the very walls of Pergamus. He could not take any one of his cities because they were so well fortified. Neither could he get grain or other spoil from the country because Attalus had anticipated his actions. Then he attacked the temple and altars and destroyed them. He broke the very stones of them in pieces so that they might never be put together again. He utterly destroyed the Nicephorian Grove planted near the city of Pergamus and levelled to the ground many temples and shrines in the area. Phillipus left there and went first towards Thyatira but then turned back again. He went to a field called Thebes and hoped to get some booty there. He was unsuccessful and went to a place called Hiera-Come. He sent messengers to Zeuxis, the governor of Lydia under Antiochus and asked him for provisions for his army according to the peace treaty between Antiochus and Philippus. At first Zeuxis acted as if he would honour the treaty. However he resolved to do nothing to help Philippus. [Polyb. l.16. in Excerpt. Vales. p 66,69. with Diod. Sic. ib., p 294.]
     
  2. Philippus had another naval battle against Attalus and the Rhodians near the isle of Chios. 60 Rhodians and 70 men of Attalus were killed. Philippus lost 1200 of his Macedonians and 6000 of his confederates. 2000 Macedonians and 700 Egyptians were taken prisoner. Even though Philippus was defeated, he maintained his honour in two ways. He forced Attalus to flee to Erythrae. He had captured his admiral and chased the ships to their port. [??] Secondly, when he landed on the shore at Argenaum, a cape in Ionia, he made his stand to recover what he could of his navy. [Polyb. l.16. 723-730.]
     
  3. When Philippus besieged Prinassa, a city of Caria, he was unable to take it by force. However, he captured it finally by a stratagem. [Polyb. l.16. p. 730,731] He put garrisons into Iaslus, Bargyllis and the city of Euromenses. [Polyb. l.16. p. 731 & l.17. p. 744.]
     
3803 AM, 4513 JP, 201 BC
  1. P. Cornelius Scipio utterly defeated Hannibal in Africa in the last battle of the second Carthaginian war. We read in Zonaras that the Carthaginians were amazed by a total eclipse of the sun which happened at this time. However, there was no total eclipse. Livy, [l. 30.] says that indeed the body of the sun at Zama seemed to be somewhat darkened. By the astronomical tables we know that there was a very small eclipse of the sun this year upon the 19th of our October. Some say that Hannibal fled from the battle and came to the sea side where he found a ship ready for him. He sailed directly into Asia to king Antiochus. When Scipio demanded Hannibal from the Carthaginians, they replied that he was no longer in Africa. [Livy l.30.] Others more correctly say that Scipio never demanded him at all from them. [Plutarch in T. Q. Flamonino.]
     
  2. When Philippus came toward Abydus, they shut their gates against him. They would not even let his messengers in whom he sent to them. He besieged the place for a long time. So they could be delivered from him, they wanted Attalus and the Rhodians to hurry to help them. Attalus sent them only 300 men and the Rhodians who with their whole fleet anchored at Tenedus, sent them only one ship of four tiers of oars to help. The walls of the city were surrounded with engines of war. At first the men in Abydus kept Philippus' men off very manfully. They were unable to get in by land or sea. Later a breach was made in the main wall and they had cast up another within it. The Macedonians went to undermine that wall also. Then they were forced to send to Philip, to conditionally surrender. They wanted safe conduct for the Rhodian ship with the soldiers and mariners and for Attalus' men that were in the town. Lastly that they might leave with only their clothes on their backs. They could get no answer from him, unless they surrendered themselves wholly and absolutely to his mercy. Therefore in indignation and despair they became very angry. They made 50 of their leaders swear publicly that if they saw the inner wall taken by the enemy, they would go and kill every man's wife and children and throw his silver, gold and jewels into the sea. When that was done, the soldiers agreed that either they would vanquish their enemies or die fighting for their country. [Livy l.31. Polyb. l. 16. p. 736,737, 738.]
     
  3. About the same time Attalus and the Rhodians sent ambassadors to Rome. They complained of the wrongs done to them by Philippus and his Macedonians. They were told that the senate would take care of the affairs of Asia. [Livy, l.32. with Justin l.30. c.3.]
     
