Ussher's "The Annals of the World"
The Seventh Age: 25 AD - 49 AD
THE FIRST AGE
1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC
1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC
THE SECOND AGE
1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC
1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC
THE THIRD AGE
2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC
2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC
THE FOURTH AGE
2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC
2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC
THE FIFTH AGE
2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC
2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC
THE SIXTH AGE
3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC
3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC
3604b AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC
3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC
3679b AM, 4389 JP, 325 BC
3704 AM, 4414 JP, 300 BC
3804 AM, 4514 JP, 200 BC
3829 AM, 4539 JP, 175 BC
3854 AM, 4564 JP, 150 BC
3904b AM, 4614 JP, 100 BC
3929b AM, 4639 JP, 75 BC
3954b AM, 4664 JP, 50 BC
3979 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC
3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC
3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC
3604b AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC
3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC
3679b AM, 4389 JP, 325 BC
3704 AM, 4414 JP, 300 BC
3804 AM, 4514 JP, 200 BC
3829 AM, 4539 JP, 175 BC
3854 AM, 4564 JP, 150 BC
3904b AM, 4614 JP, 100 BC
3929b AM, 4639 JP, 75 BC
3954b AM, 4664 JP, 50 BC
3979 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC
4028 AM, 4738 JP, 25 AD
- Valerius Gratus removed Eleazar from the high priesthood after one year and gave the office to Simon, the son of Camithus. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3.
- The citizens of Cyzicum imprisoned some Roman citizens and had not completed the temple for Augustus that they had started. They had their liberty again taken from them that they had earned by being besieged in the war of Mithridates. (Tacitus, Annals, l.4. c.36.; *Dio, l. 57. 7:183)
- Fonteius Capito, who had governed Asia as proconsul, was acquitted because it was found that he was falsely accused by Vibius Serenus. [Tacit. Annal. 4. c.36.]
4029 AM, 4738 JP, 25 AD
- Eleven cities in Asia strove with great rivalry to see in which of them would build the temple that was appointed for Tiberius and the senate. Tiberius heard their ambassadors disputing for many days concerning this matter in the senate. The Hypepenians and Trallians, as also the Laodiceans and Magesians were eliminated as not having enough strength to do this. The Ilians related how Troy was the mother of Rome and they had a good argument but the glory of antiquity was doubted and they were eliminated. The Halicarnassians affirmed that their city had not been shaken with an earthquake for 1200 years and that the foundation of their temple was upon a natural rock. The Pergamenians were excluded because they already had a temple to Augustus. The senators thought one temple was enough for them. The Ephesians and Milesians were excluded because their cities were already involved with the ceremonies of Apollo and Diana. The decision was between the Sardians and Smyrnaeans. Each presented their case. The senate preferred the Smyrnaeans and Vobius Marius was of the opinion that M. Legidus who governed that province, should be placed in charge of the new temple as well as his other duties. Legidus refused through modesty and the senate selected by lot Valerius Naso who had been praetor, for the job. (Tiberius, Annals, l.4. c.55,56.)
- When Simon had held the high priesthood for one year Valerius Gratus appointed Joseph as his successor in that office. He was surnamed Caiphas, the son-in-law of Annas or Ananus who was formerly removed from the priesthood. (John 18:13) After the annual changes of the high priest were completed, Gratus returned to Rome after he had been eleven years in Judea. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3.
)By this action, we are rather inclined to refer these changes to the end of his government than to the beginning.
- Pontius Pilate was sent as the successor to Valerius Gratus. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.3.
)Philo documents Pilate's actions in his government. (Philo, Embassy to Caius) Philo wrote that he was afraid lest the embassy which was sent by the Jews to take away the bucklers that were dedicated to him within the Holy City, would find out about his other crimes: "sale of judgments, repines, slaughters, rackings, condemning innocent men to death, savage cruelty &c."
4030 AM, 4739 JP, 26 AD
- The 30th jubilee happened in the 30th year of our Lord Jesus Christ and the beginning of his gospel. It was now proclaimed by the voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Prepare ye the way of the Lord make his paths straight," (Mark 1:1-3)
- and the start of the acceptable year of the Lord or the time of his divine pleasure in which the good God showed the great one to the world. (Isaiah 61:2; Luke 4:19)
- It was in the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, [which was the 13th of his empire which began after the death of Augustus] when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod [Antipas], the tetrarch of Galilee and his brother Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea and the region of Trachonitis and Lysanias, tetrarch of Abylene, under the priesthoods of Annas and Caiphas. The word of the Lord came to John, the son of Zacharias in the desert. (Luke 3:1,2) He by God's authority was a Nazarite who was both a priest and prophet of the Lord and baptized in the desert of Judea. [These cities were mentioned in (Joshua 15:1-6)] He preached the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. (Matthew 3:1; Mark 1:4; Luke 3:3) By his ministry, he announced and made known to Israel, Christ who would come after him. (John 1:7,8,13) So John would certainly know who he was, God gave him this sign. Whomever he saw the Holy Ghost descending on and remaining, he would know that it was he that should baptize others with the Holy Ghost. (John 1:33)
- It is most probable that his ministry began on that most suitable day, the tenth day of the seventh month, [about the 19th day of our October.] This was the solemn fast in which whoever did not afflict his soul was to be cut off from his people. It was the day of atonement in which the high priest went into the holy of holies to expiate the sins of the people with blood that was offered. On the same day a trumpet was sounded announcing the start of the year of jubilee in the land. (Leviticus 25:9)
- Hence John the Baptist was the preacher of repentance and remission of sins to be attained by the blood of Christ who was to come. John went into every region around Jordan, lifting up his voice like a trumpet proclaiming: "Repent ye for the kingdom of heaven is at hand."
- Many came to him from Jerusalem, all Judea and the regions around the Jordan River. [This would be especially true of that huge multitude who returned from Jerusalem after the feast of tabernacles was over about the beginning of November.] Many were baptized by him in the Jordan and confessed their sins. (Matthew 3:2,3,5,6; Mark 1:5)
- John had his garment of camel's hair and a leather belt about his waist like Elijah. (2 Kings 1:8) He ate locusts [which was a clean inexpensive food (Leviticus 11:22)] and wild honey. (Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6)
- John sharply rebuked the Pharisees who came to his baptism. (Luke 3:10,13) When people wondered if John was the Christ, John answered: "I indeed baptize you with water, but there cometh one who is stronger than I, whose shoe latchet I am not worthy to unloose, he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire, whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat in his barn, and will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. (Luke 3:15-17; Matthew 3:11,12; Mark 1:7,8)
- When all the people were being baptized, Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized of John. (Luke 3:21; Matthew 3:13; Mark 1:9) John denied that Jesus needed any baptism from him but the Lord urged him and said that it was needful that all righteousness be fulfilled. Then John baptized him. (Matthew 3:14,15) Jesus was about 30 years old. (Luke 3:23)
- There was made a most obvious manifestation of the trinity. The Son of God in the human nature which he assumed ascended out of the water and was praying. The heavens were opened and the Spirit of God was seen in a bodily shape like a dove and descended on him. The voice of the Father was heard from heaven and said: "This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased." (Matthew 3:16,17; Mark 1:10,11; Luke 3:21,22)
- Jesus was full of the Holy Ghost and returned from the Jordan. He was driven by the Spirit into the desert. He was tempted for forty days and nights, by Satan while he remained among wild beasts. He ate nothing and after this was over, he was hungry. (Luke 4:1,2; Matthew 4:1,2; Mark 1:12,13)
- Satan then presented the Lord with a threefold temptation. When this was over, Satan left him for a time (Matthew 4:3-11; Luke 4:3-13) and the angels came and ministered to him. (Matthew 4:11; Mark 1:13) Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee. (Luke 4:14)
- Herod Agrippa, the son of Aristobulus, had by Cyprus, the daughter of Phasaelus Agrippa the younger, the last king of the Jews. He is mentioned in Acts. (Acts 25:1-26:32) He was 17 years old when his father died. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.7.
l.19. c.ult. )
4031 AM, 4741 JP, 28 AD
- Berenice his sister of whom likewise mention is made in Acts was born and later married to Herod, the king of Chalcis and was sixteen years old when her father died. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.7.
l.19. c.ult. )
4033 AM, 4742 JP, 29 AD
- The fourth year of John the Baptist's ministry started. His ministry of preparing the people for Christ was drawing to a close, for this was his primary purpose. The Lord himself, whose way John had prepared, entered into his ministry. He executed his prophetic office and sealed his ministry with famous miracles, for John did no miracles. John's ministry of preparation was so celebrated by Isaiah and Malachi so many ages before. None will wonder that so long a period of time was assigned to it by us when they consider that a shorter time for so great a work would be too short especially without the help of miracles to accomplish as much as the angel Gabriel confirmed to his father Zacharias that John should do. (Luke 1:16,17) "Many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God, and he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, that he may turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, and to prepare a people ready for the Lord,"
- Those words of Paul argue that not a short period of time but a full course of preaching was to be finished by John before the coming of the Lord. (Acts 13:24,25) "When John had first preached before his coming the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel, and as John fulfilled his course, he said, whom think ye that I am? I am not he, but behold there cometh one after me whose shoes of his feet I am not worthy to loose."
- The next day after Christ came, the Jews from Jerusalem sent some priests and Levites of the sect of the Pharisees to John when he was baptizing at Bethabara by the Jordan. They asked him to plainly tell them if he was the Christ or not. He denied that he was Elijah or that prophet [foretold by Moses, (Deuteronomy 18:15) and was indeed the Christ, (Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37) but by the Jews thought to be another.] He said he was: "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, make straight the way of the Lord:"
- Then he added that testimony about Christ which Paul so praised: "I baptize with water, but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not, he it is, who cometh after me, who is preferred before me, whose shoe latchet I am not worthy to unloose. (John 1:19-28; John 5:33)
- The next day John saw Jesus coming to him and said: "Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world. This is he of whom I spoke, there cometh one after me, that is preferred before me, for he was before me, &c. and I saw him, and testify that this is the Son of God." (John 1:29-34)
- The next day John stood with two of his disciples. John saw Jesus walking and said, "Behold the Lamb of God." When his two disciples heard that they followed Jesus and stayed with him that day for it was about the tenth hour [4 o'clock]. Andrew was one of these two and brought his brother Simon to Jesus. When Jesus saw Simon he said, "You are Simon, son of Jona, you shall be called Cephas." (John 1:35-42)
- The next day Jesus went into Galilee and asked Philip [who was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Simon Peter] to follow him. Philip found Nathanael under a fig tree and brought him to Jesus. Jesus said that he was truly an Israelite in whom there was no guile. Jesus said he was that ladder of heaven, [foreshadowed by Jacob's dream, (Genesis 28:12)] upon which the angels of God were seen ascending and descending. (John 1:42-51)
- On the third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee, to which Jesus was invited along with his mother and his disciples. There he turned the water into wine which was his first miracle. His glory was thus shown and his disciples believed on him. (John 2:1-11)
- Now we are come to the public ministry of Christ, whose acts we do record according to the four distinct passovers we can gather from the harmony of the four gospels as written by that learned man and much laboured in the studies of the Holy Scriptures, John Richardson, Dr. of Divinity and worthy Bishop of Ardah, in our province of Armagh. In this record it is note worthy that only Matthew neglected the order of time which is constantly observed by the other three gospels [if you will exclude the parenthesis when John was cast into prison by Herod.] (Luke 3:19,20) The FIRST PASSOVER Of The MINISTRY Of CHRIST. (John 2:13) From which the first year of the seventieth and last week of Daniel begins in which the covenant is confirmed with many. (Daniel 9:27) cf. (Matthew 26:28)
- Jesus went to Jerusalem for the passover. (John 2:13)
- Jesus went into the temple, he scourged those who bought and sold there and drove them out. As a sign of his authority, he told them how the temple of his body would be destroyed by the Jews and be raised again by himself. (John 2:13-22)
- He performed miracles and many believed on him but he did not commit himself to them because he knew what was in man. (John 2:23-25)
- He instructed Nicodemus the disciple who came to him by night about the mystery of regeneration, in faith, in his death and in the condemnation of unbelievers. (John 3:1-21)
4034 AM, 4743 JP, 30 AD
- Jesus left Jerusalem and went into the land of Judea with his disciples. (John 3:22)
- Jesus stayed there and baptized people. [That is his disciples baptized people who had been baptized before either by himself or John.] John baptized in Aenon for he was not yet cast into prison. (John 3:22-24)
- John's disciples and the Jews had a discussion about purifying. (John 3:25)
- John instructed his disciples who were envious of Jesus. John told them about Jesus and his office and of the excellence of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. He gave this notable and last testimony of him before his imprisonment. (John 3:26-36)
- Herod the tetrarch cast John into prison for reprehending his incest with his brother Philip's wife and his wickedness. (Mark 6:17-20; Matthew 14:3-5)
- Jesus heard that John was cast into prison and that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus had made and baptized many disciples [that is, by the hand of his disciples.] He left Judea after he had stayed there about eight months and went into Galilee. (John 4:1-3; Matthew 4:12)
- Jesus needed to go through Samaria where he converted the Samaritan woman near the city of Sychar and the citizens of Sychar. It was four months before the harvest, [or the passover, about the middle of the ninth month, called Ab.] (John 4:4-42)
- After he had stayed two days in Sychar, he continued on to Galilee. [This is his second return from Judea to Galilee after his baptism.] (John 4:43,44)
- Jesus was received by the Galileans who had seen the great things which he had done at Jerusalem. He preached with great fame in their synagogues. (John 4:45; Luke 4:14,15; Mark 1:14,15)
- In Cana, Jesus healed the sick son of a nobleman. This was the second miracle that Jesus did when he left Judea and came to Galilee. (John 4:46-54)
- He did miracles in Capernaum and later came to Nazareth where he was raised. He entered the synagogue, as his custom was, he expounded the prophesy of Isaiah about himself. The citizens first wondered at this but later were filled with wrath. They thrust him out of the city and tried to throw him down headlong from a hill. However, he passed through the crowd and went his way. (Luke 4:16-30)
- He left Nazareth and lived at Capernaum. He taught them on the sabbath days and they were astonished at his doctrine. (Luke 4:31,32; Mark 1:21,22; Matthew 4:13-17)
- In the synagogue of Capernaum, he cast out an unclean spirit and ordered the spirit that he should not tell who he was. (Luke 4:33-37; Mark 1:23-28)
- He arose from the synagogue and went into the house of Simon and Andrew and healed Simon's wife's mother who lay sick with a fever. (Luke 4:38,39; Mark 1:29-31; Matthew 8:14,15)
- About sunset, he healed all the sick folk who were brought to him and cast out devils. He ordered them not to speak. (Luke 4:40,41; Mark 1:32-34; Matthew 8:16,17)
- In the morning, he went into a deserted place to pray. When Simon and others sought for him and would have prevented him from leaving, he replied that he must preach to other cities also. (Luke 4:42-44; Mark 1:35-39)
- He went through all Galilee and taught in their synagogues and cast out devils. (Luke 4:44; Mark 1:39)
- As he stood by the lake of Gennesaret, a great multitude pressed upon him. Therefore he entered into Simon's ship and taught the multitude from there. (Luke 5:1-4)
- When he had finished speaking, at his command, the disciples went fishing and caught a large number of fish. Simon Peter, Andrew, James and John were astonished. Jesus commanded them to follow him and he would make them fishers of men. (Luke 5:4-11; Mark 1:16-20; Matthew 4:18-22)
- Jesus went through all Galilee and taught in their synagogues and healed every disease. His fame went into all Syria and a great multitude followed him. (Matthew 4:23-25)
- In a certain city, he healed a leper. Jesus forbid him to tell anyone but he told everyone he met. People came to him from every place to hear him and to be healed. So many came that he could not publicly enter the city and he went into deserted places and prayed. (Luke 5:12-16; Mark 1:40-45; Matthew 8:1-4)
- After some days, he again returned to his own city of Capernaum and he taught them at home. In the presence of the scribes, Pharisees and a large crowd, he forgave the sins of one who was sick with the palsy. The sick man was let down through the roof of the house and Jesus healed the disease also to the astonishment of all. (Luke 5:17-26; Mark 2:1-12; Matthew 9:1-8)
- Jesus went out again by the seaside and all the multitude came to him and he taught them. As he passed by he saw and called Levi or Matthew who was sitting at the receipt of custom. (Luke 5:27,28; Mark 2:13,14; Matthew 9:9)
- In the house of Levi, Jesus defended himself and his disciples for they ate with publicans. He excused and vindicated them against the Pharisees because his disciples did not fast. (Luke 5:29-39; Mark 2:15-22; Matthew 9:10-13)
- And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, [that is, the first sabbath of the new year which was instituted after the Jews left Egypt and began from the month Nisan or Abib,] Jesus went through the grain fields. He cleared his disciples from the reproach of the Pharisees because they plucked the ears of grain. He explained the doctrine of the sabbath. (Luke 6:1-5; Mark 2:23-28; Matthew 12:1-8) The SECOND PASSOVER of the MINISTRY of CHRIST. (John 5:1) cf. (John 4:3,5) From which begins the second year of the 70th week of Daniel.
- After these things, the feast of the Jews was coming and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. On the sabbath day, he healed a man who had been infirmed for thirty eight years and lay at the pool of Bethesda. He answered the Jews who were seeking to kill him because he said that God was his Father. (John 5:1-47)
- He went from there and entered again into a synagogue and taught the people. He healed one that had a withered hand. The Pharisees went out and immediately with the Herodians took counsel how they might destroy him. (Luke 6:6-11; Mark 3:1-6; Matthew 12:9-14)
- When Jesus knew this, he withdrew himself to the sea and healed the multitudes who followed him. He strictly charged them that they should not make him known. He ordered his disciples to have a small boat to wait on him because of the multitude who thronged him. (Mark 3:7-12; Matthew 12:15-21)
- It came to pass in those days, that he went into a mountain to pray and continued in prayer all night. When it was day, he chose the twelve whom he called apostles. (Luke 6:12-16; Mark 3:13-19)
- Jesus went down with them and stood in a plain and a great multitude came to him and he healed them all. (Luke 6:17-19)
- They went into a house and the multitude came together again so that they could not so much as eat a meal. When his friends heard of this, they went to lay hold on Jesus for they said that he was beside himself. (Mark 3:20,21)
- When he saw the multitude, he went up into a mountain. When he sat down, his disciples came to him. He then preached that long and excellent sermon, first to the apostles and later to all the people. (Luke 6:20-49; Matthew 5:1-7:29)
- When he had finished speaking to the people, he went into Capernaum and healed the centurion's servant who lay sick with the palsy and was almost dead. (Luke 7:1-10; Matthew 8:5-13)
- The next day, he went into the city of Nain and raised one who was dead and being carried out for burial who was the only son of a widow. Thereupon, his fame spread abroad. (Luke 7:11-17)
- When John was in prison, he was told by his disciples about the fame and deeds of Jesus. John sent two of them to him to ask to ask if Jesus was the one they should expect or should they look for someone else. After they returned to John with Jesus' answer, Jesus gave a great testimony about John. Then he upbraided some cities for their ingratitude. He rested in the fact of the divine sovereignty of his Father who hid these things from some and revealed them to others. (Luke 7:18-35; Matthew 11:2-30)
- And Simon, the Pharisee wanted Jesus to dine with him. As they were eating, Simon criticized the actions of a women because she was a great sinner. Jesus defended the woman who washed his feet with her tears and wiped them with the hairs of her head and kissed and anointed them. (Luke 7:36-50)
- It came to pass later that he went from the city and preached. His disciples were with him and certain women ministered to him. (Luke 8:1-3)
- They brought to him one who had a demon and who was blind and dumb. Jesus healed him and eagerly defended himself against the Pharisees and scribes that came down from Jerusalem who blasphemed him said that he cast out devils through Beelzebub. (Mark 3:22-30; Matthew 12:22-37) Some of the scribes and Pharisees asked for a sign. When Jesus had sharply rebuked them, he gave them no other sign than that of Jonah. (Matthew 12:38-45)
- And while he spoke to the people, he was told that his mother and brethren, stood outside and wanted to see and speak with him. Jesus replied and showed them whom he counted for his mother and brothers and sisters. (Luke 8:19-21; Mark 3:31-35; Matthew 12:46-50)
- The same day Jesus left the house and sat by the seaside. Great multitudes came to him so that he went into a boat and sat and taught them many things through the parable of the sower and many other parables. (Luke 8:4-18; Mark 4:1-34; Matthew 13:1-53)
- The same day at evening, he told his disciples to sail across the lake. When he had given an answer to some who wanted to follow him, he sent away the multitudes. As they were sailing, a strong storm of wind came up. He rebuked the wind and calmed the sea and saved his disciples. (Luke 8:22-26; Mark 4:35-41; Matthew 8:18-27)
- They came to the other side into the country of the Gadarenes, or Gergesenes which was on the opposite shore from Galilee. When he was come to land, he was met by two fierce men who were possessed with demons. [Mark and Luke mention only one man.] He cast out the demons and allowed them to enter into a herd of swine. The Gadarenes asked him to leave their country. The possessed persons begged Jesus to stay with them. This request was denied and Jesus sent them back to proclaim around Decapolis what great things Jesus had done for them. Jesus sailed across the lake again to his own city of Capernaum. (Luke 8:27-39; Mark 5:1-20; Matthew 8:28-34)
- It came to pass that when Jesus was returned, the people received him gladly for they waited for him. He was by the seaside. (Luke 8:40; Mark 5:21)
- The disciples of John came to him and asked why do we and the Pharisees fast often but your disciples do not fast? He answered their question. (Matthew 9:14-17)
- While he was speaking, Jairus, one of the rulers of the synagogues came and begged him to heal his only daughter. She was about twelve years old and lay at the point of death. As he was going and almost at Jairus' house, a woman who had an issue of blood twelve years, was suddenly healed by touching the hem of Jesus' garment. The dead daughter of Jairus was restored to life by his word only. He strictly ordered them to tell no one about it. (Luke 8:41-56; Mark 5:22-42; Matthew 9:18-26)
- When he departed from there, two blind men followed him whom he healed. He strictly ordered them to tell no one but they told everyone they met. (Matthew 9:27-31)
- As they went out, they brought to Jesus a dumb man who was possessed with a demon. When the demon was cast out, the dumb man spoke and the multitude marvelled but the Pharisees blasphemed. (Matthew 9:32-34)
- He went all around their cities and villages. He taught them and healed their diseases. When he came into his own country with his disciples, he taught in their synagogue on the sabbath day. He was again despised by them and called the carpenter. However, they were astonished at his doctrine. (Mark 6:1-6; Matthew 13:54-58)
- He went around their villages and taught them. (Mark 6:6)
- He was moved with compassion toward the multitude when he saw how great the harvest was and how few labourers there were. He told his disciples that they should pray the Lord that he would send forth more labourers. (Matthew 9:35-38)
- Jesus sent out the twelve apostles, by two and two. He instructed them to preach and gave them power to heal diseases. (Luke 9:1-5; Mark 6:7-11; Matthew 10:1-42)
- It came to pass when Jesus had made an end of commanding his disciples, he departed from there to teach and to preach in their cities. (Matthew 11:1,12-16)
- After the twelve had departed, they went through the towns preaching the gospel and healing everywhere. (Luke 9:6)
4035 AM, 4744 JP, 31 AD
- The seventeenth of November, Sejanus was killed. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.25.) After his death, Tiberius immediately knew that all the crimes that Sejanus had accused the Jews of were imagined by himself. Therefore Tiberius commanded the governments of all provinces that in every town they should spare this nationality. Only a very few who were guilty persons should be punished. They should not alter their customs but should take note that these men were lovers of peace and their customs were for the public peace. (Philo, Embassy to Caius)
- After Severus, the governor of Egypt had died, Tiberius appointed Flaccus Avillius, one of his friends, as his successor for six years. He governed the province well for the five first years as long as Tiberius lived. (*Philo, Flaccus, 1:724)
- John Baptist was beheaded.
- When his disciples heard this, they came and took up the body and buried it and came and told Jesus. (Mark 6:27-29; Matthew 14:6,11,12)
- Herod the tetrarch and others heard of the fame of Jesus and Herod desired to see him. (Luke 9:7-9; Mark 6:1-4)
- When the apostles returned, they told Jesus the things they had done. (Luke 9:10; Mark 6:30)
- When Jesus had heard of the death of John and of the deeds of the apostles, he told them to depart into a deserted place and rest for a while. The multitude had kept them so busy they did not have time to eat. He sailed with the twelve with him and privately went into a deserted place near Bethesda. When the multitude heard it, they followed him on foot from all cities and came to him. Jesus taught and healed them. (Luke 9:10,11; Mark 6:31,32; Matthew 14:13,14)
- Jesus went up into a mountain and sat there with his disciples. The passover was close at hand. At evening, he fed with five barley loaves, and two little fishes more than 5000 men in addition to women and children. There were twelve baskets full of the left overs. When they wanted to make him a king, Jesus constrained his disciples to go before him to the other side, opposite to Bethesda toward Capernaum. He went alone into a mountain. When the disciples had gone about 3 or 4 miles, Jesus walked out to them on the sea in the fourth watch of the night. He told them not to be afraid. Peter asked to join him and he walked out to Jesus. Jesus rebuked Peter for his little faith when Peter began to sink. They were all amazed. They landed and came to the country of Gennesaret. When he left the boat, as soon as it was known, they brought their sick that they might touch the hem of his garment and they were made whole. (John 6:1-21; Luke 9:12-17; Mark 6:35-56; Matthew 14:15-36)
- The next day after Jesus had crossed over, the people who stood on this side of the sea sailed to Capernaum to look for Jesus. He preached to them in the synagogue of Capernaum of the bread of life and affirmed to the Jews that murmured that he was the bread of life. From that time many of his disciples went back but the apostles would not go away. However, he called one of them a devil. (John 6:22-71) The THIRD PASSOVER of the MINISTRY of CHRIST (John 6:4) From which began the third year of the 70th week of Daniel.
- The scribes and Pharisees who came from Jerusalem, went to Jesus. When they saw some of his disciples eat with unwashed hands, they found fault with them that they did not follow the traditions of the elders. Jesus answered them concerning their traditions. He said that they frustrated the commands of God that they might keep the traditions of men. He taught the people and also told his disciples at home that nothing which entered into a man, defiles him but that which comes from within defiles a man. (Mark 7:1-23; Matthew 15:1-20)
- Jesus left and went into the country of Tyre and Sidon. He could not escape the crowds. A Canaanitish woman, a Gentile of the Syrophenician nationality, came to him and earnestly begged him for her daughter who was possessed by a demon. Jesus praised her great faith and cast out the demon from her daughter. (Mark 7:24-30; Matthew 15:21-28)
- After he left the country of Tyre and Sidon, he came to the Sea of Galilee through the middle of the country of Decapolis. A deaf man was brought to him who also had a speech impediment. Jesus healed and in vain ordered him to tell no one. (Mark 7:31-37)
- When he went up into a mountain, he sat there and healed many and the multitude wondered. (Matthew 15:29-31)
- In those days when a very great multitude had stayed with him for three days in the desert, he fed 4000 men in addition to women and children, with only seven loaves and a few little fishes. They gathered seven baskets full of left overs. (Mark 8:1-9; Matthew 15:32-38)
- Immediately, Jesus with his disciples, sailed over to the country of Dalmanutha or Magdala. (Mark 8:10; Matthew 15:39)
- The Pharisees came and required a sign from him from heaven. After Jesus had sighed deeply, he refused to give them any sign but that of Jonah. He called them hypocrites because knew how to tell the weather from the appearance of the sky but could not discern the times. He left them and sailed to the other side. (Mark 8:11-13; Matthew 16:1-4)
- When he and his disciples came to the other side, they had forgotten to take food with them and they had but one loaf of bread with them in the ship. Jesus warned them to beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees and the leaven of Herod. They reasoned among themselves that because they had forgotten to take bread, Jesus had said this. Jesus rebuked them that they had forgotten the miraculous multiplication of the loaves and helped them understand that he spoke not of the leaven of bread but of doctrine. (Mark 8:12-14; Matthew 16:5-12)
- Then he came to Bethsaida and a blind man was brought to him. The blind man was led out of town and Jesus anointed his eyes with spittle and his sight was restored. Jesus forbade him to tell anyone about it. (Mark 8:22-26)
- Jesus and his disciples went into the towns of Caesarea Philippi. It came to pass as he was alone praying and was now on his way, he asked his disciples who the people though he was. When they had answered, he asked them their opinion. When Peter answered that he was the Christ, Jesus declared him happy and gave him promises. He forbade his disciples to tell any man that he was the Christ. He foretold his death and resurrection and called Peter, "Satan", because he rebuked Jesus for talking about his death. Then he preached to his disciples and the multitude about the cross that everyone must bear who will follow him. Finally, he foretold his transfiguration. (Luke 9:18-27; Mark 8:27-38; Matthew 16:13-28)
- It came to pass about eight days after these sayings, [or six intermediate days] Jesus was transfigured on an high mountain. When they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what they had seen until he was risen from the dead. They kept this private and asked one another what the rising from the dead should mean. They asked him why did the scribes say that Elijah must first come? Jesus replied and by this they understood that Jesus spoke of John the Baptist who was Elijah. (Luke 9:28-36; Mark 9:1-13; Matthew 17:1-13)
- After this on the next day when they were came down from the hill, Jesus came to his disciples. He saw a great multitude about them and the scribes asking questions. When all the multitude saw him, they immediately were greatly amazed and ran to greet him. As he was asking about their questions, the father of a lunatic child told him, that it was about his child that had an unclean spirit and was deaf and dumb. His disciples could not cast him out. Then Jesus cast out the spirit and restored the child whole to his father. When Jesus went home, he showed his disciples the reason why they could not cast out this demon. (Luke 9:37-42; Mark 9:14-29; Matthew 17:14-21)
- They departed from there and passed through Galilee and he did not want any man to know it. He taught his disciples about his death and resurrection but they did not understood this. They were exceedingly sorry and were afraid to ask him. (Luke 9:43-45; Mark 9:30-32; Matthew 17:22,23)
- When they came to Capernaum, they asked Peter about Jesus' tribute money. When Jesus came into the house, he anticipated Peter and told him that he should find a piece of money in a fish's mouth and told him to pay the tribute for both of them. (Matthew 17:24-27)
- At Capernaum, Jesus asked his disciples what they were discussing on the way. At first they were silent and then they said that it was about who would be greatest in the kingdom of heaven. Jesus took a child and placed him in the midst of them and taught that they should have humility even as a child. He warned them in the world were offences and that they must take heed that neither hand, foot nor eye cause them to offend. Little children were not to be despised. If our brother sinned against us, he was to be reproved. He told of the power of the church to bind and loose. They were to forgive one that asked forgiveness until seven times seventy times as he showed in the parable of two debtors to the king. (Luke 9:46-48; Mark 9:33-37; Matthew 18:1-35)
- John replied and said that they saw one casting out devils through Christ's name. Jesus taught that he was not to be forbidden and again warned them of not offending little ones and to take heed again, that neither hand, foot or eye cause them to offend. (Luke 9:49,50; Mark 9:38-50)
- Junius Gallio, who was trying to win Tiberius' favour, proposed that Tiberius' soldiers, when their time of service was expired, should sit in the same benches with the equestrians to see the plays. Tiberius banished him under the pretence that Gallio would seem to persuade the soldiers to be loyal to the state rather than to Tiberius. When it was written that he would easily endure his banishment in so pleasant an island as Lesbos was, he was brought back to Rome and handed over to the custody of the magistrates. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.3.; *Dio, l.58. 7:233)
- Cassius Severus, the orator died in the 25th year of his banishment on the island of Sephone. He was reduced to such poverty that he had scarcely had a cloth to hide his privates. (Jerome, Chronicles)
- At Rome it was proposed in the senate by Quintilian, the tribune of the people, concerning a Sibyl's book. Caninius Gallus, one of the Fifteen for Religious Ceremonies, had requested that it might be received among other books of the same prophetess and passed a decree of the senate to ratify it. When this was done by joint vote, Tiberius sent letters and rebuked the tribune mildly as not being well versed in the old customs because he was young. He attacked Gallus very smartly, who was a man of years and well experienced in the ceremonies and in spite of this had introduced the business into the senate at such a time when many of the senators were absent. The author of the poem was uncertain and the college had not delivered their opinion, or had the poem been revised and adjusted by the masters [of the priests] according to the usual custom. Thereupon the book was referred to the cognizance of the fifteen. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.11.)
- After these things Jesus walked in Galilee, for he would not walk in Judea because the Jews sought to kill him. The feast of tabernacles was approaching and Jesus did not go up to the feast at that time as his brothers wished. They as yet did not believe on him. Jesus went up after them, not publicly but as it were in secret. (John 7:1-10)
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- It came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he set his face to go to Jerusalem. He sent messengers ahead to prepare a place for them to stay. The city would not accept him and they went into another city. He rebuked his disciples who wanted fire to come down from heaven upon them. (Luke 9:51-56)
- It came to pass as they went on the way, Jesus answered some who wanted to follow him. (Luke 9:57-62)
- After these things, Jesus sent 70 disciples two by two into every city and place where he was going to proclaim that the kingdom of God was at hand. He gave them power to authenticate their message. (Luke 10:1-16)
- The multitude enquired after him and murmured concerning him. Jesus taught in the temple in the middle of the feast. They wondered at his doctrine and he answered that his doctrine was not his own but his who sent him. He answered many things to those who reproached and objected against him. Officers were sent to apprehend him. In the last and great day of the feast, Jesus cried out concerning faith in him. There was a division concerning him among the people but the officers who were sent and Nicodemus defended Jesus and his cause before the Pharisees who spoke against Jesus. (John 7:11-53)
- Jesus went to the mount of Olives and early in the morning he sat and taught in the temple. He was not willing to condemn, as a judge, the woman taken in adultery and warned her to sin no more. He taught in the treasury of the temple and he affirmed that he is the light of the world and defended his bearing record of himself. He taught many things concerning the Father and himself, where he goes, who he is, about their father Abraham, about the servitude of sin and the devil. He denied that he had a demon as the people thought. He said whoever kept his sayings, would not taste of death. He concluded and said he was before Abraham. Thereupon they took up stones to throw at him but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple and went through the midst of them and so passed by. (John 8:1-59)
- As Jesus passed by, he saw one begging who was blind from his youth and he healed him. The beggar and his parents were examined by the authorities and he was expelled from the synagogue. He found and worshipped Jesus. (John 9:1-41)
- Jesus preached that he is the door of the sheepfold and that good shepherd. He taught about thieves and hirelings. There was a division again among the Jews because of these sayings. (John 10:1-21)
- The 70 returned with joy, whom he further warned and instructed. In a rejoicing spirit, he tells them privately that they are blessed because their names are written in heaven. (Luke 10:17-24)
- A certain lawyer asked him what he must do to inherit eternal life. Jesus instructed him from the law and taught him who his neighbour was by the parable of the man who fell among thieves. (Luke 10:25-37)
- Now it came to pass as he went on his way, he came to a certain town and was received into the house of Martha. She herself ministered to them while Mary heard the words of Jesus. Jesus said Mary had chosen the better part. (Luke 10:38-42)
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- It came to pass that he was praying in a certain place. When he stopped, one of his disciples asked him to teach them to pray as John taught his disciples. Therefore he for the second time prescribeed to them the Lord's prayer. He used arguments also to stir them up to constancy in prayer and for obtaining the confirmation of their faith. (Luke 11:1-13)
- Jesus cast out a demon from one who was dumb and the multitude marvelled. He rebuked some blasphemers and said that he did not cast out the demons through Beelzebub. (Luke 11:14-26)
- It came to pass as he spoke these things, that a certain woman of the company said to him that his mother was blessed. He replied to her that blessed are those who hear the word of God and keep it. (Luke 11:27,28)
- When the multitude had gathered thickly together, he said that this generation sought a sign but they shall have no sign except that of Jonah. He added that the queen of the south and the Ninevites shall condemn this generation. They were to take heed that the light that is in them was not really darkness. (Luke 11:29-36)
- When he had spoken these things, a certain Pharisee invited him to dine with him. He wondered that Jesus had not first washed. Jesus severely reprehended him along with the rest of the Pharisees for their apparent outward holiness with hypocrisy but inwardly was wickedness, covetousness and pride. He pronounced a woe on the lawyers also. (Luke 11:37-54)
- In the meantime, when there were gathered together an innumerable company, Jesus warned to his disciples to beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which was hypocrisy and not to be afraid of those who kill the body. (Luke 12:1-12)
- One of the company asked Jesus to talk to his brother so that he divide the inheritance with him. Jesus replied and said that who made him a judge? On this occasion, he preached against covetousness using the parable of the rich man who wanted to build larger barns. He warned them against an anxious distrustful and unprofitable carping about the necessary things of this life and urged that they rather seek the kingdom of God. They should be like those who wait for the coming of their Lord as it becomes a faithful and wise steward. Jesus said that he shall send the fire of division on the earth and upbraided them that they did not know that this was the appointed time. (Luke 12:13-59)
- At that time there were some who told him of the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. From this, Jesus preached about repentance and propounded the parable of the fig tree not having fruit. (Luke 13:1-9)
- He taught in one of the synagogues on the sabbath day. There was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years and was bent over. He healed her on the sabbath and defended the deed against the indignation of the ruler of the synagogue. Then he likened the kingdom of heaven to a grain of mustard seed and to leaven. (Luke 13:10-21)
- He went through all the cities and villages teaching and journeying toward Jerusalem for the feast of dedication. (Luke 13:22)
- One asked him if there would be only a few who would be saved. He replied that they must strive to enter in at the narrow gate. (Luke 13:23-30)
- On the same day, some of the Pharisees came to him and warned him to leave the area for Herod wanted to kill him. He gave that resolute answer. (Luke 13:31-35)
- It came to pass that he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to dine with him. There was one there who had the dropsy, whom he healed. He defended the deed, although done on the sabbath. He spoke a parable to them that were bidden to a feast and Jesus instructed the Pharisee who had invited him to dine. (Luke 14:1-14)
- When one of them who dined with him, heard these things, he said to him that blessed is he who shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. Jesus replied to him and propounded the parable of the great supper and of each excuse that those made who were invited. (Luke 14:15-24)
- There was a great multitude that went with him and he turned and preached to them, that life itself is to be surrendered for Christ. He propounded to them the parables of the man who was about to build a tower and of the king going to war. (Luke 14:25-35)
- There came to him all the publicans and sinners to hear him but the scribes and Pharisees murmured. He spoke to them the parables about the lost sheep, the lost coin and the prodigal son. (Luke 15:1-32)
- He told the disciples the parable of the unjust steward who was accused to his master and made a practical application from it. The Pharisees heard all these things and they were covetous and derided him. He then preached against them and taught many other things and told about the rich man who fared sumptuously and of Lazarus the beggar. (Luke 16:1-31)
- Jesus warned his disciples of those who cause offences. He taught that their brother who sinned against them, was to be forgiven. (Luke 17:1-9)
- Then the apostles asked Jesus to increase their faith. He replied about the power of faith and by the parable of the servant who came in after working, immediately ministered to his master. He showed them that they were unprofitable servants when they had done all that they were commanded for they had have done no more than what was their duty. (Luke 17:5-10)
- It came to pass as he went to Jerusalem, that he passed through the middle of Samaria and Galilee. He entered a certain village and ten lepers met him. After they were healed and were going to the priest as Jesus commanded, only one of them came back to Jesus to thank him and he was a Samaritan. (Luke 17:11-19)
- The Pharisees asked Jesus when the kingdom of God will come. Jesus replied that the kingdom of God will not come with observation but was within. He told his disciples that according to the days of Noah and Lot, so shall be the day in which the Son of Man shall be revealed, but he must first suffer many things. (Luke 17:20-37)
- He spoke to them a parable that they should always pray. He used the example of a widow who interceded with an unjust judge and contrasted this with God who is a just avenger. (Luke 18:1-8)
- He spoke also to some who thought that they were just and despised others. He told the parable about the Pharisee and publican praying in the temple. (Luke 18:9-14)
- At Jerusalem in the feast of the dedication in the winter time, Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch. The Jews came around him and asked how long he would keep them in suspence as to who he really was. He pointed to his miracles and said that he and his Father are one. Again they took up stones to stone him. He defended himself to be God, by the scriptures and by his works. They tried again to take him but he escaped from their hands. (John 10:22-39)
- He went again beyond the Jordan River into the place where John first baptized and stayed there and many came to him. As was his custom, he taught them and healed them and many believed on him there. (Mark 10:1; Matthew 19:1,2)
- The Pharisees came to him and tempted him and asked if it was lawful for a man to put away his wife for any reason. Jesus denied it and replied to the Pharisees who objected and said the bill of divorce was commanded by Moses. Jesus taught them the true meaning of marriage. When his disciples heard this, they said it was better for a man not to marry. (Mark 10:2-12; Matthew 19:3-12)
- They brought to him little children that he should lay his hands on them and pray. His disciples forbid them and Jesus rebuked them. After he had laid his hands on the children and blessed them, he departed from there. (Luke 18:15-17; Mark 10:13-16; Matthew 19:13-15)
- As Jesus was leaving on the way, a rich young ruler met him and asked him what he had to do to inherit eternal life and he called Jesus, Good Master." Jesus spoke concerning the title he gave him and pointed him to the commandments. He replied that he had kept them all and observed them and Jesus loved him. However, he told him to sell all that he had and give to the poor. He sent him away very sorry. Jesus inveighed bitterly against covetous rich men. Peter replied that they left everything to follow him. Jesus made notable promises to all who followed him especially to his twelve apostles. He added that many who were first would be last. He instructed them by a parable of labourers going into a vineyard for many were called but few were chosen. (Luke 18:18-30; Mark 10:17-31; Matthew 19:16-30)
- Lazarus of Bethany was sick. Therefore, his sisters sent to Jesus to tell him of his sickness. As soon as he heard that he was sick, he stayed two more days in the place where he was but later he told his disciples to go again into Judea. They reminded him that just recently the Jews tried to stone him there and and did he really want to go back again. Jesus replied that Lazarus sleeps, [speaking of his death, not of his sleep.] and that they should go to him. Thomas added that we may die with him. (John 11:1-16)
- When Jesus came near Bethany, he found that Lazarus had been buried four days in the grave. Martha came to meet him, they talked about the resurrection. Mary heard of it and came quickly to him. When Jesus saw her weep, he also wept and went to the grave. He asked them to remove the stone and thanked his Father for hearing him. Jesus called Lazarus from his grave. Thereupon many believed on him and some went to the Pharisees and told them what things Jesus had done.