  4. Three ambassadors were sent from Rome to Ptolemy and Antiochus to put an end to all differences between them. The ambassadors were, C. Clau. Nero. Mar, Emil. Lepidus and P. Sempronius Tuditanus. They came to Rhodes and heard of the siege of Abydus. They wanted to talk with Philippus. However, they followed their orders and continued on their journey to Ptolemy and Antiochus for the present time. They sent Emilius the youngest of the three, to Philippus. He met with him at Abydus and told him that the senate of Rome wanted him to stop making war on any Greek city. He was not to lay hands on anything that belonged to Ptolemy king of Egypt. If he did, he might live in peace. If he did not, he should know that the Romans were resolved and ready to make war on him. Philippus returned this reply: "Thy age, good appearance and above all the name of a Roman makes thee speak thus boldly. However, I would tell you to remember the league and to keep peace with me. If not, I am also resolved to do my best and to make you know and feel that the power and name of a Macedonian is in no way inferior to or less noble than that of a Roman." [Livy l.32. with Polyb. p. 738,739, 787,788.]
     
  5. Justin, [l. 30. c.3.] states that M. Emil. Lepidus also was sent by the Romans into Egypt to govern the kingdom of Egypt on behalf of this young Ptolemy Epiphanes. There may be one of two reasons why this happened. They may have received an embassy sent to them from Alexandria to take over the guardianship of the young king and to defend the kingdom of Egypt. Antiochus and Philippus were said to have already divided the kingdom between them. [Justin l. 30. c.2.] Another possibility is that the father on his death bed committed to them this charge. [Justin l.31. c.1.] Concerning this Valer. Max. [l. 6. c.6.] says this: "The king Ptolemy had left the people of Rome as the guardian of his son while he was under age. Therefore the senate sent M. Emil. Lepidus, the High Pontiff and one that had been then twice consul to Alexandria. He was to take care of the child's estate. He was a very honest and a most upright man. He was well versed in their own affairs and exercised his duty for the benefit of Egypt, not himself."
     
  6. For he thought that this man had executed the office of a guardian in Egypt while he was High Pontiff and when he had been already twice consul in Rome. However Epiphanes died before that happened. The reason for the error is this. He had seen some coins containing both the titles of Lepidus' position and his office as a guardian in Egypt. For to this day, there are still some silver coins to be found with this inscription. On the one side it says, "Alexandrea". On the other it has, "S. C. M. Lepidus Pont. Max. Tutor Reg." On the image side is a picture of a man putting a crown on a young man's head who is standing on his right with a sceptre in his hand.
     
  7. When the Athenians saw their territory wasted by Philippus, they sent and asked aid from all parts, from the Romans, from the Rhodians, from Attalus and from Ptolemy. [Livy l.31.]
     
  8. Thereupon the ambassadors of the Romans and Rhodians met with Attalus in Athens. By common consent they agreed to help them. For this the Athenians presently decreed excessive honours, first to Attalus and then to the Rhodians. They went so far as to call one of their own tribes after his name and added it to their ten that they had before. [Livy l.30. Polyb. Legat. 3. p. 786,787.]
     
  9. While the Romans were busy preparing for war against Philippus, ambassadors from Ptolemy or rather from his guardians arrived in Rome. They were informed that the Athenians had needed help from the king against Philippus. Although they were confederates both of the kings and the Romans yet Ptolemy would not send any military support without the consent and authority of the people of Rome. They said that if the Romans would help the Athenians, Egypt would keep out of it. If the Romans did not want to get involved, he could easily supply the Athenians enough forces to overcome Philippus. The senate decreed that the king should be thanked for his kindness and to tell him that the Romans planned to defend and maintain their own friends and confederates themselves. If they needed anything for the war, they would tell him. They knew very well that the king's military forces were very great and were needed for the defence of his own state. The senate ordered presents to be sent to the king's ambassadors. Each received 5000 pieces of brass money. [Livy l.30.]
     
  10. In the year 54 for so it is in the Greek manuscript at Lambeth, [not 52, as in the common edition of the second period of Calippus,] 547. of Nabonassar, the 16th day of the month Mesor, the 22nd of our September, 7 hours after noon, the sun was eclipsed at Alexandria. [Cl. Ptol. l.4. c.11.]