- Therefore the Pharisees convened a council in which Caiaphas prophesied about Jesus. From that day on, they consulted together how they might put him to death. They ordered that if anyone knew where he was, he should tell them so they could take him. Therefore Jesus did not walk publicly among the Jews but went into a city called Ephraim and stayed there with his disciples. (John 11:17-54)
- As they were on the way up to Jerusalem, Jesus went ahead of them and they were afraid. He again took the twelve and began to tell them what things should happen to him but they did not understand. (Luke 18:31-34; Mark 10:32-34; Matthew 20:17-19)
- James and John, the sons of Zebedee, and their mother came to him and asked that they might sit in the kingdom, one on the right hand and the other on the left of Jesus. Jesus rebuked them and the rest were upset with those two disciples. Jesus admonished them all that he who would be great and first among them, must be the minister and servant of all. (Mark 10:35-45; Matthew 20:20-28)
- It came to pass when he came near Jericho, a certain blind man sat begging by the way side. When he asked who it was that passed by and he was told it was Jesus of Nazareth, he earnestly implored his mercy even though the crowd rebuked him. Jesus called to him and he received his sight and followed him glorifying God. (Luke 18:35-43)
- Jesus entered and passed through Jericho and saw Zacchaeus in a sycomore tree and told him he needed to stay at his house that day. (Luke 19:1-10)
- As they left the city of Jericho, a large crowd following him. He restored the sight to two blind men [of which one was Bartimaeus,] and they followed him. (Mark 10:46-52; Matthew 20:29-34)
- When they heard these things and because they were near Jerusalem, they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear. As they went, Jesus spoke the parable of the noble man that went into a far country who gave his ten servants ten pounds to invest until he returned. When he returned, he determined who had gained the most by trading. He rewarded each of them according to the proportion of their gain. (Luke 19:11-27)
- The passover was near and many went from the country up to Jerusalem before the passover to purify themselves. (John 11:55-57)
- Therefore six days before the passover, Jesus came to Bethany. They prepared a supper for him and Lazarus sat with him. Mary anointed his feet and wiped them with the hairs of her head. Jesus rebuked the criticism of Judas against her. Many people came there not only for Jesus' sake, but that they might see Lazarus. However, the chief priests consulted how they might put Lazarus to death also because many of the Jews believed on Jesus because of him. (John 12:1-11)
- When he had thus spoken, he went ahead and ascending up to Jerusalem. It came to pass when he was near Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount called the Mount of Olives [the 29th day of March] he sent two of his disciples for an ass colt that was tied. [Matthew makes mention of the she ass also.] (Luke 19:28-35; Mark 11:1-7; Matthew 21:1-7)
- Therefore, they brought the colt to Jesus and put their garments on the colt and set Jesus on the colt. Many people met him who came to the feast. Many cast their garments in the way and others cut down branches of trees and spread them in the way. When he came to the descent of the Mount of Olives, the crowd who went before him and those who followed behind cried, hosanna to the son of David. Some of the Pharisees told him to rebuke his followers. He replied he would not. Therefore, the Pharisees said among themselves that the whole world was gone after him. (John 12:12-19; Luke 19:36-40; Mark 11:8-10; Matthew 21:8,9)
- When he came near and saw the city, he wept over it. he predicted her utter destruction. When he entered into Jerusalem all the city was stirred and asked who he was. (Luke 19:41-44; Mark 11:10,11)
- Jesus went into the temple of God and cast out those who bought and sold in it and healed the blind and the lame in it. He justified the children who cried hosanna in the temple against the objections of the Pharisees and scribes. He taught daily in the temple they who heard him, were very attentive. However, the chief priests and elders of the people tried to destroy him. (Luke 19:45-48; Mark 11:11; Matthew 21:12-16)
- Some Greeks who came to worship at the feast wanted to see him. He told those that told him about these Greeks about his passion. He called on his Father and received an answer from heaven. Some thought it was thunder and others thought an angel spoke to him. He again spoke of the lifting of the Son of Man from the earth. He answered those who asked him who was the Son of Man? After he left there, he hid himself from them. When it was evening, he went with the twelve to Bethany. Although he had done so many miracles among them, they still did not believe on him that the word of Isaiah might be fulfilled. However, many of the rulers believed on him but did not confess him publicly for fear of the Pharisees. Jesus preached concerning faith in himself. (John 12:20-50; Mark 11:17)
- The next morning when he came from Bethany, he was hungry and saw a fig tree which only had leaves on it. He cursed it and it immediately withered. They came to Jerusalem and entered into the temple. He again expelled those who bought and sold and did not want anyone to carry a vessel through the temple. He taught them concerning faith in himself. However, the chief priests sought how they might destroy him for they feared him because all people were astonished at his doctrine. When evening came, Jesus left the city. (Mark 11:12-19; Matthew 21:18,19)
- The next morning as they passed by the fig tree, they saw that it was dried up from the roots which Peter noted. Jesus preached to them about the power of faith especially in prayers. They again came to Jerusalem and as he walked in the temple and taught the people, the chief priests, elders and scribes came to him and asked by whose authority he did these things. Jesus replied by asking them about John's baptism. He spoke to them the parable of the two sons and asked them which of the two did the will of the father and then applied it to them. He also told the parable of the vineyard that was rented out to husbandmen and of their killing of the heir of the vineyard and made an application of this also. Therefore, from that hour, they sought to take him but they feared the people for the people thought he was a prophet. Again he propounded to them the parable of the king's son and the refusals and excuses of some that were bidden and the wickedness and punishments of others, especially of him who was not wearing a proper wedding garment. Then the Pharisees went and took council how they might entangle him in his talk. Therefore they sent out to him their disciples with the Herodians who asked if it was lawful to pay tribute to Caesar. They were astonished at his answer and left him and went their way. (Luke 20:1-26; Mark 11:13-12:37; Matthew 21:19-22:46)
- The same day the Sadducees came to him and asked about a woman who had the seven brothers for her husband. They wanted to know who would be her husband in the resurrection. When the multitude heard his answer to prove the resurrection, they were astonished at his doctrine. Then a Pharisee, a lawyer, tempted him and asked which is the greatest commandment in the law? After Jesus had replied he asked the Pharisee whose son Christ is? No man was able to answer him a word neither dared any man from that day on ask him any more questions. (Luke 20:27-44)
- Then Jesus spoke to the multitude and to his disciples about the scribes and Pharisees. He pronounced a woe eight times against them and spoke to the city of Jerusalem and accused her of cruelty and obstinacy and foretold her desolation. (Luke 20:45-47; Mark 12:38-40; Matthew 23:1-39)
- As Jesus sat opposite the treasury, he commended a widow who cast in two mites more than those who cast in much more. (Luke 21:1-4; Mark 12:41-44)
- When he went out of the temple, his disciples showed him the buildings and its stones and he predicted its utter destruction. (Luke 21:5-36; Mark 13:1-37; Matthew 24:1-51)
- As Jesus sat on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, his disciples asked him when would these things happen and what would be the sign of his coming and the end of the world? He gave a lengthy reply concerning the sign and his coming. He warned them to watch and to be ready for they did not know the hour when the Lord would come. (Mark 13:1-37; Luke 21:1:36; Matthew 24:1-51)
- He taught the same things by the parable of the ten virgins as by the parable of the talents given to the servants to invest. He described the judgment of this world [perhaps as a type of that] by setting the sheep on the right hand and the goats on the left and passing sentence on each of them. By day, he taught in the temple but at night he went to the Mount of Olives. All the people came to him early in the morning and he taught them in the temple. (Luke 21:37,38; Matthew 25:1-46)
- When Jesus had finished these sayings, he told his disciples that after two days was the passover and the Son of Man would be betrayed to be crucified. The Jewish leaders consulted together in the palace of the high priest about how they might kill Jesus. They agreed that it should not be done on the feast day, lest there by a riot. (Mark 14:1,2; Matthew 26:1-5)
- When he was in the house eating with Simon the Leper, he defended a woman who poured an alabaster box of ointment on his head because his disciples murmured about this. He foretold his burial. (Mark 14:3-9; Matthew 26:6-13)
- Then Satan entered into Judas who was to betray Jesus to the Jewish leaders. (Luke 22:1-13; Mark 14:10,11; Matthew 26:14-16) The FOURTH PASSOVER in which CHRIST, our PASSOVER, was sacrificed, (1 Corinthians 5:7) and so put an end to all the legal sacrifices prefiguring this one. The beginning of the fourth or middle year of the last week of Daniel. (Daniel 9:27)
- On the first day of unleavened bread, when the passover was slain [April 2nd] his disciples asked Jesus where they should prepare it. He sent Peter and John into the city and told them that they would meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. They should follow him to his house and ask the owner of it for the use of the guest chamber. They would find the guest chamber already furnished by the good man of the house. (Mark 14:12-16; Matthew 26:17-19)
- In the evening Jesus went with the twelve disciples and ate supper. Jesus said that he had greatly desired to eat this passover with them before his sufferings. He took the cup and asked them to divide it among themselves. He said that he would no more eat of the passover or drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God would come. He also said that one of them would betray him. They began to be sorrowful and asked one by one, if it was he. Jesus replied that it was the man who dipped his hand with him in the dish. When Judas asked if it was him, Jesus said it was. (Luke 22:14-18; Mark 14:17-21; Matthew 26:20-25)
- While they were eating, he instituted the sacrament of his body and blood which were symbolised by the bread and the wine. After he had drank the wine, he said that he would not drink of the fruit of the vine after this until he would drink it anew with them in the kingdom of his Father. He stated that the one who would betray him was eating with them. Then they began to enquire among themselves if anyone among them would do this. (Luke 22:19-23; Mark 14:22-25; Matthew 26:25,26)
- There was also a dispute among them of who would be the greatest. After supper, Jesus arose and laid aside his garments. He took a towel and girded himself and began to wash and to wipe his disciple's feet. At first Peter refused to have this done to him but later he consented. After this, Jesus sat down and said that he had given them an example. Just as he had done, they should likewise wash one another's feet. Whoever would be the greatest among them, must become the least. He added moreover that he was not speaking about everyone for he knew whom he had chosen. When he had said these things, he was troubled in the spirit and said that one of them would betray him. Therefore his disciples looked at each other and were uncertain of whom he referred to. Peter beckoned to the beloved disciple that he should ask who it was. Jesus answered that it was the one to whom he gave the sop after dipping it. He gave it to Judas and told him to quickly do what he had to do. When Judas had received the sop, he went out immediately and it was night. (John 13:2-38; Luke 22:24-30)
- After Judas left, Jesus said that now was the Son of Man glorified and God was glorified in him. He admonished them of his sudden departure and of their mutual love one for another. He also said to Simon that Satan had desired to sift him as wheat. However, Jesus said he had prayed for him and that when he was converted, he was to strengthen his brethren. Peter too confidently replied that he would die for Jesus. Jesus replied that he would deny him three times before the cock crowed. Then Jesus told them all that he who has a purse let him take it and he who did not have a sword, go and buy one. They said they had two swords to which Jesus replied that it was enough. (Luke 22:31-38)
- Jesus anticipated their sorrow for his death and comforted them as he usually did. He answered the questions raised by Thomas, Philip and Judas, [who is also Lebbaeus, surnamed Thaddaeus, another of the sons of Alphaeus, and brother of James.] He promised them that the Holy Ghost would be their teacher and left his peace to them. Again he admonished them of his approaching death and of its joyful fruit. Then he said they should now leave. After they sang a hymn, they left for the Mount of Olives. (John 14:1-31; Mark 14:26; Matthew 26:30)
- On their way, he told them the parable of the vine and the branches and exhorted them to bring forth fruit and to remain in the love of God toward them. They should have mutual love one toward another and to endure patiently the hatred of the world which also hated Christ himself. They should not be offended by persecution. Again he comforted them for the sorrow they had about his approaching death, by the promise of sending them the Comforter. He would be the Spirit of Truth and witness against the world and help them. He warned them that in a little while, they would not see him. They did not understand what he meant. He explained it to them and said that their predicted sorrow would be turned into joy just as a woman rejoices who gives birth to a son. He predicted his return to them and told them of the love of the Father toward them and by his willingness to hear their petitions that they would make in his name. He said that he came from the Father into the world and he would again leave the world to return to the Father. His disciples said they now understood what he meant and believed that he came from God. Jesus replied that the time was now come when they all would be scattered and Christ would be left alone. At last he concluded with a most divine prayer to the Father for the mutual benefit of his own and the Father's glory, for the apostles and the whole company of believers. (John 15:1-17:26)
- When Jesus had spoken these things, he went with his disciples as was his custom and crossed over the brook Kidron to the Mount of Olives. Then Jesus told them that all of them would be offended because of him that night. However, after he was risen again, he would go ahead of them into Galilee. Peter replied that although everyone would be offended, yet he would not be. Jesus told Peter that before the cock crew, he would deny him three times. To this both he and all the disciples replied that although they would die with him, they would never deny him. (John 18:1; Luke 22:39; Mark 14:27-31; Matthew 26:31-36)
- Then they came into a place called Gethsemane where there was a garden. After Jesus had entered with his disciples, he told them to pray lest they fall into temptation. They were to sit there while he went away to pray. He took Peter and the two sons of Zebedee with him and began to be very sorrowful. He told them to stay there and watch. He went a little further about a stone's throw and kneeled down and prayed that this cup might pass from him. And there appeared an angel from heaven who strengthened him. Then he returned and found his disciples sleeping. He reprehended and admonished them and went the second time and prayed more earnestly. He was in an agony and he began to sweat as it were drops of blood. He came again and found them sleeping for sorrow for their eyes were heavy. He again admonished them and they did not know what to say. He then left them and went away again and prayed the same words. Then he returned to his disciples and told them to sleep and take their rest. The Son of Man was betrayed into the hands of sinners. He told them to get up and go for the man who betrayed him was close by. (Luke 22:40-46; Mark 14:32-42; Matthew 26:36-46)
- While he was speaking, Judas arrived who knew the place, [because Jesus often went there with his disciples.] He brought with him the chief priests, Pharisees, captains of the temple, elders of the people, officers and a band sent from them. They came there with lanterns and torches and a large number with swords and staves. Judas had given a sign and said the one they were after would be the one he kissed. Judas immediately kissed Jesus. Jesus asked Judas why he came and would he betray the Son of Man with a kiss. Jesus who knew all things that would happen to him, went out to them and asked who they were after. They said they wanted Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus told them he was the one. They went backwards and fell to the ground. He asked them again and answered them as he did the first time and added that if they were only after him, to let the disciples go their way. They took him. When those who were around him saw what would happen they asked him if they should fight for him. Peter struck off the right ear of Malchus, a servant of the high priest's. Jesus told Peter to put away his sword and if he wanted to, he could call down more than twelve legions of angels. He said that he should drink of the cup that his Father had given him and they should allow it to happen. Jesus touched Malchus' ear and healed him. Jesus asked the crowd why they came to him as if he were a thief with swords and staves. He told them that this was their hour and the power of darkness. Then all his disciples left him and fled. A certain young man [of their company] was laid hold on and left his linen cloth and fled naked from them. (John 18:3-11; Luke 22:47-53; Mark 14:43-52; Matthew 26:47-56)
- They bound Jesus and brought him first to Annas, the father-in-law of Caiaphas. Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest, who had previously prophesied that it was expedient that one man should die for the people. All the chief priests, elders and scribes of the people were gathered together. Caiaphas asked Jesus concerning his disciples and his doctrine. Jesus said he had spoken publicly and to ask those that heard him. Therefore one of the officers struck him with a staff. Jesus asked him that if he had answered well, why did he hit him? Then all the council looked for false witnesses against him and could not find any. Finally two false witnesses came but their testimony disagreed with each other. Caiaphas asked Jesus to reply to what these witnesses said against him but Jesus said nothing. Then Caiaphas adjured him that he should say whether he was the Christ. Jesus answered that he was and they would see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the power of God and coming in the clouds of heaven. Therefore they judged him guilty of death for this blasphemy. Then they mocked and spat on him. They cruelly beat him with buffets and staves. They covered his eyes and asked him who had hit him. They did many other things and they spoke reproachfully against him.
- Peter followed afar off to see the end of the matter. Another disciple accompanied him who was known to the high priest. He went with Jesus into the palace but Peter stood outside at the door whom that other disciple [who spoke to her who kept the door] had brought in. As Peter was warming himself at the fire that burned in the courtyard, [for it was cold] the maid who kept the door asked him and affirmed that he was one of his disciples. Peter denied it and claimed that he did not know him or what the maid spoke about. A little later, he went out into the porch and the cock crew. As he was going out another maid saw him and said to those that were there that Peter was with Jesus of Nazareth. Another person said to him that he was one of the disciples. Then Peter again denied it with an oath. About an hour later, those who stood by came and said to him that his accent gave him away. The cousin of Malchus who was among the rest said that he had seen Peter in the garden. While he was speaking, the cock crowed the second time. Then Jesus turned around and looked at Peter. Peter remembered the words of Jesus and went out and wept bitterly. (John 18:12-27; Luke 22:54-65; Mark 14:53-72; Matthew 26:57-75)
- As soon as it was day, the elders of the people, chief priests and the scribes came together and led him into their council and asked Jesus if he was the Christ? He replied that they would not believe him nor answer his questions nor let him go. Jesus said he was the Son of God and they replied that they did not need any more witnesses. (Luke 22:66-71)
- Immediately in the morning, the whole multitude arose and led him bound to Pontus Pilate the governor, from Caiaphas to the hall of judgment. [April 3rd] They did not go into the judgment hall lest they would be defiled and unable to eat the passover. When Jesus stood before the governor, Pilate asked the crowd what was his crime. They said that if he was not a criminal, they would not have brought Jesus to him. They accused Jesus of perverting the country and forbidding any to pay tribute to Caesar. They also said that Jesus claimed to be Christ a king. Jesus refused to answer them and Pilate asked him why he did not defend himself against their many accusations? Jesus did not answer Pilate even so much as a word so that Pilate marvelled. Then Pilate told the crowd to take him and judge him according to their law. They replied that they did not have the power to kill him. Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again and called for Jesus. He asked Jesus if he were the king of the Jews? Jesus asked Pilate if he asked the question of his own accord or did others tell that to him. Pilate retorted that he was not a Jew and that his own people and the chief priests had brought him to him. He asked Jesus what had he done. Jesus stated that his kingdom was not an earthly kingdom. Pilate asked if he were a king to which Jesus said that this was the reason he came into the world so that be might witness to the truth. Pilate asked him what was truth and then went out again to the Jews and said Jesus was innocent. The crowd was more hostile and said he had stirred up the people and taught through all the country of the Jews starting at Galilee to this place.
- When Pilate heard about Galilee, he asked Jesus if he were a Galilaean. When he knew that he belonged to Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod who was at Jerusalem in those days. Herod was exceedingly glad and hoped to see some miracle. Jesus would not answer Herod or the chief priests and scribes who vehemently accused him. After Herod had set Jesus at naught and mocked him, he sent him back to Pilate arrayed in a gorgeous robe. Both the governors became friends that same day.
- When Pilate had called the chief priests and the rulers and the people, he told them that both he and Herod found Jesus innocent. Therefore he would chastise Jesus and release him. It was the custom on every feast day, for the governor to free any prisoner the people wanted. The crowd cried out aloud and began to desire that he would do for them as he had always done. Therefore, Pilate called them and asked whether they wanted him to release the king of the Jews or Barabbas. Pilate knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy. However, they stirred up the people that Pilate should release Barabbas to them instead of Jesus. Barabbas was an infamous thief who was imprisoned for insurrection and murder in the city. When Pilate sat in the judgment seat, his wife sent him a message saying that he should have nothing to do with that just man because she had suffered may things in a dream because of him that day.
- Therefore, Pilate asked the crowd again whom they wanted to have released because he really wanted to release Jesus. However, they all cried out and said they did not want Jesus but Barabbas. Therefore Pilate asked them what he should do with the one they called the king of the Jews. They all cried out again and said he should be crucified. Pilate asked a third time what was his crime and he found him innocent. He would chastise him and let him go free. Then they cried more earnestly in loud voices that he should be crucified. Then Pilate took Jesus and scourged him. The soldiers made a crown of thorns and placed it on his head and clothed him with purple. They mocked him and greeted him as the king of the Jews and beat him with staves. Therefore, Pilate went out again to them and said that he brought Jesus out to them whom he found innocent. Jesus was led out wearing the crown of thorns and the robe. Pilate told them to look at Jesus. When the chief priests and officers saw him, they cried out and said to crucify him. Pilate told them to take and crucify him but that he was innocent. The Jews replied that he should die because he said he was the Son of God. When Pilate heard that, he was more afraid and went again into the judgment hall and asked Jesus where he came from. Jesus did not reply. Then Pilate admonished him to answer and bragged that he had the power to crucify him. Jesus answered that he could have no power unless it was given to him from above.
- From that time on, Pilate tried to release him but the Jews replied that if he did he was not Caesar's friend. When Pilate heard this, he brought out Jesus and sat in the judgment seat in the place called "the Pavement". It was the preparation for the passover and about the sixth hour [noon]. He told the Jews that here was their king. They cried out that he should be crucified. Pilate asked if he should crucify their king but the chief priests said that they had no king but Caesar. When Pilate saw he was getting nowhere and that he had a potential riot on his hands, he took some water and washed his hands before the crowd. He said that he was innocent of the blood of this just person. All the people replied that his blood would be on them and their children. Then to placate the multitude, Pilate released Barabbas. After he had scourged Jesus, he did as the crowd wanted and ordered Jesus to be crucified. (John 19:1-30; Luke 23:1-25; Mark 15:1-37; Matthew 27:11-31)
- When the soldiers of the governor had led Jesus into the hall called Praetorium, they called together the whole band. When they had stripped him, they put a scarlet robe on him. They made a crown of thorns and put it on his head and put a reed in his right hand. They bowed down and mocked him and greeted him as the king of the Jews. When they had spat on him, they took that reed and hit him on the head. After they had mocked him, they took off the purple robe from him and put his own clothes on him and led him out to be crucified.
- When Judas who had betrayed him, saw that he was condemned, he repented and brought the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests. He confessed his sin to them and after he cast the silver pieces into the temple, he went and hanged himself. They used the money to buy the potter's field that the prophesy might be fulfilled.
- Jesus went out carrying his cross. As they were leading him, they found Simon of Cyrene, who came from the country. They took him and compelled him to carry the cross after Jesus. There were two thieves that were led out with him to be crucified. There followed a great multitude of people and of women who lamented him. He turned to them and foretold the terrible destruction of Jerusalem. When they came to the place called Calvary, but in the Hebrew it is called Golgotha, they gave wine to him to drink which was mingled with myrrh and vinegar mingled with gall. When he had tasted it, he refused to drink it. They crucified him and the two thieves there, about the third hour [9 am]. One thief was on each side of him. Jesus prayed to his Father to forgive them because they did not know what they were doing.
- Pilate wrote a superscription in Hebrew, Greek and Latin, and put it on the cross. The chief priests asked Pilate to change it and he refused. After they had crucified him, they divided his garments into four parts, one piece for each soldier who worked on the execution. They cast lots for his seamless coat rather than divide it up so that the scripture might be fulfilled. They sat down and watched him there and the people stood and watched.
- Those who passed by reviled him and shook their heads. They told him to come down from the cross because he said he could destroy the temple and raise it up again in three days. Likewise, the chief priests and rulers with the people, mocked and scoffed him along with the scribes and elders. They said that he could save others but he could not save himself. If he really was the king of Israel and that Christ, the chosen of God, then he should come down from the cross and then they would believe him. They said he trusted in God to save him for Jesus claimed to be the Son of God. The soldiers also mocked him and came to him. They offered him vinegar and said that if he was really the king of the Jews, he should save himself.
- Also the thieves who were crucified with him, threw the same in his face. While one of them continued in his railing against him, the other was converted and rebuked the other thief. He asked Jesus to remember him when he came into his kingdom. Jesus promised him that today he would be with him in paradise.
- His mother stood by his cross, as well as his mother's sister, Mary, the wife of Cleophas and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus' mother and the disciple whom he loved was standing beside her, he said to his mother to behold her son and to the disciple to behold his mother.
- When the sixth hour [noon] was come, there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour [3 pm]. In the ninth hour [3 pm], Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eli Eli", or, " Eloi Eloi Lamia sabachthani." Some who stood by said that he called for Elijah. After this, when Jesus knew that all things were accomplished so that the scripture might be fulfilled, he said he was thirsty. Beside the cross there was a vessel full of vinegar. They filled a spunge with vinegar and put it upon hyssop or a reed. They put it to his mouth and said with the rest that they would wait and see if Elijah would come and take him down from the cross. When Jesus had received the vinegar, he said that it was finished. He again cried with a loud voice and commended his spirit to his Father. Jesus bowed his head and gave up the ghost. When the centurion saw that he had so cried out and died, he glorified God and testified that certainly this was an innocent man and the Son of God. (Luke 23:26-46; Mark 15:38-42; Matthew 27:32-50)
- The vail of the temple was ripped in two from the top to the bottom and there was an earthquake and the rocks were split. The graves were opened and many bodies of the saints who had died, arose, and came out of the graves after his resurrection and went into Jerusalem and appeared to many. When the centurion and those who stood around Jesus saw the earthquake and the things that were done, they were terrified and testified that certainly this was the Son of God. Then all the people who came to watch the crucifixion beat their chests and returned home. His acquaintances and the women who followed him from Galilee, stood a far off and saw these things. Among them was Salome, Mary Magdalene and Mary, the mother of James the Less and Joses. When he was in Galilee, these followed and ministered to him along with many other women who came up to Jerusalem with him. (Luke 23:47-49; Matthew 27:51-56)
- The Jews did not want the bodies to remain on the cross on the sabbath because it was the preparation, [for that sabbath was an high day. They asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken down. Therefore the soldiers came and broke the legs of the two thieves but not of Jesus because he was already dead. One of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear and there immediately came out blood and water. These things were done so that the scripture might be fulfilled. (John 19:31-37)
- When evening came, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, Joseph of Arimathea came to Pilate. Joseph was a rich man and an honourable councillor who also looked for the kingdom of God. He was a good and just man and had not consented in the council to their plans. He was a secret disciple for fear of the Jews but he came boldly to Pilate and begged the body of Jesus. Pilate marvelled that Jesus was already dead and questioned a centurion about Jesus. When Pilate knew it, he gave the body to Joseph. Nicodemus [who first came to Jesus at night] brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes about an hundred pound weight. Therefore they took the body of Jesus and wound it in a linen cloth with the spices as the manner of the Jews was in burying a body. When Joseph had wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, he laid it in his own new sepulchre which he had hewn from a rock which was never used previously. The sepulchre was in a garden in the place where Jesus was crucified. Joseph rolled a large stone to the door of the sepulchre. Mary Magdalene, and Mary the Mother of Joses, who came with Jesus from Galilee saw where they had laid him and sat opposite the sepulchre. They returned and prepared spices and ointments and rested on the sabbath day according to the commandment.
- The next day [April 4th] the Pharisees asked Pilate that he secure the sepulchre until the third day because Jesus said he would arise on the third day. When Pilate agreed, they went and secured the sepulchre. They sealed the stone and set a watch. (John 19:38-42; Luke 23:50-56; Mark 15:42-47; Matthew 27:57-61)
- When the sabbath was over, [April the 5th] and it dawned toward the first day of the week, very early in the morning while it was still dark, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James, and Salome came with spices. They came to see the sepulchre and anoint Jesus. They wondered who would roll away the stone from the door for them. When the sun was risen, they came to the sepulchre and they saw the stone was rolled away. There was a great earthquake for the angel of the Lord came down from heaven and rolled away the stone and sat upon it. The women went in and did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. They were very perplexed by this when two men came to them in shining clothes and their faces were as lightning and their garments white as snow. Matthew and Mark mention only one angel. The guards shook for fear and became as dead men. When the women were afraid and bowed their faces to the earth, the angels told them not to be afraid for they were seeking Jesus who was crucified. They told them he was not dead but alive. They invited the women to see the sepulchre for themselves. They reminded them that when Jesus was still in Galilee with them, he told them that the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, be crucified and the third day rise again. The angels told them to quickly go and tell his disciples and Peter that he was risen again from the dead. Also they said that Jesus went ahead of them to Galilee and they would see him there. Then the women remembered the words of Jesus and they left quickly from the sepulchre with fear, wonder and great joy. They ran to tell his disciples but they said nothing to any man [as they went] for they were afraid. When the women had told these things to the eleven and to all the rest, their words seemed as idle tales. However, Mary Magdalene told Peter and the other disciple whom Jesus loved that they had taken away the Lord and they did not know where they had laid him.
- Peter and that other disciple left for the sepulchre but the other disciple outran Peter and came first to the sepulchre. When he stooped down, he saw the linen cloths lying there but did not go in. Then Peter came and went into the sepulchre and saw the linen clothes lying there and the napkin that was about his head not lying with the linen clothes but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then the other disciple went in and saw and believed and Peter went to his own home wondering about what had happened. As yet they did not know the scriptures that he must rise again from the dead. The disciples went to their own home.
- However Mary Magdalene stood outside the sepulchre and wept. While she wept, she stooped down into the sepulchre and saw two angels in white sitting there, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had been. They asked her why she wept. She told them that they had taken away her Lord and she did not know where they had laid him. When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing but did not know that it was Jesus. Jesus asked her why she wept and whom she was looking for. She thought the man was the gardener and asked that if he had taken the body away, to show her where he had put the body. Jesus said "Mary" and she immediately recognised him. Jesus told her not to touch him for he had not yet ascended to his Father. She was to go and tell his brethren. She went and told his disciples and those that had been with him as they were weeping and mourning that she had seen the Lord and that he had said these things to her. They did not believe her. The women went from the sepulchre [perhaps Mary Magdalene was absent] that they might tell his disciples. Jesus met with the women and greeted them and they all came and held him by the feet and worshipped him. Jesus told them not to be afraid but to tell his brethren to go into Galilee and meet Jesus there.
- When they were going, some of the guard went into the city and told the chief priests all the things that had happened. When they were assembled with the elders, they took counsel that they would give a large amount of money to the soldiers. The soldiers were to say that his disciples came by night and stole the body away while they slept. If the governor heard about this, they said they would protect the soldiers from any harm. So they took their money and did as they were told. This saying is commonly reported among the Jews to this day. (John 20:1-18; Luke 24:1-12; Mark 16:1-11; Matthew 28:1-15)
- Two of Jesus' followers went into the country that same day to the village of Emmaus which was about 7.5 miles from Jerusalem. As they journeyed, Jesus went along with them and they told him what things had happened in those days about Jesus of Nazareth. He was crucified and was supposed to rise again on the third day. Jesus showed them from the scriptures that it was necessary for Christ to suffer and to enter into his glory. In the village, when he had taken bread and given thanks and broke it and given it to them, he revealed himself to them and their eyes were opened although he appeared in another form. He vanished from their sight. They left the same hour and returned to Jerusalem to the eleven and those that were with them. They told these two that the Lord had risen indeed and had appeared to Simon. Then they told them what things had happened on the way and how he was known of them in the breaking of bread. They did not believe them. (Luke 24:13-35; Mark 16:12,13)
- While they were still talking in the evening of the first day of the week, they had the doors shut for fear of the Jews. Jesus appeared and stood in their midst and greeted them. They were terrified and frightened and thought they had seen a spirit. However he upbraided them for their unbelief and hardness of heart because they had not believed those who had seen him since he had risen. He asked them why they were troubled and he showed them his hands and his feet and said that a spirit does not have flesh and bones. He showed them his hands, feet and his side. When they did not believed for joy and wondered, he asked them if there was anything to eat and he ate a piece of broiled fish, and an honey comb. The disciples rejoiced that they had seen the Lord. Jesus told them that what had happened was exactly what he had told them would happen so that all things would be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, the prophets and in the Psalms about Christ. Then he opened their understandings so that they might understand the scriptures. He told them it was necessary for Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day so that repentance and remission of sins could be preached in his name among all countries. He said they were witnesses of these things. He gave them the promise from his Father. They were to stay at Jerusalem until they were endued with power from on high. Again he greeted them and said that as his Father had sent him, so he would send them. They were to go into all the world and preach the gospel to everyone. He who believed and was baptized would be saved but he who did not believe, would be damned. He would give them signs to authenticate their message. In the name of Jesus, they would cast out demons and speak in new languages. They would take up serpents and if they drank any deadly thing, it would not hurt them. They would lay their hands on the sick and they would recover. After he had said all these things, he breathed on them and told them to receive the Holy Ghost. Whomever sins they remitted, they would be remitted to them. Whomever sins they retained, they would be retained. [Thus Jesus appeared five times on the very first day of his resurrection.] (John 20): 19-23; (Luke 24:36-49; Mark 14:14-18)
- Thomas, who was called Didymus and one of the twelve, was not with them when Jesus came. When the rest of the disciples told him, that they had seen the Lord, he very confidently professed that he would not believe it. After eight days, [April 12th] Thomas was present with the rest and Jesus came when the doors were shut. He stood in their midst and greeted them and abundantly satisfied Thomas' unbelief. (John 20:24-29; Luke 24:16-20)
- Then the eleven disciples went into Galilee to the mountain where he told them to meet him. When they saw him, they worshipped him but some doubted. When Jesus came to them, he said that he had all power and they were to go and tell the gospel message to everyone. He promised to be with them to the end of the world. After that, Jesus was seen by more than five hundred brethren at once and after that by James. (1 Corinthians 15:6,7; Matthew 28:16-20)
- Later Jesus showed himself to his disciples again at the sea of Tiberias or at least to seven of them as they were fishing. After they had fished all night and caught nothing, Jesus was standing on the shore and they did not recognise him. He told them to cast their net on the right side of the boat where they caught 153 large fish. Jesus bid them to come and dine with him and no one dared ask him who he was for they knew it was the Lord. When they had dined, he warned Peter three times of his pastoral charge. Jesus foretold the kind of death he would die. When Peter asked about John, Jesus replied but his answer was incorrectly understood by the brethren. (John 21:1-24)
- Last of all, he appeared to his disciples in Jerusalem and led them out as far as Bethany. He lifted up his hands and blessed them. It came to pass as he blessed them, he was parted from them and carried up into heaven. (Luke 24:50,51; Mark 16:19)
- Here ends the history of the acts of Christ by the four evangelists including his forerunner, John the Baptist. Josephus had a short note of honourable mention about John the Baptist. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.7.
)"Herod the Tetrarch, killed John, surnamed the Baptist, who was a most excellent man. He motivated the Jews to the study of virtues especially of piety and justice. He encouraged them to be baptised which he said would be acceptable to God, if they made use of it, not for the remission of their sins only but first having their minds purged through righteousness then they would also purify the body. Many went out to him especially the common people who were pleased with his words. Herod feared lest the great authority of the man would cause some rebellion because they seemed as though they would listen to nothing which he advised them. He thought it safer to take him out of the way before there was any sedition rather than act when it was too late. Therefore he commanded him to be sent prisoner to Macharas and then to be put to death."
- Josephus stated this about Christ, our Lord: (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.4,5.
)"At the same time there was a wise man named Jesus, if we may call him a man. He was a worker of miracles and a teacher of those who willingly receive the truth. He had many Jews and Gentiles who followed him and was believed to be the Christ. When Pilate had crucified him through the envy of our rulers, nevertheless those who first loved him continued loyal in their love for him and he appeared to them alive the third day. The prophets in their prophesies foretold both these and many other powerful things concerning him. The Christians [named after him] continue to this very day."
- Thus Jerome in his book of ecclesiastical writers has translated this place. His reading is: "He was believed to be the Christ."
- is preferred before that of Eusebius. (Eusebius, History Eccles., c.11.) or Rufinus or as it is in our books: "This was the Christ."
- It is clear that Josephus came no nearer to our religion than King Agrippa to whom he was most devoted whose confession to Paul was: (Acts 26:28) "Almost you have persuaded me to be a Christian."
- Cornelius Tacitus stated: "Christ was put to death by Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea in the reign of Tiberius." (Tacitus, Annals, l.15. c.43.?)
- Lucian the martyr in Rufinus testifies to the darkness at that time by appealing to the writings of the heathen themselves. (Eusebius, History Eccles., l.9. c.6.) "Search your writings and you shall find in Pilate's time when Christ suffered that the sun was suddenly withdrawn and a darkness followed."
- Before him Tertulian (Tertulian, Apologetic to the Gentiles, c.21.) stated: "At the same moment the day was withdrawn even when the sun was at the height. Those that never knew that this also was spoken concerning Christ, judged it to be nothing but an eclipse. However, you shall find this event that happened to the world, recorded even on your own monuments."
- Thallus, (Thallus, Histories, l.3) called this an eclipse and Phlegon of Tralles (Phlegon, Chronicles, l.13.) also called it an eclipse. [Thallus lived at the time of these events and wrote a history starting from the Trojan War down to the death of Christ. (*Oxford Classical Dictionary, p. 1491.) Phlegon lived at the time of Hadrian and wrote a history starting from the first Olympiad down to 140 AD. (*Oxford Classical Dictionary, p. 1172.), Editor.] Thallus was quoted by Julius Africanus in his third chronography. Africanus was a contemporary of Origen. Phlegon was quoted in Origin's book (Origin, against Celsus, p. 83,99. Greek edition) and in his 35th tract. Phlegon stated that at the 19th year of Tiberius [as Eustathius Antiochus notes in Hexameron] and the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad [e.g. 33 AD] are these words. [Ussher has a large quote from the Greek from Origin. Editor.] Jerome translated this in Eusebius' Chronicle to Latin. [Ussher has a large quote in Latin from Jerome translation of Eusebius. Editor.] The English translation is: "There was a large and most famous eclipse that has ever happened. The day was so turned into night at the sixth hour [noon] so that the stars were seen. An earthquake also in Bithynia destroyed many houses in the city of Nice."
- [Sir Robert Anderson, (*Anderson, The Coming Prince, p. 104.) gives the dates for the passover from 22 AD to 37 AD. Note that the passover would start at sundown for the previous day and end at sundown for the date shown. The passover meal would be eaten the previous evening. These are: Year Passover AD Day Date 22Sunday April 22 23Thursday March 25 24Wednesday April 12 25 Sunday April 1 26 Thursday March 21 27 Wednesday April 9 28 Monday March 29 29 Sunday April 17 30 Thursday April 6 31Tuesday March 27 32Monday April 14 33Friday April 3 34Tuesday March 23 35 Monday April 11 36 Friday March 30 37 Thursday April 18
- Anderson independently confirmed the date for passover that Ussher computed for 33 AD hence we assume his other calculations are equally accurate. He stated at length in his book how these were done so it appears he did his homework well. The day of the week was calculated independently by the editor using the the Online Bible Calendar program and was not included with the original materal by Anderson. Ironically, Anderson selected 32 AD date as the year that Christ died and goes to great pains to show why the Jews celebrated the passover on the wrong day, that is on Friday not Monday. The only plausible date from the list (Isaiah 33) AD for Good Friday as the only other date for Good Friday would be in 36 AD which is too late. This independently confirms the writings of Phlegon. Editor.]
- From the history of the gospels about the sayings and acts of Christ, Luke makes this transition to the Acts of the Apostles. "The former treatise I have made O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began to do and teach, until the day [of our May 14th.] in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost, had given commandments to his apostles whom he had chosen: to whom also he showed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days and speaking of things pertaining to the kingdom of God." (Acts 1:1-3)
- When they were assembled together with them, the Lord commanded them that they should not leave Jerusalem but should wait for the promise of the Father which was the soon baptism of the Holy Ghost. (Acts 1:4,5; Acts 11:16) The apostles asked the Lord, if he would at this time restore the kingdom to Israel. He replied that it was not for them to know the times that the Father had put in his own power. However, they would receive the Holy Ghost and would bear witness of him, not only in Jerusalem, Judea and Samaria, but to the uttermost parts of the earth. After he had spoken these things while they saw him, he was taken up and a cloud received him from their sight. They were also instructed by two angels who suddenly appeared in white clothes. They said that he would come again [for judgment] in the very same way as they now saw him go up into heaven. (Acts 1:6-11)
- When they had worshipped him, they returned to Jerusalem with great joy (Luke 24:52) from the Mount of Olives which was a sabbath day's journey from there. (Acts 1:12) The Syrian version writes seven furlongs [about 7/8 of a mile.] Likewise does Theophylact based on Josephus. However, our copies of Josephus read that the Mount of Olives was either 5 furlongs [5/8 of a mile] (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.6.) or 6 (Josephus, Wars, l.5. c.8.) as the Greek, or (Josephus, l.6. c.3.) as the Latin copy has it.
- The eleven apostles stayed in an upper room in Jerusalem and continued with one accord in prayer with the women, Mary the mother of Jesus and his brothers. (Acts 1:13,14)
- In those days, Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples, who numbered abut 120, and spoke to them about choosing a successor for the traitor Judas. He had thrown himself down headlong and burst in the midst. When they had prayed, they cast lots between Joseph, called Barsabas, and Matthias. The lot fell to Matthias and he was chosen to be numbered with the apostles. (Acts 1:15-26)
- On the day of Pentecost [May 24th] when all the 120 were assembled together with one accord, there suddenly came a sound from heaven like a mighty rushing wind and it filled all the house where they sat. There appeared to them cloven tongues like of fire which sat on each of them and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost. They began to speak with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance. At Jerusalem were devout Jews from every country under heaven. When they heard these speaking in their own languages the wonderful things of God, they were all amazed. However others profanely derided the miracle. Peter, in a most grave sermon, refuted their charge of drunkenness since it was only the third hour [9 am] of the day. [9 am] He then expounded to them about Christ from the law and the prophets and proved that he was risen. Through the power of the Spirit, 3000 were converted. Peter commanded them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for remission of sins. (Acts 2:1-41)
- They continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship. They broke bread and prayed. Fear came upon every soul and the apostles performed many signs and wonders. All who believed were together and had all things common and sold their possessions and goods. They gave them to all men according to their needs. They continued daily with one accord in the temple and broke bread from house to house. They ate with gladness and singleness of heart. They praised God and had favour with all the people. The Lord added daily to the church such as should be saved. (Acts 2:42-47)
- Peter and John went up together into the temple about the hour of prayer which was the ninth hour. [3 pm] At the gate of the temple, called "Beautiful", they healed in the name of Christ, a man who had been lame from his birth who was about 40 years old. For this reason, the people came running into Solomon's porch. Peter expounded the mystery of salvation through Christ and upbraided their ingratitude and exhorted them to repentance. Many who heard him believed and the number of men were about 5000. However, the priests and rulers of the temple with the Sadducees came and took Peter and John and put them in prison until the next day because it was then evening. The next day the council was convened [in which were Annas the high priest who was the president of the council along with Caiaphas and John and Alexander and as many as were of the high priest's relatives.] The apostles were called in question about the miracles they had done. They boldly defended the cause of Christ and the council forbid them to speak any more in the name of Christ. The apostles replied that it was better to obey God than men. They were threatened and released. The apostles returned to their own home, where, together with the whole church, they poured out fervent prayer to God for the propagation of the gospel. The Lord answered this prayer by causing an earthquake and sending his Holy Spirit into their hearts. (Acts 3:1-4:37)
- The multitude of those who believed had one heart and one soul and they had all things in common. No one lacked anything because as many as had lands or houses, went and sold them. They brought the money and laid it down at the apostles' feet to be distributed to the poor. Josephus or Joses, a Levite, from Cyprus surnamed by the apostles, Barnabas, [e.g. the son of consolation] set the first example by selling his possessions. (Acts 4:32-37)
- Ananias and Sapphira his wife, fraudulently agreed together to keep back some of the money they received for the land they sold. They lied and said they had given the whole amount. They were struck dead by the word and rebuke only of Peter who exposed the fraud and avenged it by the power of the Holy Ghost to whom they had lied. Great fear fell on all the church and on as many as heard of these things. (Acts 5:1-11)
- The apostles performed many miracles among the people and they were all together with one accord in Solomon's Porch. None of the rest dared join them however the people magnified them and the Lord added more believers to the church. They brought the sick into the streets that at the very least when the shadow of Peter passed over them, they would be healed. A large multitude came from the cities around Jerusalem and brought the sick and those who were vexed with unclean spirits and they were all healed. (Acts 5:12-16)
- The high priest and the Sadducees who were with him, were envious and cast the apostles into prison. In the night they were freed by an angel and told to teach the people boldly and without fear. When they were brought to the council, they escaped death through the advice of Gamaliel a Pharisee. He was a doctor of the law and held in much esteem among the people. After they had been scourged, they were freed. They left the council rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for the name of Jesus. They taught daily in the temple. (Acts 5:17-42)
4037 AM, 4746 JP, 33 AD
- The number of believers increased at Jerusalem and the money that came in helped support the poor of the church. There arose [as it commonly happens among a multitude] a murmuring of the Greeks against the Hebrews because they thought their widows were neglected in the daily distribution of the church's money. The apostles did not have time to be involved in distributing the gifts from the rich of the church to the poor or to manage the money that came in from the sale of property for the church. Seven men were chosen to be stewards of the church's goods and manage that service. These were Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas and Nichoias, a proselyte of Antioch. [It was evident because they all had Greek names that in this selection, there was no way the Greeks could say they were ignored.] The word of the Lord increased and the number of the disciples was multiplied at Jerusalem and many of the priests were obedient to the faith. (Acts 6:1-7)
- Stephen did many wonders and miracles among the people and stoutly defended the cause of Christ against the Jews of the synagogue of the Libertines [those freed by their masters], Cyrenians, Alexandrians and of those from Cilicia and Asia. He disputed with them about Christ and when they could not resist the wisdom and spirit by which he spoke, they falsely accused him. They captured him and brought him before the council. They had false witnesses who would swear that they heard him speak blasphemous words against the temple and the law. (Acts 6:8-15)
- In a long speech before the high priest [Annas] and the council, Stephen showed that the true worship of God was observed by Abraham and his posterity before the temple was built by Solomon and even before Moses was born. He stated that Moses testified of Christ and that the outward ceremonies that were given to their fathers, were only to last for a time. Then, he sharply reprehended the Jews because they had always resisted the Holy Ghost and had wickedly put Christ to death whom the prophets had foretold would come into the world. Thereupon, the council was mad with rage and they cast that holy man out of the city and stoned him to death while he was praying for them. (Acts 7:1-60)
- Before the witnesses [according to the law, (Deuteronomy 17:7)] were about to throw the first stones at Stephen, they laid their garments at a young man's feet called Saul. He watched their clothes and consented to the death of Stephen. (Acts 7:58; Acts 8:1) 22:20) Saul was a man, an Hebrew of the Hebrews, of the tribe of Benjamin, born at Tarsus in Cilicia which Strabo stated was a famous city for the study of philosophy and the liberal sciences. (*Strabo, l.14. 6:347) Saul was of the sect of the Pharisee and the son of a Pharisee. At that time he studied divinity in Jerusalem in the synagogue of the Cilicians. He frequented the school of Gamaliel who was that famous doctor among the Pharisees and a most strict observer of the law of Moses and of the traditions delivered to the fathers. ((Acts 21:39; Acts 22:3) 23:6,34 26:4,5; (2 Corinthians 11:22; Galatians 1:14; Philippians 3:5,6)
- Devout men carried Stephen to his burial and made a great lamentation for him. (Acts 8:2)
- Aelius Lamia died at Rome who was the absentee governor of Syria. Flaccus Pomponius, the true governor of Syria, died in the province. (Tacitus, Annals, 6. c.27.; Suetonius, Tiberius, c.42.)
- Herod Agrippa had his daughter Mariamme by Cypros, ten years before his death. (Josephus, l.18. c.7.
l.19. c.ult. )
- There arose a great persecution after the death of Stephen against the whole church which was at Jerusalem. (Acts 8:1; Acts 11:19) Saul in an exceedingly great rage, made havock of the church. He received authority from the chief priests and he testified against the saints who were killed. He also entered into every house and took captive men and women. He bound and put them in prison and often beat them in every synagogue. He compelled some to deny Christ and to blaspheme while he persecuted to death others who kept the faith. (Acts 8:1; Acts 9:13,21) 22:4,5,19 26:9-11; Ga 1:13,23Php 3:6; (1 Timothy 1:13)
- This persecution dispersed the church into various countries but was for the great advantage of the church. The apostles were left alone at Jerusalem while the rest, of whom there were some thousands, (Acts 2:41; Acts 4:4) were dispersed into the regions of Judea and Samaria. They preached the gospel wherever they went. (Acts 8:1-4) Others went to Damascus, (Acts 9:19,25) among whom was Ananias, a devout man according to the law and one who had a good report among all the Jews who lived there. (Acts 22:12) It is very likely that others went even to Rome itself and among them Junias and Andronicus who were of note among the apostles and relatives of this persecutor, Paul. They had embraced the faith before him. (Romans 16:7) Others travelled as far as Phenice, Cyprus and Antioch and preached the word of God to the Jews only. (Acts 11:19) That is to those who were dispersed among the Gentiles. (James 1:1; 1 Peter 1:1)
- Philip was among those who went to Samaria. He was the second in order after Stephen the first martyr among the seven that were chosen. (Acts 8:5; Acts 21:8) Philip came into the city of Samaria and preached Christ there. The people with one accord listened to what he said. They saw the miracles which he did, for unclean spirits cried out with a loud voice and came out of many. He healed many who were stricken with palsies and who were lame. There was great joy in that city and many men and women believed and were baptized. Also Simon Magus listened to Philip. For a long time Simon had bewitched the people of Samaria with his sorceries. Everyone said this was the great power of God. When Simon saw the great signs and wonders which Philip did, he believed and was baptized also. (Acts 8:5-13)
- When the apostles, who were at Jerusalem, heard that Samaria had received the word of the Lord, they sent Peter and John to them. When they prayed and laid their hands on them, the new converts received the Holy Ghost. When Simon Magus saw this, he offered them money so that he also might receive the gift of conferring the Holy Ghost. Peter sharply rebuked his mad impiety and warned him to repent of his wickedness and to ask pardon from God. Simon desired the apostles to pray for him to the Lord. When they had completed their ministry in those regions, they returned to Jerusalem and preached the gospel in the villages of Samaria as they went. (Acts 8:14-25)
- After many ages had past, a bird called the Phoenix returned to Egypt and the learned Egyptians and the Greeks discussed many things about this miracle. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c. 28.) Dio stated that this bird appeared in Egypt two years later. (*Dio, l.58. 7:253)
- Philip the tetrarch who was always reputed a modest man and a lover of ease and quietness, died in the twentieth year of Tiberius. He had governed Trachonitis, Gaulanitis, and Batanaea for thirty seven years and died at Julias. He was put in a monument that he built previously for himself in which he was magnificently and sumptuously interred. Since he died without children, Tiberius annexed that principality to the province of Syria. However, the tributes which were collected in this tetrarchy, were to be kept within the borders of that country. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.6.
- At Rome in this twentieth year of Tiberius' reign, the consuls, Lucius Vitellius and Fabius Priscus held the ten years games that they might as it were extend the government for him, as it used to be done to Augustus. (*Dio, l.58. 7:247)
- In this year, [as Dio has it] or three years later [as Tacitus hints at the end of the fifth book of his annals] this story is told. A certain young man said that he was Drusius Germanicus' son. He was seen first in the islands of the Cyclades and soon after that on the continent of Greece and Ionia. He was attended by some of Caesar's freed men. The ignorant were allured by the fame of his name and by the minds of the Greeks ready for new and wonderful things. For they pretended and also believed that if he could get from those who kept him, he would go to his father's armies and would invade Egypt or Syria. When Poppaeus Sabinus heard these things, who was in charge of Macedonia and Achaia, he entered Nicopolis which was a Roman colony. There he knew that the young man who when he was more closely examined, had said that he was Marcus Silanus' son and that many of his followers had sailed away and he sailed as if he would go to Italy. Tacitus says he was never seen again and this was the end of the matter. However, Dio added that this impostor was willingly received by the cities and strengthened with troops. He would have had without doubt come into Syria and taken over the armies had not someone recognised him and apprehended him and sent him to Tiberius. (Tacitus, Annals, l. 5. c.10.; *Dio, l.58. 7:249)
4038 AM, 4747 JP, 34 AD
- Philip the Evangelist, was directed by an angel and went to Gaza which is a desert. See note on 3672 AM <<1827>>. He met an eunuch, who had the charge of the treasure of Candace, the queen of the Ethiopians, [in Meroe] and was returning in his chariot from Jerusalem where he had been to worship. He was reading from Isaiah when the Spirit told Philip to go to him. Philip instructed him in the faith of Christ and baptized him. Philip was immediately caught away out of his sight by the Spirit of the Lord and was found at Azotus. He passed through the country and he preached the gospel in all the cities until he came to Caesarea. (Acts 8:26-40)
- Saul was still breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord and obtained letters from the high priest [Annas, (Acts 4:6) and the council of which he was then president] for the synagogues of Damascus. They stated that if he found any who were Christians, he was to bring them bound to Jerusalem so that they might be punished. As he came near Damascus at noon, a light from heaven brighter than the sun shone around him and those who were with him. When they had all fallen to the earth, he heard a voice speaking to him in the Hebrew language: "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks." (Acts 26:16)
- He asked who it was and was told: "I am Jesus of Nazareth whom thou persecutest, but rise and stand upon thy feet, I have appeared to thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness both of those things that thou hast seen and of those things in the which I will appear to thee; delivering thee from the people, and from the Gentiles, to whom now I send thee, to open their eyes, and turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among them that are sanctified by faith that is in me." (Acts 26:15-18)
- Saul was trembling and full of fear and asked what the Lord would have him do. He was told to go to Damascus and await further instructions. The men who journeyed with Saul were so amazed that they were speechless. They saw the light and heard a sound of words but did not see Christ who spoke nor understood anything that he spoke. ((Acts 9:1-7; Acts 22:5-14) 26:12-18)
- Saul arose from the earth and was blinded with the glory of the light. They led him by the hand to Damascus (Acts 9:8; Acts 22:11) where he stayed for three days without sight and did not eat or drink. Now there was a certain disciple named Ananias, to whom the Lord spoke by a vision. He was told to go to the street called Straight and enquire for Saul of Tarsus in the house of Judas. The Lord told him that Saul was praying. [Then Saul saw in a vision, Ananias coming and laying his hands on him that he might receive his sight.] Ananias objected that he had heard of this fellow and he had power from the religious leaders in Jerusalem to take all the Christians. The Lord told Ananias to go, for Saul would become a great missionary and witness for Christianity and would suffer much for it. Ananias went to the house and laid his hands on Saul. He told Saul that Jesus had appeared to him on his way to Damascus and he had come to restore his sight and to anoint him with the Holy Ghost. Immediately, there fell from his eyes as it were scales and he received his sight. (Acts 9:9-18)
- Ananias told him: "The God of our fathers hath chosen thee, that thou shouldest know his will, and see that just one, and shouldest hear the voice from his mouth, for thou shalt be a witness before all men, of those things that thou hast heard and seen: and now why tarriest thou? arise and be baptized and be washed from thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord." (Acts 22:14-16)
- Saul arose and was baptized. He ate and was strengthened. (Acts 9:18,19)
- Luke does not tell us in Acts what was revealed from the Lord to Saul at Damascus that he should do. We learn what happened immediately after his conversion from the book of Galatians. He was told not to confer with men nor go to Jerusalem to the apostles but should spend some time in Arabia or places near Damascus. There he would receive the knowledge of the gospel not from men but directly from Jesus Christ. ((Galatians 1:12,16,17).)
- After this, Saul returned to Damascus (Galatians 1:17) and spent a few days with the disciples. He immediately preached in the synagogues that Christ was the Son of God. They were all amazed who heard these things, and said that is not this the one who came from Jerusalem to bind the Christians to take them back to Jerusalem. Saul increased in strength more and more and confounded the Jews who dwelt at Damascus and taught that Jesus was the Christ. (Acts 9:19-22) He first preached the gospel to the Jews who lived in Damascus. (Acts 26:20)
- Tiberius was informed by Pilate from Palestine, concerning the affairs of Christ. Tiberius proposed to the senate that Christ should be considered one of the gods. The senate opposed this but Tiberius did not change his mind and threatened that: "it would be dangerous for any to accuse a Christian"
- So it is related by Tertullian (Tertullian, Apologetic, c.5,21.) and others that follow him. (Eusebius, Chronicles; Eusebius, History Eccles., l.2. c.2.) Our English writer, Gildas in a letter about the destruction of Britain, which if granted, we may correctly say, that the first persecution after the murder of Stephen which arose in Judaea ceased partly by the conversion of Saul who greatly promoted it and partly through the fear of Tiberius.
- L. Vitellius who the year before was consul at Rome, was sent by Tiberius as the proconsul for Syria. He arrived in Jerusalem, at the very feast of the passover and received an honourable welcome. He remited the whole tribute of the fruits put out for sale and allowed that the high priest's garment with all that belonged to it should be stored in the temple by the priests. It was formerly kept by the Roman governor in the citadel of Antonia. Thus he satisfied the Jews. He put Jonathan the son of Ananus [or Annas] for the high priest instead of Joseph Caiaphas. He then went to Antioch. (Josephus, l.15. c.ult.
18. c.6. )
- After Artaxias, the king of Armenia had died, Artabanus, the king of Parthia, made Arsaces, the oldest of his children, to be king over the Armenians. Since Tiberius did not object or interfere, he made an attempt on Cappadocia and demanded the treasure left by Vonones in Syria and Cilicia and asserted his right to the ancient boundaries of the Persians and Macedonians. He bragged and threatened that he would invade all that was possessed by Cyrus or Alexander. Sinnaces was a rich noble man and was supported by Abdus, an eunuch. They drew away the principal men of the Parthians to them. They could find no suitable descendants for Arsacides the king, since most of them were killed by Artabanus or too young to be king. They sent secret messengers to Tiberius to request for their king, Phraates, the son of Phraates, the son of Phraates the 3who was kept hostage at Rome. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.31.; Dio, l.58. 7:251,253)
- Tiberius sent Phraates sufficiently armed into his father's kingdom and manipulated foreign policy by astute diplomacy without warfare while he stayed quietly in Rome. In the meantime, these conspiracies became known. Artabanus invited Abdus under the pretence of friendship to a banquet and gave him a slow poison. He pretended friendship to Sinnaces with gifts and kept him busy doing other things. When Phraates came into Syria, he abandoned the Roman manner of life to which he had been accustomed and resumed the Parthian customs. He was unable to handle his country manners and fell sick and died. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.32.)
- After the death of Phraates, Tiberius sent Tiridates 3who was from the same royal family and who was an enemy to Artabanus. To help him get the kingdom quicker, Tiberius wrote to Mithridates the Iberian that he should invade Armenia. Tiberius hoped by this means to draw Artabanus from his own kingdom while he helped his son. To this end, he reconciled Mithridates to his brother Pharasmanes, who succeeded his father Mithridates in the kingdom of Iberia. He egged on Pharasmanes himself and the king of the Alanes with large gifts, to suddenly make war on Artabanus. Tiberius made L. Vitellius the general over all these preparations in the east. (Tacitus, l.6. c.32.; Josephus, Antiq, l.18. c.6.
; *Dio, l.58. 7:253)
- Mithridates induced his brother Pharasmenes to advance his endeavours by policy and force. Arsaces, the son of Artabanus, was killed by his servants who were bribed to do this by large sums of gold. The Iberians invaded Armenia and destroyed the city Artaxara. When Artabanus knew these things, he outfitted his son Orodes to revenge it. He gave him the Parthian troops and sent others to get mercenaries. On the other side, Pharasmenes allied himself to Albanius and summoned the Samaritans to his help whose princes are called "Sceptruchi." When the Samaritans had received gifts from both sides as the custom of that country was, it supplied troops to both sides. The Iberians controlled all the passes and had the Samaritans enter Armenia by the Caspian passes. Those Samaritans who came from the Parthians were easily driven back. There was only one pass available to them and it was between the farthest Albanian Mountains and the shore of the Caspian Sea. It is impassable in the summer because the Etesian gales flood the seaboard . (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.33.; Josephus, Antiq. l.18. c.6.
- When Pharasmenes had received reinforcements, he forced Orodes to fight who was destitute of his allies. In the battle, he wounded Orodes through his helmet but could not hit him again because he was carried away with his horse and the stoutest of his guard defended their wounded king. Nevertheless a false rumour spread that he was slain and the Parthians believed it and were appalled and lost the battle. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.34,35.) Hence the Parthians lost Armenia again (Josephus, l.18. c.6.
)and it was given to Mithridates of Iberia. (*Dio, l.58. 7:253)
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- Immediately after this, Artabanus went with the whole strength of his kingdom to revenge this. However the Iberians were successful through their better knowledge of the terrain. Artabanus would not have given up had not Vitellius gathered together his legions and spread a rumour, as if he would invade Mesopotamia. Artabanus was afraid of the Roman forces. After this Artabanus' fortune declined. He lost Armenia and Vitellius enticed his subjects to abandon their king who was a tyrant in peace and unlucky in war. Thereupon Sinnaces had a secret conference with Abdageses and others and made them revolt. The way was already prepared by the continual Parthian defeats. His subjects served through fear not good will and were encouraged when they had captains to follow. Vitellius bribed some friends and relatives of Artabanus to try to kill him. When Artabanus knew of the conspiracy, he could not find any way to thwart it. He was in danger from his nobility and he suspected even those who remained under his protection. He fled to the higher provinces and places near to Scythia and hoped for help from the Carmanians and Hyrcanians with whom he was related by marriage. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.36.; Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.6.
- Agrippa, the son of Aristobulus, when he was in great financial need at Ptolemais, borrowed money at interest from Protus a freed man and previously from his mother Bernice who had died. He used the help of Marsyas, his own freed-man. He extorted from Marsyas a bill of his hand for 20,000 Attic drachmas deducting out of that sum 2500 for Marsyas himself which he might the easier do because Agrippa could not otherwise choose otherwise. [??] When he got this money, he went to Anthedon and prepared to sail to Italy. When Herennius Capito, the procurator of Jamnia heard that he was there, he sent soldiers there to exact of Agrippa the 300,000 drachmas of silver he owed to Caesar's treasury when he lived at Rome. By this means he was forced to stay. Thereupon he made a pretence of obeying their commands but as soon as it was night, he cut his cables and sailed to Alexandria. There, he offered to borrow from Alexander Alabarcha 200,000 drachmas of silver. He said that he would lend him nothing but would lend to his wife Cypros for he admired in her, her love for her husband and her other virtues. When she had become his security, Alexander Alabarcha advanced him five talents at Alexandria. He promised to deliver the rest to him at Puteoli because he feared Agrippa would be a bad debt. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.7,8.
- Philo, the Jew, mentions the arrival of Agrippa to the city of Alexandria (Philo, Flaccus) when Flaccus was at that time governor of Egypt. Josephus stated that Philo was the brother of Alexander Alabarcha. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.10.
)Jerome also states in his catalogue of ecclesiastical writers, that Philo was of the same family of the priests. Thereupon Baronius [on 34 AD, (Numbers 265).] thinks Philo to be none other than that Alexander (Acts 4:6) who is said to be of the family of the Priests. However, this was that Alexander Lysimachus, who bore the office of alabarch [a governor of the Jews] at Alexandria, [of whom Juvenal in his first satire] and previously was the steward of Antonia, the mother of the Emperor Claudius and father of Tiberius Alexander, the governor of Judea. Alexander was the richest of all the Jews of Alexandria. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.4. l.20. c.3.He melted gold and silver for the gates of the temple at Jerusalem, [and not his father, as Baronius wrote in the previously mentioned place.] (Josephus, Wars, l.6. c.6.) )
- When Cypros had supplied her husband for his journey to Italy, she returned with her children to Judea by land. When Agrippa came to Puteoli, he wrote to Tiberius Caesar who was then living at Capreae. He told him that he had come so far to see him and asked permission to come to the island. Tiberius immediately wrote back a kind answer that he would be glad to see him at Capreae. Tiberius received him with great cheerfulness when he came and embraced and lodged him. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- The next day, Caesar received letters from Herennius concerning the 300,000 of silver drachmas Agrippa owed. Tiberius ordered those of his house that Agrippa should not be admitted until he had paid the debt. He was dismayed at Caesar's displeasure and begged Antonia, the mother of Germanicus and Claudius, [later Emperor] that she would lend him 300,000 drachmas lest he should loose the friendship of Caesar. She recalled the friendship her and Bernice, Agrippa's mother and that he had been brought up with her son Claudius and so lent him the money. He paid his debt and regained Tiberius' favour and was so thoroughly reconciled to Caesar that he commended to Agrippa's charge, his nephew [Tiberius the twin] the son of Drusus. He ordered him that he should dutifully attend him wherever he went. Since he was deeply obliged to Antonia for this benefit, he began to reverence Caius [Caligula] her nephew, who was gracious in all men's eyes and honoured for the memory of his father. There was there by chance at the same time, Thallus, a Samaritan, from whom he borrowed 1,000,000 Drachmas and repaid Antonia's debt. He kept the rest so he could more honourably attend to Caius. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.?
- Tigranes was the son of Alexander [that was killed by his father Herod] and of Glaphyra, [the daughter of Archelaus, King of the Cappadocians.] He had turned from the Jews to the Greek's religion and was the king of Armenia for a time. He was accused at Rome and there punished and died without children. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.40.; Josephus, Annals, l.18. c.7.
- The Cietae, a tribe in Cilicia Thrachea, were subject to Archelaus the Cappadocian. They were compelled after the Roman custom, to bring in the value of their annual revenues and to pay tribute. They fled to the Taurus Mountain and there defended themselves by the strong location of the place, against the weak forces of their king. Finally, M. Trebellius was sent from Vitellius, president of Syria, with 4000 legionary soldiers and some choice auxiliaries. They surrounded the two hills with works which the barbarians occupied. The smaller hill was called Cadra and the other one, Davara. [Tavara ??] They killed any who dared leave their holds and compelled the rest to surrender for want of water. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.41.)
- After Artabanus had fled, the minds of the people were inclined to a new king. Vitellius persuaded Tiridates to seize the opportunity and led his legions and auxiliaries to the bank of the Euphrates River. As they were sacrificing, some prepared Suovetaurilia, [a boar, a ram, and a bull offered to Mars] according to the custom of the Romans. Others prepared an horse to sacrifice to pacify the river. The inhabitants about the Euphrates River told them that the river had exceedingly risen of its own accord, without any heavy rains. They also said that the white froth made circles in the form of a diadem which was an omen of a prosperous journey. However, others interpreted it more subtilly that the beginnings of their expedition would be prosperous but not long lasting. They said this because they gave more credit to those things which were portended by the earth and heaven and the nature of rivers was not constant. If the rivers did show any good signs, they soon disappeared. Vitellius made a bridge from boats and crossed over the river with his army. Orospades came to his camp with many thousands of cavalry and joined him. He was once a banished man and brought considerable aid to Tiberius when he warred in Dalmatia. For that, Tiberius made him a citizen of Rome. After this, he entered anew into the king's favour and he made him governor of Mesopotamia. Not long after that Sinnaces joined Tigranes as well as the Abdageses. They were tbe mainstay of his side and brought him the court treasure and royal regalia. Vitellius thought it enough to have shown the Roman forces and admonished Tiridates that he should remember his grandfather Phraates and his upbringing with Caesar. He should consider the nobles so that they would be obedient to their king and he should reverence the Romans. Everyone should keep their word. Then Vitellius returned with his legions to Syria. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.37.)
- Tiridates received from the Parthians the cities of Nicophorium, Anthemusias and the other cities of Macedonia who spoke Greek. Also Halus and Artemita, cities of Parthia, greatly rejoiced for they hated the cruelty of Artabanus who was brought up among the Scythians. They hoped that Tiridates would be gentle sonce he was raised among the Romans. The Seleucians use much flattery and said their city was strong and walled about, not corrupted with barbarity but kept the laws of their founder, Seleucus. When Tiridates arrived there, they highly honoured him and reproached Artabanus as one indeed that was of the family of the Arsacidae on his mother's side but in all other things he had degenerated. Tiridates committed the government of the country to the people, whereas Artabanus had delivered it to the rule of 300 of the nobility. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.41,42.)
- Tiridates then consulted what day he should be crowned. He received letters from Phraates and Hieron, who held the strongest governments, who desired that he wait for a time. To satisfy those great men, he waited. In the meantime, he went to Ctesiphon, the seat of the kingdom to await their arrival. When they delayed from day to day, Surena, with the approval of many there present, crowned Tiridates after the custom of the country. If Tiridates had entered farther into the country and the other countries, all waiver's doubts would have vanished and the Parthian empire would have been his. Instead he stayed too long besieging a citadel where Artabanus had stored his treasure and concubines. He gave them time to break the agreement. Phraates and Hieron and some others did not celebrate the day appointed for his coronation. Some did this from fear and some for envy to Abdageses who controlled the new king and was the only favourite at court. These turned to Artabanus. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.42,43.)
- Artabanus was found in Hyrcania very lowly attired and living by hunting with a bow. At first he was afraid, as if there had been some treachery. When they had given their faith that they came to restore him to his kingdom again, he stayed no longer than to assemble the Scythian forces [Josephus related that he got together a large army of the Dahae and Sacae] and immediately went with them. He did not change his poor clothes to make the common people pity him more. There was neither subtilty, nor prayers, nor anything omitted, whereby he might either draw the doubtful to him or confirm the willing. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.43,44.)
- He then came with a strong force near Seleucia. Tiridates was afraid of Artabanus and began to hesitate as to what to do, whether he should immediately encounter him or delay the war. Abdageses' opinion was that he should retire into Mesopotamia with the river between them. In the meantime, he should raise forces from the Armenians and Elymeans and the rest behind them. After they increased their forces with the allies and such as the Roman captain would send, then he should try his fortune. His advice was followed because of Abdageses' authority and Tiridates' cowardliness. This retreat differed very little from a route and the Arabians first led the way. The rest went either home or to Artabanus' camp. Tiridates returned back into Syria with a small company and did not accuse them of the infamy of treason. (Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.44.)
- Artabanus easily overcame his enemies and was restored to his kingdom. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.6.
; *Dio, l.58. 7:253)Artabanus wrote letters to Tiberius, and accused him of patricides, murders, sloths and luxury. He told Tiberius that he would quickly satisfy the most just hatred of the citizens by a voluntary death. (Suetonius, Tiberius, c.66.) Artabanus invaded Armenia and planned to attack Syria. (Dio, l.59. 7:349)
- Agrippa was entertained with a close friendship by Caius Caligula. On a certain day as he rode in the same coach with him, he wished that Tiberius might shortly turn over the empire to him since he was a more worthy person. Eutichus overheard these words and said nothing. He was one of Agrippa's freedmen and his coach driver. Eutichus was later accused of stealing a garment from his patron. He had stolen it and fled. When he was brought back again, he was taken to Piso, the prefect of the city and asked why he fled. He replied that he had some secrets which he wanted to reveal to Caesar that concerned the safety of Caesar. Thereupon he was sent in bonds to Capreae and there was a prisoner for a long time before it pleased Caesar to give him any hearing. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- A certain impostor persuaded the Samaritans that they should meet at Mount Gerizim which that country thought was most holy. He affirmed that he would then show them the holy vessels buried where Moses had put them. They believed him and took up arms and camped around a village called Tyrabatha and awaited the arrival of the rest so that they might ascend the hill with the larger company. Pilate took control of the top of the hill with his cavalry and foot soldiers. He attacked those who were camped at the village. Some he killed, others fled and the rest were captured. He beheaded the ringleaders and those with the most power among them. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.5.
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- The chief men of Samaria appealed to Vitellius, the governor of Syria and accused Pilate of this murder. They denied that this assembly at Tirabatha was any revolt from the Romans but a refuge from the tyranny of Pilate. Thereupon Vitellius sent his friend Marcellus to take charge of Judea and ordered Pilate to go to Rome to answer before Caesar to the crimes the Jews alleged he had done. He had lived ten years in that province to which would be added the little time of 4 or 5 months, unless he deferred his voyage through fear of storms. [The fast of the seventh month was past. (Acts 27:9)] He may have been detained by contrary winds or by some delay that made him prolong his journey. Before Pilate came to Rome, Tiberius had died. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.5.
- When Tiberius came from Capreae to Tusculanum, which was a region from the city of about 12 miles, he was persuaded, though much against his will, that he should hear Eutichus so that it might be known of what crime he accused his patron. When he examined the matter, he found that Agrippa had neglected his commands of honouring his nephew Tiberius, Drusius' son and had wholly given himself over to Caius. Thereupon he ordered Macro [who succeeded Sejanus in the command of the praetorian guard] that he should bind Agrippa. Then Agrippa prayed and begged for pardon for the memory of his son with whom he was brought up, in good friendship and by those services that he had done for the young Tiberius. This was all in vain and the praetorian soldiers carried him to prison even in his purple robes. At that time it was very hot weather and he was very thirsty for want of wine. He saw a servant of Caius carrying a pitcher of water and he desired to drink. When he had willingly given it to Agrippa, he drank it and said to him: "Truly, Lad, you have done me this service for your own good, for as soon as I shall be free from this bondage, I will beg Caius for your freedom."
- Agrippa followed through on his promise. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- Agrippa stood bound among the other prisoners before the palace and leaned in a melancholy posture against a tree on which sat an owl. One of the prisoners, who was a German, saw the bird and asked a soldier, who was the prisoner in the purple robe. When he knew that he was one of the chief nobility of the Jews, he was led to him and through an interpreter, he told Agrippa that this bird signified that there would be a sudden change of his present fortune. He would be advanced to great dignity and power and he would have an happy death. [His death was most unhappy and showed that the German was a false prophet.] He added that when he would see this bird again, he would die within five days. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- Antonia was grieved at the calamity of Agrippa and thought it would be pointless to speak to Tiberius on his behalf. However she obtained this much of Macro that he might be committed to the custody of the soldiers of a gentle behaviour and that he would have a centurion who would provide him his food. He was allowed the use of his daily things and that his friends and freedmen might come to him whose services might relieve him. Then Silas his friend, visited him along with his freedmen Marsyas and Stechus. They brought him his favourite foods and they brought also garments as if they would sell them, on which he lay at night. The soldiers allowed this having received orders from Macro. In this way he spent six months in prison, until the death of Tiberius. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- In the district of Gamalile, Herod the tetrarch and Aretas, the king of Arabia Petrea had a dispute. He had not forgotten the wrong done to his daughter, whom Herod had married. Herod despised her and married in her place, Herodias, his brother's wife. Herod and Aretas waged war through their lieutenants. When the battle started, Herod's army was totally defeated because they were betrayed by some banished men who were driven from the tetrarchy of Philip and had served under Herod. Herod wrote letters to Tiberius telling him what had happened. Tiberius was angry at Anetas for his bold attack and wrote to Vitellius that he should make war upon him. Tiberius wanted Vitellius would to either bring him alive or if dead, to send him his head. The Jews thought that Herod's defeat was the just judgment of God for the murder of John the Baptist. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- When Cn. Acerronius and C. Pontius Nigrinus were consuls, Tiberius died on March 18th [17 calends of April] as it is in Suetonius (Suetonius, Tiberius, c.13.; Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c. 50.) or rather the 27th or 26th day of March when as after the death of Augustus, he had reigned 22 years 7 months 7 days. (*Dio, l.58. 7:257) It was not 5 months and 3 days, as Josephus stated in (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
)nor 6 months 3 days, as in his Wars. (Josephus, Wars, l.2. c.8.)
- After the death of Tiberius was known, Marsyas ran to his patron Agrippa, whom he found bathing himself. He nodded his head and told him in Hebrew. "The lion is dead."
- When the centurion who kept him, knew from them that Tiberius was dead, he took off Agrippa's bonds and bade them good cheer. As they were merrily eating and drinking, one came and said Tiberius was still alive and that he would shortly return to the city. The centurion was terrified by this and ordered Agrippa to be thrust from the rabble and bound and to be more carefully guarded. The next day Caius sent two letters. One went to the senate which stated Caius had succeeded Tiberius in the empire. The other went to Piso, the prefect of the city, and said the same thing and added that he should set Agrippa free and restore him to that house where he had previously lived. Although he was a prisoner yet he lived at his own discretion. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- Caius returned to Rome and brought the body of Tiberius. He held a most sumptuous funeral with great solemnity. When on the same day he would have released Agrippa, but by the advice of Antonia, he held off. She wished Agrippa well but said he should not free him too quickly lest he seem to do this in hatred for Tiberius who had imprisoned Agrippa. However, not many days later, he sent for him to his house and ordered his hair to be cut and changed his clothes and then put a crown on his head. He made him king of Philip's tetrarchy and gave him also the tetrarchy of Lysanias. He changed his chain of iron into a chain of gold of the same weight and sent Marullus as governor to Judea. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- Caius Caligula freed Agrippa the grandson of Herod from bonds whom Tiberius had put on him and gave him his grandfather's principality. (*Dio, l.59. 7:283) Philo (Philo, Flaccus) stated that he was honoured with the office of a praetor by the Roman senate and that Caius gave him the kingdom and the third part of the old dominion that his uncle Philip possessed. When Agrippa had received the kingdom, he asked for Thaumastus who had given him a drink when he was a prisoner, from Caius. Agrippa gave him his liberty and made him steward of his goods. When Agrippa died, he left him in the same office to his son, Agrippa and daughter, Bernice. Thaumastus was highly respected as long as he lived. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
- Caligula gave to Antiochus, the son of Antiochus Commagene, his father's kingdom as well as the coastal region of Cilicia. (*Dio, l.59. 7:283)
- Vitellius, the governor of Syria, took two legions and the foot soldiers and cavalry that were sent from kings that were allies. He hurried toward Petra and came to Ptolemais. He thought to lead his army through Judea but the leaders of that country approached him and wished that he would not pass that way for the customs of their country would not permit that any images should be carried there. The Roman banners had many images. He yielded to their request and sent his army through the large plain and came with Herod the tetrarch and his friends to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices to God at the next feast which was to happen soon. When he was come, he was magnificently entertained by the people and stayed there three days. In the mean time, he transferred the high priesthood from Jonathan to Theophilus, his brother. (Josephus, l.18. c.7.
- Four days later, Vitellius received letters of Tiberius' death. He made the people take the oath of fidelity to the new emperor Caius. (Josephus, l.18. c.7.
)Thereupon Agrippa send letters to Caius and stated: (Philo, Legatio.) "They greatly desired succession, [Oh emperor] and it was first heard of at Jerusalem and the same news was diffused to the neighbouring provinces from the holy city. Since this city, of all the east, first greeted you emperor, it is fitting that it should be treated more graciously by you."
- In the council of the Jews, in their speech to Petronius: [in the same author] "When Caius had obtained the empire, we first, of all Syria and congratulated with Vitellius, [whose successor you are.] When he was in our city and had received letters concerning this business. We spread this joyful news to other cities and our temple first of all temples, sacrificed for the empire of Caius."
- Vitellius recalled his forces and abandoned his intended war because of the new emperor. Some report that when Aretas heard the news of Vitellius' expedition, he learned from auguries that it was impossible for his army to come to Petra because one of the generals would die, either he that commanded the expedition, or he that obeyed it, or he against whom the expedition was. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.7.
- Josephus wrote that Vitellius went to Antioch and sent his army into their winter quarters. This was not likely, since it was the beginning of summer. He should have said that he went with his forces to the Euphrates River to make a league with the king of the Parthians. It appears from Suetonius and Dio, that this was done, not in Tiberius' reign, [as Josephus thinks] but under Caius, for Artabanus always hated and despised Tiberius but willingly sought an alliance with Caius. Vitellius by all his policy, not only had a conference with him but also had him worship the Roman standards. As Arabanus was crossing the Euphrates River he admired the Roman eagles and sacrificed to the images of Augustus and Caius. He agreed to the conditions of peace which were favourable to the Romans and gave his children as hostages. (Suetonius, Caligula. c.14.; Suetonius, Vitellius, c.2.; *Dio, l.59. 7:349,351)
- The king and Vitellius met in the middle of a bridge, each with their guard. After they had agreed upon a league, Herod invited them both to a banquet in a pavilion he had erected at great cost in the middle of the river. Then Vitellius returned to Antioch and Artabanes to Babylon. However, Herod send this news to Caesar before Vitellius' ambassadors could inform Caesar. Therefore Caesar wrote back to Vitellius when he received his letters that he knew all these things beforehand by Herod's messengers. This greatly troubled Vitellius. (Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c.6.
- Not long after, Artabanus sent his son Darius as hostage along with many gifts. These included a Jew, named Eleazar who was five [seven ??] cubits tall and was called the giant. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.6.
- After Jews of Alexandria, had given Caius all the honours that were lawful for them to decree, they came and offered the decree to Flaccus Abillius. They wanted him, since it was not permitted for them, to send an embassy. He said he would be pleased to send it by his messengers. He read the decree and allowed many of its points. He smilingly said: "Your piety highly pleases me, I will send it as you desire, I will be your ambassador, that Caius may perceive your gratitude and I will be a witness of the peoples' modesty and obedience well known to me."
- However, he withheld this decree that they might seem to be the only enemies of Caius. (Philo, Flaccus)
- In the first year of the reign of C. Caligula, Josephus, the writer of the history of the Jews, was born, who was the son of Mattathias, a priest, as Josephus shows in his autobiography. (Josephus, Life, 1:1)
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- When Saul had preached the gospel a long time at Damascus, the Jews took council to kill him and they were helped by the governor under Aretas, [who had recently defeated the army of Herod, the tetrarch.] He held Damascus with a garrison and watched the gates day and night so that they might take Saul and kill him. However, Saul was let down by a rope at night in a basket and escaped from them. (Acts 9:23-25; 2 Corinthians 11:32,33)
- After the first three years of his apostleship were over, Saul returned to Jerusalem to see Peter and stayed with him fifteen days. (Galatians 1:18) He tried to join with the disciples but they all were afraid of him and did not believe that he was a disciple. However, Barnabas took him and brought him to the apostles, [that is, Peter and James, the brother of the Lord, for he saw no other apostles, (Galatians 1:19)] and told them how Saul had seen the Lord in the way and that Jesus had spoken to him and how Saul had preached boldly at Damascus in the name of Jesus. (Acts 9:26,27)
- Saul spoke boldly in the name of Jesus at Jerusalem and disputed with the Greeks or Jews who spoke Greek as the Syriac version correctly translates this passage. The Jews planned to kill him. (Acts 9:29)
- When Saul was in the temple praying, he was in a trance and saw the Lord speaking to him to hurry and get out of Jerusalem for the Jews would not hear his message. He replied that the Jews knew that he had imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed on Jesus. When the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed, Saul was standing by also and guarded the garments of those who killed him. The Lord told him to leave and he would send him to the Gentiles. (Acts 22:17-21)
- The brethren at Jerusalem brought him to Caesarea and sent him into his own country of Tarsus. (Acts 9:30) He went into the countries of Syria and Cilicia. He was unknown by face to the churches of Judea, but they had only heard that he preached the faith which once he destroyed and they glorified God in him. (Galatians 1:21-23)
- The churches had rest throughout all Judea, Galilee and Samaria. They were edified and walked in the fear of the Lord and comfort of the Holy Ghost and were multiplied. (Acts 9:31)
- Herod Agrippa had a daughter by Cypros, named Drusilla, [who later married Felix.] (Acts 24:24) She was six years old when her father died. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.7.
l. 19. c.ult. )
- Caligula forced Macro, to whom Egypt was committed, [the six years that were appointed by Tiberius for the government of Flaccus Abilius had expired] and his wife Ennia, by whose help he had gotten the empire, to commit a voluntary suicide. (Philo, Caius; Philo, Flaccus; Suetonius, Caligula. c.26.; *Dio, l.59. 7:291)
- After Marco was killed, Flaccus, who was the governor of Egypt on whom he most relied was shrewdly afraid of Caligula. Dionysius Lampo and Isidore persuaded him to use that occasion to be generous to the people of Alexandria and befriend them. They said that nothing would be more grateful to them than that he would allow them to plunder the Jews and Flaccus followed their council. (Philo, Flaccus)
- Caligula, by a decree of the senate, gave Sohaemus the kingdom of the Arabians of Ituraea. He gave Cotys, Armenia the Less and some parts of Arabia. He gave Rhoematalces, the kingdom of Cotys and to the son of Polemon, his father's kingdom [that is, Pontus.] (*Dio, l.59. 7:295,297)
- In the second year of Caligula's reign, Herod Agrippa asked permission to return home to settle the affairs of his kingdom and he promised that when he had done that, he would return. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.8.
)The emperor persuaded him that taking the fastest way was by sea and the Etesian winds were expected any day. Therefore he should go directly to Alexandria and go home the rest of the way by land which would be easier than sailing. Agrippa followed his advice and went to Puteoli. He found a ship ready to set sail for Alexandria and a few days later he arrived in Alexandria. (Philo, Flaccus)
- The Alexandrians naturally hated the Jews and did not like that they had a king. In their gymnasium they derided Agrippa with scurrilous speeches and mocking verses of jesters. They brought a mad man there who was called Cariba and went naked night and day in the streets. They put him in a high place so everyone could see him. They gave him a paper crown and a mat for his body instead of his robe. He had a piece of a reed taken from the ground for his sceptre. He was adorned with the trappings of a king like actors do and the young men carried poles on their shoulders as a mock guard. Others came to greet him, some desired justice, others asked council of him concerning the state. Then there was a general acclamation of those who were around him and they called him "Marim", which means in the Syrian language, "Lord". (*Philo, Flaccus, c.6. 1:728) Thus the king of the Jews was derided after the same manner by others, as the Jews themselves five years earlier had mocked the true majesty of their own king, Jesus Christ.
- The Jews of Alexandria told Agrippa of the treachery that Flaccus, the governor, had prepared for their destruction. They also gave to him that writing that they had given to Flaccus to be sent to Caius at the beginning of his reign. Flaccus through malice, had prevented them and they could send it no sooner. (*Philo, Flaccus, c.12. 1:734; Philo, Caius)
- The apostle Peter visited the churches of Judea, Galilee and Samaria and went to the saints that dwelt at Lydda. He healed Aeneas who was sick with the palsy and was in his bed eight years. When all who lived at Lydda and Sharon [concerning which, see (1 Chronicles 5:16; 1 Chronicles 27:29)] saw this miracle, they turned to the Lord. (Acts 9:31-35)
- A certain disciple called in Syriac language named, Tabitha, and in the Greek, Dorcas, meaning a "she goat", did many good works and alms deeds. She died at Joppa. Since Lydda was close to Joppa, the disciples heard that Peter was there. They sent two men to him to have him immediately come there. When Peter arrived, he fell on his knees and prayed and restored her to life. This was known through all Joppa and many believed in the Lord. Peter stayed there many days in the house of Simon a tanner. (Acts 9:36-43)
- When the common people of Alexandria had regained the favour of Flaccus, the governor, early one morning they all agreed that the statues of Caesar were to be set up in the synagogues of the Jews. The governor allowed this to be done without any respect for the public security although he knew that there were more than 100,000 Jews who lived in Alexandria and all that large country from the descent of Libya even to the bounds of Ethiopia. (*Philo, Flaccus, c.7. 1:729) Then they gathering together in great companies, and either laid waste their synagogues by cutting down their groves or rased them to the ground. In all the synagogues which they could not overthrow or burn, because of the great number of Jews who lived by them, they set up the images of Caius and in the greatest and most frequented synagogues, they set up a statue on high of chariots with four brass horses. In their zeal they ran out of new chariots, so they took out the rusty old ones whose horses lacked their ears, tails, and feet and such as were dedicated [as was reported] to Cleopatra, who was the great grandmother of the last queen by that name. Caius thought that all these things happened from the love that the Alexandrians had for him. He learned this through the registers sent to him from Alexandria [for he read them more willingly than any poem or history] and from some domestic servants [of whom many were Egyptians.] They were in the habit of praising and laughing at these things with him. (Philo, Caius)
- Caius Caligula, decreed a holiday for his sister Drusilla who was dead. Anyone who laughed, bathed or made a feast on that day would be killed. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.24.; *Dio, l.59. 7:301)
- Flaccus, the governor of Egypt, made an edict, in which he called the Jews, foreigners and did not give the liberty of pleading their cases but condemned outright. There were five divisions of that city named from the first five letters. Two of them were called the Jewish quarters because most of the Jews lived in them although many Jews had houses here and there in the other quarters. The common people of Alexandria obtained from Flaccus, permission to plunder the Jews. They expelled them from four of the divisions and drove them into a small space of the remaining division. The place could not hold them all and the Jews went out to the shores and monuments and dung hills and were robbed of all things. Their enemies ran violently through their abandoned houses. They divided the spoils as would a victorious army and broke open the shops of the Jews which then were shut because of the mourning for Drusilla's death. They carried many things from there and used them for themselves. The ransacking of 400 houses did less harm to the Jews than their loss of trade. When the creditors had lost their security, no husbandman, mariner, merchant, or craftsman, were allowed to use their trades. (*Philo, Flaccus, c.8. 1:729)
- Their enemies thought they should shortly see them lie on heaps since so many thousands of men women and children were thrust into a narrow corner of the city like beasts. They would either be killed or die from famine or be stifled in that hot place. Even the neighbouring air was fouled by their breath. They took diligent heed, lest any should secretly escape. As many as they intercepted, they first tormented them and then they killed them. They used all manner of cruelty. Another band of them lay in wait for the Jews who arrived at the ports. When they had taken away their merchandise, they burned the owners in a fire made from the rudders, oars and planks of the ships. In the middle of the city, others were burned by a most miserable kind of death. They lacked wood so they used green vines and made a fire with them. They cast into it these miserable men who were killed from the smoke rather than the fire. Others were dragged with cords tied to their ankles through the market place and the common people mocked them. They mutilated their dead bodies and cut off their members and trampled on them with such cruelty so that they allowed no remains of them to be found for burial. (Philo, Caius) If anyone mourned the misfortune of his friend or relative, he was punished for his compassion. They were scourged and after they had endured all torments that bodies were able to endure, they were crucified. (*Philo, Flaccus, c.9. 1:730,731)
- Flaccus the Governor ordered that 38 of the senate, whom Augustus had appointed for a public council of the Jews, to be taken in their own houses and immediately bound. They dragged these old men through the market place with their hands tied behind them. Some were bound with cords, others with chains. They were brought into the theatre and stripped and scourged as they stood before their enemies who sat as judges. Among these men were Erodius Tryphon and Andron who were thus handled in the sight of those who had robbed them of their goods. It was a custom that no one should be condemned until the solemn celebrations and feast days of the births of the Augusti were past. Flaccus on those very days, [for the birthday of Caius was on the last day of August] afflicted these innocent men in this way that day. From the morning to the third or fourth hour [9 or 10 am] of the day, the Jews were scourged, hanged, tied to wheels, condemned and led through the middle of the wrestling place for punishment. Then were brought in dancers, jesters, trumpeters and other sports. The women were carried away as captives, not only in the market place but in the open theatre also for any trifling matter. They were brought on the stage with grievous reproaches. When the crowd knew they were not Jews, they were let go. In their haste many were mistakenly apprehended for Jews before they examined their origin. If they were found to be any Jews among the spectators, the crowd became tyrannical. They ordered the Jews to eat swine's flesh. As many of the Jewish women who ate it for fear of further torture, were let go. However, those who refused to eat it, were tortured most cruelly. (*Philo, Flaccus, c.10,11. 1:731,732,733)
- Castor who was the boldest of the centurions, was ordered by the governor to take with him the bravest of his band and break into the Jews' houses to see if they had any hidden weapons. Castor immediately went and did as he was ordered. The Jews showed all their private places to the searchers. Their women who never went abroad and the fearful virgins, who for modesty avoided the sight of their own kindred, were made a spectacle of, not only to strangers but also to the military rage. However, after all this scrutiny, the arms which they looked for, were not found. For all arms were taken a short time before from the Egyptians by Bassus by the orders of Flaccus. One might see a large number of ships arrive at the port full of arms, which were suitable for seditious men who had often before tried to revolt. However, the Jews were never involved nor ever suspected of being part of any revolt. They went about their business and behaved as good citizens of the city. (*Philo, Flaccus, c.11. 1:732,733)
4042 AM, 4751 JP, 38 AD
- The feast of tabernacles around the autumnal equinox was not observed by the Jews because of this persecution. Flaccus, the governor, was suddenly apprehended by Bassus the centurion as he was at a feast prepared by Stephanion, the freedman of Tiberius Caesar. Bassus was sent with a band of soldiers from Italy on purpose to apprehend Flaccus. When he had set sail in the beginning of winter, he was storm tossed and after much toil, he barely arrived in Italy, where Flaccus was immediately welcomed by those two malicious accusers, Lampo and Isodorus who had incited him against the Jews. Flaccus was condemned and despoiled of all his inheritance and goods which were very expensive. He would have been banished to the most barren island of Gyara in the Aegean Sea unless Lepidus had begged that he might be sent to live on Andros which was close to Gyara. He was killed there by the command of Caius, [as he did to all the noble men who were banished.] (*Philo, Flaccus, c.13-15,18. 1:734-336,738)
- Herodias, the sister of Agrippa, and wife of Herod the tetrarch, was mad with envy to see Agrippa so glorious in his kingly majesty. She persuaded her husband, Herod, that they should go to Rome and beg the same honours from Caesar. Agrippa knew of their intention and preparation for the journey. As soon as he knew they had sailed, he also sent his freedman Fortunatus to Rome to Caesar with gifts and letters written against his uncle. Herod arrived at Baial, a most pleasant town in Campania, where Caesar stayed. He was admitted to his presence and before he could do anything, Caesar gave him the letters he had received from Agrippa, which accused Herod that he had previously conspired with Sejanus against Tiberius and that now he favoured Artabanus the Parthian over the new empire of Caius. For that purpose he had prepared enough arms to furnish 70,000 men. Caius asked Herod if those things were true which were spoken concerning the number of arms, which he granted [for he could not deny it.] Caius thought he had enough evidence of a planned revolt and took from him the tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea which he later added to Agrippa's kingdom as well as all of Herod's treasure. He sent Herod to Lyons in France and condemned him to perpetual banishment. After Caius knew that Herodias was Agrippa's sister, he allowed her to keep her own wealth. He did not think that she would willingly be her husband's companion in banishment and he promised to spare her as a favour to Agrippa. She thanked Caius for this favour but professed that at this time she would not make use of it for she thought it a sin to forsake her husband in his calamity when she had enjoyed prosperous times with him. Caius took that as a reproach and ordered her also to be banished with her husband and gave her goods to Agrippa. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.9.
)So they were punished for their incestuous marriage eight years after John the Baptist had been beheaded by this Herod and six years after Christ our Saviour had been mocked by the same Herod. (Luke 23:11)
- Pontius Pilate was so continually vexed by Caius that he committed suicide. (Jerome, Chronicles [from the Roman Historians]; Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, [from the Greek Writers of the Olympiads.] l.2. c.7.; Orosius, l.7. c.5.; Cassiodorus, Chronicle)
- Caius spanned the gulf between Bauli at Puteoli with a bridge almost 3 and an half miles long. He crossed the bridge with his chariot followed by a long train of his supposed spoils. Among the hostages in the train was the Parthian lad Darius who was the son of Artabanus. He called Darius, Xerxes as a mockery because Caius had made a longer bridge upon the sea than Xerxes. [??] (Josephus, Antiq, l.19. c.1. <1:502>; Suetonius, Caligula. c.19.; *Dio, l.59. 7:311,313)
- He also, under pretence of the German war, went a little beyond the Rhine River and then immediately returned as though he would go into Britain. (*Dio, l.59. 7:325)
- Caius sent for Vitellius from Syria so that he might be executed. He was accused of allowed Tiridates, a king whom Tiberius had sent to the Parthians, to be kicked out of his kingdom by them. (*Dio, l.59. 7:351; in excerptis ab. Heurico. Valesio, edit. p. 670.)
- Caius sent Petronius as the successor to Vitellius to Syria. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.11.
)His full name was Publius Petronius. (Philo, Caius; Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c. 6. <1:520>) [Strabo mentions him also. See note on 3983 AM <<5364>>.] He was not Lucius Petronius who died long before this time] whom Valerius Maximus mentions was born of low parentage and rose to the level of an equestrian (Valerius Maximus, l.4. c.7.) as Baronius thought. (Baronius, 41 AD (Numbers 4).)
- Vitellius came to Caius and escaped death. He composed himself as more humble than his rank. He fell at Caesar's feet and burst out crying and called him a god and worshipped him. He vowed that if he should escape this punishment, he would sacrifice to him. He so mollified and appeased Caesar, that he not only allowed him to live, but counted him among his best friends. (*Dio, l.59. 7:351) He was the first that taught Caius to be worshipped as a god. Vitellius was quite good in flattering. When he was returned from Syria, he dared not come into Caius' presence, but with his face turned around he fell prostrate on the ground. (Suetonius, Vitellius, c.2.) Later when Caius affirmed that he talked with the Moon goddess, he asked Vitellius if he had not seen him when he was accompanied with the goddess. Vitellius with his eyes cast down as astonished and trembling, replied in a low voice that it was permitted only for the gods to see one another. (*Dio, l.59. 7:351) Vitellius made this beginning. Although he had governed the provinces according to the virtues of his ancestors, he excelled all men in flattery. (*Dio, l.59. 7:351; Tacitus, Annals, l.6. c.32.)
- Then Caius made himself priest and took his horse as colleague in his priesthood. (*Dio, l.59. 7:355) At Miletus in Asia he ordered a temple to be built to him. He selected that city ahead of the others because he said that Ephesus worshipped Diana and Pergamos and Smyrna were dedicated to Augustus and Tiberius. The real reason was that he desired to get for himself that large and beautiful temple which the people of Miletus had built to Apollo. (*Dio, 1. 59. 7:351,353; in excerptis. Valesii. p. 670. 673.) He purposed also to finish the oracle Didymena at Miletus. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.21.)
4043 AM, 4752 JP, 39 AD
- Strangers from of the neighbouring countries had crept into Jamnia, a city of Judea that was very populous. They always tried to do something against the Jewish customs. When they heard how much Caius desired to be worshipped as a god and what a good friend he was to the country of the Jews, they immediately built an altar of clay bricks to vex the Jews. The Jews were scornful and destroyed the altar. Their adversaries accused the Jews before Capito the holy quaester, who had the oversight of the tributes in Judea. He wrote to Caius and aggravated and amplified the business. Caius ordered that to replace the destroyed brick altar in Jamnia, they should erect in the temple of Jerusalem a large image in honour of him all in gold. He followed the advice of Helicon an Egyptian and Apelles of Askelon a tragedian. Caius sent letters to Petronius, the governor of Syria, detailing the dedication of the statue. He was to march with half the army [appointed for defence against the seditions of the kings and countries of the east] from the Euphrates River against the Jews. He was to accompany the statue not necessarily so that the dedication would be more majestic but so that if anyone resisted, he could be immediately executed. The statue was not sent from Italy neither was Petronius commanded to take any troops from Syria otherwise some sudden sedition would have happened about the violation of the Jewish laws. Petronius ordered a statue to be made closer by and sent for the best craftsman from Phoenicia and found the materials and a place where they could make it at Sidon. (Philo, Caius)
- In the meantime, he gathered as large an army as he could and with two legions wintered at Ptolemais. He intended to prosecute the war in the beginning of the spring. He sent a letter to Caius who commended his industry and advised him to use all force in this and subdue the stubbornness of that country. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.11.
- In a dispute that arose between the Jews and the Greeks who lived in Alexandria, three chosen ambassadors on either side were sent to Caius. Philo who was most famous, headed the embassy of the Jews. Apion headed the Greek embassy. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.10.
)He was born at Oasis in Egypt and wished to be called an Alexandrian because he was made a citizen of that place. (Josephus, Apion, l.2. <1:795>) Pliny (Pliny, Natural History, l. 37. c.5) stated that he was surnamed by some as the "after Conqueror." Pliny added these things about him in his preface to his whole work to Titus Vespasian: "Apion the grammarian, he whom Tiberius Caesar called the symbol of the world, whereas he might rather be called the drum, wrote that they were immortalized by him to whom he composed any thing."
- He wrote a most lying book against the Jews to which Josephus replied in his second book against Apion. For the first book was against other slanderers of the Jews.
- The ambassadors of the Jews [whom Philo stated to be five at the end of the embassy written by himself and not three as Josephus stated] sailed to Caius in the middle of winter to entreat him that he would stop those wrongs which they suffered. They gave him a record containing the list of all the calamities and the petition against them taken from that larger petition which the Jews had sent him by their King Agrippa. However, their adversaries won the favour of Helicon the Egyptian, who was the prefect of the emperor's chamber. They did this not so much with money as with the hope of future honours which they promised to give him when Caius came to Alexandria. When the Jewish ambassadors desired to pacify and appease Caius, they were not allowed access to him. (Philo, Caius)
- At first Caius concealed his hatred against the Jews and received their ambassadors in Mars' field. As he came from his mother's gardens, he greeted them with a cheerful countenance and with his right hand, he made a sign as though he would be kind to them. He sent Obulus to them, who was the master of the ceremonies. Caius promised them that he would take care of their cause when he had time. Later when he came to visit the gardens of Mecenas and Lamia, which were nearby the other garden and the city, the ambassadors were brought in and humbly did their reverence to Caius. They greeted him by the name of Augustus and he smilingly asked them: "Are you the ones who are hated of the gods, who alone despise me who is declared a god by the confession of all men and had rather worship your unnamed thing?"
- Then he held up his hands to heaven and burst into a speech that was not lawful to be heard much less to utter in the same words. The Jews' adversaries then greatly rejoiced and called him by all the names of the gods. When Isidorus, a bitter Sycophant, saw how he was pleased with these titles, he said: "You would, O my Lord more detest them and all their country, if you knew their impiety and malice against you. For all men kill sacrifices of vows for your health while they only refrained to offer sacrifice."
- Then the ambassadors cried out with one consent: "O my Lord Caius, we are falsely accused, we have sacrificed hecatombs. We have not as the custom of some is, to bring a little blood to the altar and then carry the flesh home to feast on. We have committed whole sacrifices to be burned with the holy fire and that three times. First, when you became emperor, again when you escaped a great sickness at which all the world was sorrowful and thirdly, as a vow for your victory over Germany."
- Caius repled: "Well say it were so that you offered sacrifice but to another and to me certainly you did no sacrifices."
- Then an horror seized on the ambassadors who were terrified at his last words. In the meantime, Caius went about the villages and the halls and parlours both below and above stairs, where also he asked the ambassadors particularly: [??] "Why they forbid swine's flesh and what right the cities of Alexandria pretended." [??]
- Finally, setting aside his fierceness, he said: "These men seem to me not to be so wicked, as miserable, that cannot persuade themselves that I am partaker of the divine nature."
- He immediately left and ordered the ambassadors to leave. (*Philo, Caius, c.28. 1:774)
- Caius gave the tetrarchy of his father-in-law Herod [who was banished to Lyons in Gaul] to Agrippa when he returned from his kingdom. For when he had reigned three years in the tetrarchy of Philip, in the fourth year Herod's kingdom was given to him. (Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c.ult.
??)Philo wrote: "You have given the kingdom to me which could be no happier fortune to a mortal and which being at first but one region, you have enlarged by the addition of Trachonitis and Galilee." (Philo, Caius)
- Petronius convened the leaders of the Jewish priests and magistrates, to tell them the commands of Caius. He was to erect Caius' statue and dedicate it in their temple. He urged them to bear patiently the decrees of his emperor and cautioned them of the imminent danger that would ensue upon their disobedience. The whole power of the Syrian army was ready to make havock of them and their country. At the first mention of these things they were so shocked, they had not a word to say but poured out rivers of tears, ripping out their hair and pulled their beards in a most mournful way. However, those of Jerusalem and all the surrounding country that heard this, came flocking together with one consent and publicly mourned. They in one group, left their houses, towns, and citadels desolate and continued their march until they came to Phoenicia where Petronius was. At first they made such a doleful and so deep a noise that those that were nearby, could not hear or be heard for it. Calamitous times instructed what was to be done. They were organised into six ranks or orders of old men, young men and boys, of old women, wives and maids. When they saw Petronius on an high place, all the ranks, as if by a general command fell prostrate on the ground and howled as it were in a mournful tone. When they were ordered to rise, they could barely be persuaded to. Finally when they did, they cast dust on themselves and hung their hands behind them like condemned persons. They came before him and made their pitiful complaint and supplication. Petronius and all that sat with him were very much moved. When he had consulted about the matter, he ordered letters sent to Caius. He told him that the dedication of the statue was deferred. The workmen needed time to finish the colossus and time was needed to gather grain for such an expedition. It was reported that Caius had intended to go to Egypt. The grain was then fully ripe and it was feared that the Jews would take the loss so heavily of their religion that they would not value their own lives and waste and burn up all the harvest throughout the fields and mountains in their desperation. (*Philo, Caius, c.32,33. 1:778-780)
- When Caius had received the letters, he concealed his anger to Petronius for he very much feared the governors because they had the power to create seditions. This was especially true of those in large provinces with numerous armies like the province of Syria which extended to the Euphrates River. Thus by his letters he appeased Caius who seemed to applaud his providence and dexterity in foreseeing future problems. Caius ordered that when the harvest was over, he should dedicate the statue without delay. (*Philo, Caius, c.34. 1:780,781)
- The ambassadors of the Alexandrian Jews received the message that Caius had ordered his colossus to be erected at the innermost entrance of the temple and entitled the "New Jupiter." This news terrified them. They entered into the conclave all together and deplored the public as well as their private calamity. They hoped that God would not abandon them, who had so often delivered that country from ruin. (Philo, Caius)
- When Agrippa came in his usual manner to greet Caius, he looked sternly at him and said: "Your good and honest citizens, who alone of all mankind think it scornful to have Caius for a god, even take a course in likelihood to bring destruction upon themselves by their contumacy. When I ordered the statue of Jupiter to be dedicated in their temple, they ran wholly from the city not like suppliants indeed but truly despisers of my commands."
- By these words Agrippa was so struck with horror that he trembled and his knees knocked together, he would have surely fallen to the ground had not the bystanders supported him. They were ordered to carry him home in that condition. By the suddenness of the events, Agrippa had lost his memory and was grown quite stupid and senseless. However, Caius was the more exasperated against the country of the Jews and said: "If Agrippa, who is my close friend and obliged to me by so many benefits, is so attached to his country customs that he cannot endure they should be violated so much as by my word only but faints, what is to be expected from them who have no tie to restrain them?" (*Philo, Caius, c. 35. 1:781,782)
- When Agrippa was come to himself, he wrote a very long letter to Caius on the behalf of his country. (Philo had a copy of it in his book] He closed with this epilogue: "What will my countrymen or anyone else say of me? For either it will follow that I betrayed my country or I must be blotted from the list of your friends. Which of the two can be more unhappy? For before I was your close friend and now I shall be considered a traitor if I do not keep my country from indemnity nor the temple sacred. For you have the power for protection of men. If in anything I am offensive to you, do me the favour not to bind me [as Tiberius] but lest I should remain in fear of bonds, kill me immediately. For what need have I then of life when as the hope of my welfare wholly rests on your favour." (Philo, Caius, c.36,37 1:782-787)
- Caius seeming to be somewhat appeased by these letters and replied more mildly and granted to Agrippa a great favour that the statue should not be dedicated. He wrote the same to Petronius, the governor of Syria that he cause no sedition in the temple of the Jews. Lest this favour should seem too generous, he added some terror and wrote: "If anyone shall please in the other province or anywhere outside the metropolis in any other city, to dedicate any temple or altar to me, whoever shall oppose it, let them either be immediately executed or sent to me."
- But divine providence so ordered it so that none in any of the other provinces planned to do this. (*Philo, Caius, c.52. 1:787)
- When the pestilence grew very severe at Babylon, a great number of the Jews left for Seleucia. More arrived five years later from Neerda, [which is a city of Babylon on an island in the Nile River and has an academy of the Jews. In Syriac it is called a[d
- Now at Seleucia, the Greeks and Syrians were always at odds but the Greek faction was too strong for the Syrians. Since the arrival of the Jews, the Syrians made their friendship and became the stronger party. In addition, they still increased in warlike and resolute men. Therefore when the Greeks saw they were becoming weaker and did not know how to change the situation, they made all the friendship they could to have a peace mediated between them and the Syrians. This thing was easily obtained. For the chief men on both sides were involved and they concluded and confirmed a peace on the condition they should both persecute the Jews. They attacked them by surprise and killed 50,000 men so that none escaped unless they were saved by the mercy of some friends or relatives. They escaped to Ctesiphon, a Greek city near Seleucia, where the king used to make his winter quarters and he stored most and the best part of his household belongings. They settled there and established themselves under the reverence of the regal majesty. The terror of the Babylonians and Seleucians spread over all those parts of Judea. Wherever any of the Syrians were in those parts with the Seleucians, they conspired the ruin of the Jews. Hence it came to pass that many fled to Neerda and Nisibis and had security because the cities were strongly fortified, although otherwise they were occupied by very warlike people. (Joseph. l.18. c.ult.
- Caius triumphantly entered Rome on his birthday [which was the last of the month of August.] (Suetonius, Caligula, c.43.)
4044 AM, 4753 JP, 40 AD
- When the Alexandrian delegates appeared before Caius, Apion accused the Jews of many things and they did not give Caesar his due respect. All the countries built temples and altars to Caius and worshipped him with equal honour with the rest of their deities. Only the Jews thought it scornful to build altars to him or swear by the name of Caesar. When he had alleged these and what other matters he thought would exasperate Caius, Philo prepared to answer him. Before he could, he was interrupted by Caesar who ordered him to get out and was so enraged that Philo barely escaped without harm. After Philo was put out, he encouraged those who were with him. Although Caius was angry in his words, yet they might be assured that God would defend and provide for them, in spite of all that Caius could do. (Josephus, Antiq., l.18. c.10.
; Eusebius, History Eccles., l.5.)
- Caius repented of the favour he had given the Jews. He ordered another colossus to be built at Rome of brass covered with gold. He left the statue alone at Sidon lest it should cause any sedition among the people. It was to be carried secretly by ship and be placed in the temple at Jerusalem before any were aware of it. This was to be done as they sailed into Egypt, for Caius had a great desire to see Alexandria. He took great care in preparing for his journey, because he intended to stay a long time. He was possessed that his deification which he dreamed of, would succeed in this city alone and from there the religion would spread to smaller cities. Thus Philo wrote, who was very well acquainted with these things. (Philo, Caius) Tacitus should be amended: "They were ordered by Caesar to place his statue in their temple and they chose rather to take up arms. The death of Caesar ended the rebellion." (Tacitus, Histories, l.5. c.9.)
- Apelles from Askelon who incited Caius against the Jews was punished for some other crimes he committed. Caius had him bound and racked in a most tormenting and delaying manner with some intermissions to make it the more painful. (*Philo, Caius, c.30. 1:776)
- Caius was admonished by the Antiatinian lots to beware of Cassius. Cassius Longinus was then proconsul of Asia and was suspected because he was of the family of Cassius, one of the murderers of Caesar. Caius ordered him to be brought bound to him and condemned him to death. He forgot the Chaereas, who a little later killed him, was also called Cassius. (Suetonius, Caligula, c.57.; *Dio, l.59. 7:359)
- Apollonius the Egyptian, who at home foretold what should become of Caius, was dragged before Caius at Rome the day before his death. [Suetonius says this was January 23rd, [9th calends of February] (Surtonius, Caligula, l.58.)] His punishment was postponed and he escaped death when Caius died first. (*Dio, l.59. 7:359)
- Caligula reigned three years, ten months eight days or (Suetonius, Caligula, l.59.; Clements Alexandria, Stromatum, l.1) or rather 9 months and 28 days. (*Dio, l.59. 7:362) In whose place, his uncle Claudius Caesar, the son of Drusius, was declared emperor by the praetorian guard.
- King Agrippa heard that the empire was forced upon Claudius by the soldiers. With much adieu in getting through the multitude, he came to Claudius and found him troubled and desirous to resign his place to the senate. Agrippa dispelled his fears and encouraged him to go on courageously and retain the empire. Agrippa was called by the senate and he pretended that he knew nothing of the business and arrived as if he had been prepared to dine. He asked them what was done concerning Claudius and they told him the truth and asked his advice. He said he would forsake no danger that might be for the dignity of the senate and that he thought the best way was to send one to Claudius who might persuade him to lay down his authority. He offered to be a part of that embassy. When Agrippa was sent with others to Claudius, he told him plainly the fearful condition the senate was in and advised him to answer like a prince. Agrippa was the reason that Claudius was more mild to the senate than he would have been. (Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c.3.
- After Claudius was confirmed in the empire, he sent Mithridates of Iberia [whom Caius had kept in bonds] home to receive his kingdom. He gave to another Mithridates who was descended from that great Mithridates, the kingdom of Bosphorus, except a part of Cilicia which he gave to Polemon. (*Dio, l.60. 7:387)
- Claudius enlarged Agrippa's kingdom. He had helped him to get the empire and was then at Rome. Claudius also gave him the honours of a consul. He gave his brother Herod praetorian honours and a certain principality [that is of Chalcis] and permitted them to go into the senate and to thank to the senators. (*Dio, l.60,7:387)
- Claudius also proposed an edict whereby he confirmed Agrippa in the kingdom formerly granted him by Caius. He praised his endeavour and his industry and added Judea and Samaria to his kingdom. These, formerly belonged to the kingdom of his grandfather Herod. These therefore he restored as due to the family. Abila and the regions around the Libanus Mountain which was Lysanias' and belonged to the emperor. He gave these also to Agrippa. There was a league between the king and the people of Rome cut in brass and placed in the middle of the forum of the city. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.4.
- Claudius released Alexander Lysimachus of Alabarcha, his old friend, and formerly procurator to his mother Antonia, whom Caius in his anger had committed to bonds. Bernice, the daughter of Agrippa was betrothed to his son, Marcus [Concerning this see (Acts 25:13-23)] who died while married to her as her first husband. The king gave her to his brother Herod, after getting the kingdom of Chalcis from Claudius for him. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.4.
- He bestowed Commagena and a larger part of Cilicia on Antiochus whom Caius had deprived of his kingdom. (*Dio, l.60. 7:387; Joseph. l.19. c.4.
- Helicon the Egyptian, who was master of the bedchamber to Caius and the man who most incited him against the Jews, was executed by Claudius. (Philo, Caius, c.30. 1:776) Philo's book ironically was entitled "De virutibus" [for in it the wickedness of Caius was clearly set out.] Philo was said at the command of Claudius to read it before the whole senate. Later, the Romans so liked this and his other works, that they thought them worthy as precious monuments to be set up in their public library. (Eusebius, History Ecclesiast, l.2. c.17.) Among his writings were five books of the miseries the Jews endured under the empire of Caius of which three were lost. (Eusebius, History Ecclesiast, l.2. c.5.) The book about Flaccus and Philo's embassy to Caius still survive.
- After Caius was murdered, the Jews who under him were much oppressed by the Alexandrians, were encouraged and took up arms. Claudius ordered the governor of Egypt that he should appease that sedition. By the entreaty of Agrippa, the king of Judea and Herod, the king of Chalcis, Claudius sent this edict to Alexandria: "I will that their rites be not infringed by the madness of Caius and that they shall have full power and liberty to persevere in their father's religion and worship. I order both parties, as much as in them lies, to live peaceably one toward another and to endeavour to prevent all distractions or seditions of state between them." (Josephus, l.19. c.4.
- At the entreaty of these two kings when he was for the second time designed consul [the first year of his reign], Claudius permitted the Jews in Alexandria and his whole empire to live according to their own laws and the customs of their ancestors. Along with this, he advised them that under this grace, they should live the more modestly and warily and that they should not abuse the religions of the other countries. They should be content quietly to enjoy their own customs and traditions. (Josephus, l.19. c.4.
)When the Jews grew so numerous at Rome, the city could scarcely hold them without tumults. He did not eject them but forbid those who lived after their own laws to hold meetings. Also he disbanded the clubs which Caius had allowed and abolished the taverns where they met and drank. (*Dio, l.60. 7:383)
- Through his letters, Claudius commended Agrippa to all the governors of the provinces. He sent King Agrippa into his own kingdom to take care of it. Agrippa made a very large great expedition and came to Jerusalem and paid his vows. He omitted nothing prescribed by the law. He ordered many Nazarites to be shaven and hung up in the holy temple over the treasury, a gold chain which he had received from Caius, as a memorial of his many miseries and happy deliverances by God. When he had duly performed his vows to God, he removed Theophilus, the son of Ananius, from the high priesthood and appointed Simon surnamed Cantharus in his place. Simon was the son of Boethus whose daughter Herod the Great had married. He gained the good will and gratitude of the people at Jerusalem by remitting a tribute to them which they annually paid from every house. He made Silas master over all the militia, who was his constant companion in all his difficulties and plans. (Josephus, l.19. c.5.
- A little after this, certain rash young men of the Doris people, under pretence of religion, erected a statue to Caesar in the temple at Jerusalem. Agrippa, the king of the Jews, was very angry and immediately went to Petronius into Syria and complained of the impudent boldness of them. Petronius was equally offended by this impious action and that it went directly against the laws of the empire. He wrote very sharply to the magistrates of the Doris people that they should send those bound to him whoever they were, who dared do such actions which were so contrary to the emperor's edicts. He ordered them to never let that happen again. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.5,6.
- At Caesarea, Cornelius who was a Roman centurion of a company which belonged to the Italian band, favoured the Jewish religion and studied it. He was uncircumcised. [The Hebrews usually called such people, "Proselytes of the Gate", and the "Godly of the Nations".] About the ninth hour of the day [3 pm], he was ordered by an angel who appeared to him, to send for Simon Peter. Simon had stayed a long time at the house of Simon a tanner. Cornelius obeyed the command and sent two of his household servants and a godly soldier who was one of those who were constantly with him. (Acts 10:1-8; Acts 9:43)
- The next day as they journeyed and came near the city, Peter ascended to the housetop to pray about the sixth hour [noon]. While he was waiting for dinner to be prepared, he became hungry. He saw a large linen sheet coming down from heaven full of all kinds of animals. He was ordered to freely eat without regard to what he ate. By this object lesson, Peter was taught that the Gentiles were not to be considered unclean. The next day, Peter arrived at Caesarea with the men who were sent by Cornelius and six brethren who accompanied them from Joppa. Peter found at Cornelius' house, his whole family. They were converted to the faith in Christ and the Spirit of God descended on them all of his own accord without any laying on of hands by Peter. Then Peter baptized them into Christ. (Acts 10:9-48; Acts 11:5-17)
- The apostles and brethren who were at Judea and heard that the Gentiles also had received the Word of God. When Peter came to Jerusalem, there arose a contention between those who had been converted from Judaism to Christ and Peter because Peter had associated with uncircumcised persons and ate with them. When Peter had told them everything that had happened and proved it by the testimony of the six who were with him, they were satisfied. They glorified God who also had given repentance to life to the Gentiles. (Acts 11:1-18)
- King Agrippa removed Simon Cantheras from the high priesthood. When he would have given it to Jonathan, the son of Ananus, he declined from modesty and because he had held the office before. Jonathan recommended it be given to Matthias, his brother since he thought his brother was more worthy than himself. (Josephus, l.19. c.6. <1:521>)
- Vibius Marsus succeeded Petronius as governor in the province of Syria. (Josephus, l.19. c.6. <1:521>)
- Silas was the general to King Agrippa's cavalry. All along he had been faithful to him and shared every danger with him and was a very close friend of Agrippa. Silas began to desire equal honours with the king because of his close friendship. Sometimes he praised himself beyond all modesty and recalled the hard times they had gone through together. He did this so often that he very highly exasperated the king against him. Agrippa was so fed up that he removed Silas from his command and sent him bound to his own country to be kept. A little later, the king was to celebrate his birthday and he sent for Silas to attend the kingly feast. Silas returned such a churlish answer that the king left him with his keepers. (Josephus, l.19. c.7. <1:521,522>)
- King Agrippa now turned his attention to Jerusalem. He fortified the walls of the part which was called the new city [Bezethal], and made the gates wider and higher than they had been before. He did all this at the public expense. He would have completed the walls so that they would be impregnable by human force had not Marsus, the president of Syria, written letters to Claudius about this. The emperor suspected that the Jews were about to attempt some sedition and wrote earnestly to Agrippa that he should stop this work and he immediately obeyed. (Josephus, l.19. c.7. <1:522>)
- A door of faith was now opened to the Gentiles. The men of Cyprus and Cyrene who were scattered to Antioch after the martyrdom of Stephen and preached Christ to the Greeks. [It is Ellhnaj in the oldest book of Alexandria has it, not as the common edition Ellhnisaj] There was a large number who believed and turned to the Lord. When the church at Jerusalem heard this, they sent Barnabas there who admonished them all to stedfastly adhere to the Lord. A large company were added to the Lord. (Acts 11:20-24)
- A severe famine raged at Rome. Claudius provided plenty of provisions for the present need and also took care for the future. Since most of the grain and other provisions came from foreign lands and the mouth of Tiber had no good ports, Claudius built the port Ostia. (*Dio, l. 60. 7:393,395) After eleven years it was barely finished, although he kept 30,000 men working at it constantly. (Suetonius, Claudius, c.20.)
- This famine happened in the second year of Claudius. There was a notable famine also in his eleventh year of which others have mentioned. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.43.; Suetonius, Claudius, c.18.; Orosius, l.7. c.6.) This was not that world wide famine which was foretold by Agabus. It began in the fourth year of Claudius as evident from history. (Eusebius, Chronicles; Orosius, l.7. c.6.) This famine happened at the same time as Herod Agrippa's death. (Acts 12:23-25)
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- Barnabas went to Tarsus to find Saul. When he had located him, he brought him to Antioch. It came to pass that for a whole year, they met together in the church and taught a large multitude. The disciples were first called Christians at Antioch. This name was derived in Latin form and not from the Greek form of Christ. It seems to have been created by some Romans who were then at Antioch.
- About this time, the prophets went down from Jerusalem to Antioch. One of these was Agabus who made known by the Spirit that there would come a severe famine in the whole world. (Acts 11:27,28)
- Claudius brought the Lycians again to his servitude who had revolted and killed many Romans. He added their country to the prefecture of Pamphylia. While he was examining this business in court, he asked in Latin a certain ambassador who was born of Lycian parents but born at Rome. When the ambassador did not understand Latin, Claudius deprived him of his Roman citizenship and said it was not fitting that he should be a Roman who could not speak Latin. (*Dio, l.60. 7:411)
- King Agrippa build at enormous cost at Berytus a theatre, amphitheatre, baths and porches. He celebrated the dedication of them most sumptuously. He held shows in the theatre of all kinds of musical performances of the greatest variety. In the amphitheatre he held many gladiatorial games. Furthermore, because he desired to gratify and please the spectators, he had two troops of 700 criminals to be brought and to fight with each other. This presentation of war concurred as well to the punishment of the malefactors as to the delight of those who loved peace. So they were all killed by one another's mutual wounds. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.ult.
- At last, the kings came to Agrippa at Tiberius in Galilee, Antiochus of Commagene, Sampsigeranus of the Emesa, Cotys of the Lesser Armenia, Ptolemon of Pontus and his brother Herod, king of Calcis. While they were all together, Marsus, the governor of Syria also came. Therefore, Agrippa paid his due respects to the Romans and went to meet him even to the seventh road marker, [about a mile.] When Agrippa rode in the same chariot with his guests, Marsus distrusted the friendship of so many kings. Therefore he sent his messengers to every one in particular to depart without delay. Agrippa was most grievously offended by this so that he hated Marsus. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.ult.
)Agrippa very often solicited Claudius by his letters, to remove Marsus from being governor of Syria. (Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c.1. )
- Agrippa removed the high priesthood from Matthias, the son of Ananus, and gave it to Elioneus, the son of Cantheras. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.ult.
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- The famine foretold by Agabus increased and the Christians of Antioch, collected a gift for their friends who lived in Judea. They sent it by Barnabas and Saul after they preached for a whole year preached the word of the Lord to the people of Antioch. (Acts 11:26,29,30)
- About this time King Herod Agrippa, [as the Syriac paraphrase correctly called him] laid hands on them who belonged to the church (Acts 12:1) because they opposed the institutions and rites of their country of which Agrippa was a most religious observer. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.ult.
- Agrippa killed James, [the son of Zebedee] the brother of John with a sword. (Acts 12:2) Clement Alexandria added from the tradition of his anscestors (Clement, Institutions, l.7.; *Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, l.2. c.9. 1:58) that the very same man who brought James into judgment became a Christian. He saw how freely he gave testimony of Jesus and that he publicly confessed he was a Christian in spite of having received most severe warnings. Therefore when they were brought both together for punishment, he desired James' forgiveness and James considered little of it and said: "Peace be to you."
- James kissed him and so later they were both beheaded.
- When the king saw that the death of James pleased the people, he cast Peter into prison during the days of the feast of unleavened bread. He was guarded by four quaternions [sixteen] soldiers. Agrippa intended after the passover to being him out to the people. The church prayed daily for him and an angel of the Lord delivered him miraculously in the night. He went to the house of Mary the mother of John Mark where many met and prayed. After he told them of his deliverance that they might inform James, the son of Alphaeus and brother of our Lord, and the rest. Peter then went into another place. (Acts 12:3-17)
- Herod Agrippa was frustrated and in a rage he ordered the innocent keepers to be dragged to execution. He travelled down to Caesarea and stayed there. He was displeased with the people of Tyre and Sidon whose land was not sufficient to maintain them [especially in that year of famine] and they were forced to seek sustenance from Galilee and other places under Herod's jurisdiction. Therefore, they came unanimously to him through the mediation of Blastus the king's chamberlain, whom they had made their friend and desired peace with him. A day was appointed and Herod in his royal attire, sat before the tribunal and made a speech to them. The people with acclamations shouted out that this was the voice of a god not a man. Immediately, an angel of the Lord smote him because he did not give the glory to God. He was eaten up by worms and he died. (Acts 12:18-23)
- The historian Josephus mentions this and added an owl appeared to him lest the prophecy of his German prophet would be void. "When Agrippa had now finished the third year of his reign and was starting his fourth year, he went to Caesarea which was formerly called Strato's Tower. He solemnized some annual plays for Caesar's health which were attended by a large number of noble men and youngsters from all the province. On the second day of this celebrity, he went all attired with his princely robes. These were richly and intricately woven with silver, which by the reflection of the rising sun produced an angelical or extraordinary lustre. This struck reverence in the spectators. Immediately some wicked men shouted from the distance and greeted him as a god and desired that he would be propitious to them. Before this, they had only honoured him as a man but now they saw there was something more in him than human. He neither refused nor repelled this impious adulation. A little later, he looked up and saw over his head on owl sitting on a rope that was extended for some occasion. He immediately knew that as this which had been a token of his good fortune, was now a sign of his ruin and he was struck to the very heart. Later his belly began to torment him more and more grievously. Therefore he turned to his friends, he said. "Behold I who by your greeting was called god, am now ordered from this life. My certain fate gives the lie to your flattery. I whom you greeted as immortal, am forced to die. I must endure the wishes of providence, for I have not lived poorly nor so happily that all men may call me blessed." When he had said those things his pain grew worse and worse. Immediately those things were told around the country and the rumour went out that he was dying. Therefore immediately all the people with their wives and children were in sackcloth after their country's manner, praying to God for the health of their king. They made all places ring with their lamentations and howling. As the king was laying on a high bed and looked down and saw the people prostrate on their faces, he could not stop weeping. His pain lasted in great extremity and without intermission for five days time and then he died. (Josephus, Antiq. l.19. c.ult.
- Josephus stated he reigned for seven years, four under Caius [less three or four months, for Caius himself did not rule four whole years] and three under Claudius [adding in like manner three or four months.] He stated that his yearly revenue came to 12,000,000 drachmas and because he was so noble and generous that this was not enough and he was forced to borrow money. (Josephus, Antiq. l.19. c.ult.
- Before the king's death was known, Herod of the king of Chalcis and Chelcias, the general of the cavalry, conferred together and sent Aristo to kill Silas, their common enemy as if by Agrippa's orders. (Josephus, Antiq. l.19. c.ult.
- Agrippa left only one son named Agrippa who was seventeen and was being educated at Rome with Claudius. He left three daughters, of whom Bernice was married to Herod her uncle at the age of sixteen and the other were still virgins. Mariamme was ten years old and was betrothed by her father to Julius Archelaus Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus, the son of Chelcias. Drusilla was six years old and betrothed to the king of the Commagenians. (Josephus, Antiq. l. 19. c.ult.
- When it was known for sure that Agrippa was dead, the people of Caesarea and Sebaste [two cities which were built by his father] acted like enemies of the dead prince. The common soldiers, with one consent, dragged his and his daughters' statues from of the palace and brought them into the brothels. They abused them in such calumnious ways that it is a shame to recount. They made feasts and banquets in all public places. They were very happy and adorned themselves with garlands and anointed their bodies. They sacrificed and made offerings to Charon and even worshipped one another for the joy they had by the death of the king. (Josephus, Antiq. l.19. c.ult.
- The Word of God was sown, increased and multiplied. Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem. When they had finished their ministry there, they took along with them John Mark. (Acts 12:24,25)
- Claudius deprived the Rhodians of their liberty because they had crucified some Romans. (*Dio, l.60. p. 681.)
- When Claudius wanted to send the young Agrippa into his kingdom, to succeed his father, his freedman and friends, who could do much with him, dissuaded him. They said it was dangerous to commit so large a kingdom to so young a youth who had barely reached manhood. He was very unqualified to rule there since the kingdom required a large force of soldiers to keep it. Claudius could not deny that they spoke rationally and truly. (Josephus, Antiq., l.19. c.ult.
)Although indeed their aim was at the prefectureship of that kingdom and by this to make themselves rich. Tacitus stated: (Tacitus, History, l.5. c.9.) "When the kings had either all died or lost most of their territory, Claudius made Judah a prefecture to be governed by Roman equestrians or freedmen."
- Therefore Claudius made Cuspius Fadus, governor of Judea and all the kingdom of Agrippa, [which was much larger than the first Herod, his grandfather.] Claudius honoured the dead king in this in that he would not bring Marsus, his enemy, into his kingdom. He ordered Fadus to severely chastise the cities of Caesarea and Sebaste for their ingratitude to their dead king and the contumely against his daughters who were still alive. He wanted the troops from Caesarea and Sebaste, along with the fifth cohort to make war in Pontus. He would substitute in their place, soldiers chosen from the Romans who were ordered to defend Syria. Later, the soldiers sent an ambassador to Claudius and obtained permission to stay in Judea. In later times they were involved in the most grievous calamity to the Jews and sowed the seeds of that war which started when Florus was governor. (Josephus, Antiq. l.19. c.fin.
- Josephus wrote (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.1. <1:525>) that Claudius moved Marsus as a favour to his dead friend, Agrippa and he made Cassius Longinus governor of Syria in his place. Tacitus stated this happened three years later.
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- The Jews who lived beyond the Jordan River, had a dispute with the Philadelphians about the limits of the town Mia, a place full of most warlike people. The Jews who lived on the other side of the river, had taken up arms without the knowledge or consent of their rulers and killed many of the Philadelphians. When Caspius knew this, he was greatly offended that they did not let him decide the matter if the Jews thought that the Philadephians had done them any wrong rather than so rashly take up arms on their own accord against them. Therefore, he captured three of the ringleaders and had them bound. He executed Hannibal and banished Amaram and Eleazar. Not long after this, he took and condemned Tholomy to death, who was the leader of the robbers and had done many wrongs to Idumea and Arabia. He tried to eliminate all the robbers from the whole country of Judea. (Josephus, l.20. c.1. <1:525>)
- When Cassius Longinus [whom Tacitus thought was Vibius Marsus] was governor of Syria, he went to Jerusalem with his army, together with Caspius Fadus, the procurator of the Jews. They convened the priests and chief of the Jews and plainly showed to them the full intent of the emperor's commands. They were to store the clothes of the high priest in the tower of Antonia where the Romans would guard them as was done in the time of Vitellius. The Jews dared not oppose them in anything but desired time to send an ambassador to Caesar to try to gain the favour of him that they might not be deprived of the privilege of keeping the holy clothes. They also wanted nothing to be done until Caesar had replied. Fadus and Longinus said they would allow this if they would first give hostages while they waited for Caesar's reply. They readily turned over their children and sent away the ambassadors. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.ult.
; Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.1. <1:525>)
- At the church at Antioch there were prophets and teachers as Barnabas and Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Menahem, who was educated together with Herod the Tetrarch and Saul. All served God and fasted. The Holy Ghost ordered Barnabas and Saul to separate themselves from the rest and to start preaching the gospel. These were commended to God by the church with fasting and praying and laying on of hands. They took with them, John Mark, a servant and came to Seleucia. From there they sailed into Cyprus, [Barnabas' country] where they first began to preach the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews at Salamis. (Acts 13:1-4)
- They travelled over that island as far as Paphas and they found a false Jewish prophet, Barjesus, surnamed Elymas or Magus. He tried to turn away Sergius Paulus, the ruler of that country, who had a desire to hear Saul and Barnabas. Saul sharply reproved this man and he was immediately struck with blindness. The proconsul was stirred with this miracle and the gospel and was converted to the faith. From this time on, Saul was always called by the name of Paul. He and those that came with him to Paphos went to Perga of Pamphylia, where John Mark left them and returned to Jerusalem. (Acts 13:6-13)
- The ambassadors from Jerusalem through the intercession of Agrippa, who was then with Claudius, obtained the confirmation of that privilege of keeping the holy garments which was first granted to them by Vitellius. These also received a written ruling to take to the magistrates at Jerusalem from the emperor about this matter in the fifth year of his tribunal power. This was dated June 27th [4th calends of July] when Rufus and Pompeius Sylvanus were consuls by Claudius to gratify Herod the king of Chalcis and Aristobulus the younger, his most endeared friends, so that herein he would gratify them. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.ult.
; Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.1. <1:525,526>)
- About the same time, Herod the king of Chalcis, successfully petitioned Claudius for the authority over the temple and holy treasury and the right of choosing the high priests. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.1. <1:525,526>)
- Since there was to be an eclipse of the sun on his birthday and because of some other portents that had already happened, Claudius was afraid lest it might be an occasion for some sedition. Before the time, he wrote and had it known that there would be an eclipse. He noted the very time, space, and all the natural causes of it and showed that it was inevitable. (*Dio, l. 60. 7:433,435) The birthday of Claudius was on the first of August (*Dio, l.60. (*Dio, l.60. 7:379) on which day the sun was eclipsed about two hours before noon to a fourth part of its diameter.
- Herod, king of Chalcis, removed Simon Cantheras and placed Joseph the son of Camus [or Camydes] in the high priesthood. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.1. <1:526>)
- Theudas, a mere impostor, pretended himself to be a prophet and persuaded a large number of the Jews to take their riches with them and follow him to Jordan. He promised them that he would divide the river and make an easy way for them to pass through. Fabius Caspius, the procurator of the Jews, sent out some cavalry troops who overtook the company by surprise and killed a large number of them and took many alive. Theudas was beheaded and they took his head to Jerusalem. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.2. fin.
- Paul and Barnabas left Perga and came to Antioch in Pisidia. They entered into their synagogues on the sabbath day after the reading of the law and the prophets. They were invited by the rulers of the synagogue to teach. After Paul had preached an excellent sermon, the Jews left the synagogue. However, the Gentiles asked that they would expound the same things to them the next sabbath day. After they had broken up, many devout Jews and religious proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas. They spoke to them and admonished them to continue in the grace and favour of God. (Acts 13:14-43)
- The next sabbath almost all the city came flocking to hear the Word of God. When the Jews saw the multitude, they were filled with envy and opposed what Paul taught with blasphemies. Paul and Barnabas were grievously offended and they left the Jews and preached only to the Gentiles. They joyfully embraced the gospel and all believed who were ordained to eternal life. The Word of God was spread over that whole country. The Jews were frustrated in their malicious designs and stirred up many honourable religious women, [called by the Jews, Proselytes of the Gate] and the chief men in the city. They raised a commotion and drove Paul and Barnabas from their region. Paul and Barnabas shook the dust off their feet against them and travelled to Iconium. The disciples were filled with joy and the Holy Ghost. (Acts 13:44-52)
- At Iconium, Paul and Barnabas entered the synagogue of the Jews and spoke so that a large number of Jews and Greeks believed. The unbelieving Jews exasperated and prejudiced the minds of the Greeks against the brethren. However, they stayed there a long time and spoke freely as inspired by the Lord who gave testimony to the word of his grace and did many miracles by their hands. (Acts 14:1-3) At which time Thecla, a noble maid of Iconium, was thought to be converted to Christ. Her acts are most deservedly recorded among the Apocrypha by the LXX by a synod of bishops who met under Gelasius.
- The multitude of Iconium was divided. Some were for the Jews and some for the apostles. When it came to pass that a number of Jews and Gentiles together with their chief rulers came to assault and stone them, they fled away into the cities of Lycaonia, Lystra, Derbe and the surrounding regions and preached the gospel there. (Acts 14:4-7)
- At Lystra, a man who was born lame, was healed by Paul. When the Lystrians would have sacrificed to Paul as Mercury, and Barnabas as Jupiter, they tore their clothes, refused the honour and had much trouble restraining the multitude from sacrificing to them. Soon after, the unbelieving Jews came there from Iconium and Antioch and raised a tumult and excited the people against them. The furious multitude stoned Paul and threw his body out of the city for they thought he was dead. When his disciples came around him, he arose and entered the city. (Acts 14:8-20)
- In this year and it may be at this very time, Paul was taken into the third heavens and heard unspeakable words fourteen years before the second epistle to the Corinthians was written. (2 Corinthians 12:2-4) This may be the event that is thought to refer to that of Triephon in Lucian or the more ancient author of that dialogue written by Philopatris. "When I met that Jewish bald head, I justly laughed at him who was wrapped up into the very third heavens through the air. He learned there those things that were most excellent and glorious. He renewed us by water and made us walk in the steps of the blessed and redeemed us from the dominions of the wicked."
- So Triephon: "God reigned on high, great, heavenly, and eternal, the Son of the Father, the Spirit, proceeding from the Father, one of three, and three of one."
- In a similar manner, the Christians used to preach.
- Paul with Barnabas left Lystra and came to Derbe. They preached the gospel there and had many converts to Christ. (Acts 14:20,21)
- Among many others who were converted to Christ at this time, was Timothy with his holy mother Eunice and his grandmother Lois, who took care to teach him the Scriptures from his very infancy. Timothy was there and although he was still a child, he was an eye witness of the sufferings of his spiritual father, Paul at Antioch [in Pisidia] Iconium and Lystra [in Lycaonia.] (Acts 16:1,2; 2 Timothy 1:2-5; 2 Timothy 3:11-15)
- Paul and Barnabas went no further than Derbe and returned to Lystra Iconium and to Antioch. They confirmed the minds of the disciples and exhorted them to endure affliction for their faith's sake without wavering. They appointed bishops over them in everyone of their churches and prayed for them with fasting. They commended them to God in whom they believed. Later they travelled over Pisidia and came into Pamphylia. After they had declared and published the word of the Lord at Perga, they crossed to Attalia and sailed to Antioch from where they started. They told to the congregated churches what God had done through them and how he had opened the door of faith to the Gentiles. (Acts 14:21-27)
- Tiberius Alexander replaced Caspius Fidus as the governor of the Jewish government. He was the son of Alexander, the alabarch of Alexandria [an old friend of Claudius'] who had forsaken the Jewish religion. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.3.
- A little after this when the news spread through all Judea, Helena the queen of Adiabene [in the confines of Assyria and Mesopotamia] was converted by a certain Jew to the worship of the true God and came to visit the temple at Jerusalem. She wanted to worship the true God there and to pay her vows and made ample provision for her journey. She was delayed for a few days by her son Izates, who was then king, and later converted to the same religion by Ananias, a Jewish merchant. When she saw many of the Jews starving from famine, she sent some to Alexandria for a large quantity of wheat which she paid for by herself. She sent others to Cyprus to get a large quantity of figs to their relief. These quickly returned and she divided all the food to those who needed it. When her son, Izates heard of the hardships caused by the famine, he sent money to the chief magistrates at Jerusalem. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.2,3.
- Izates, the king, sent his five sons to Jerusalem to learn their language and customs correctly. His mother Helena also erected three pyramids about 600 yards from Jerusalem in which the bones of her son, Izates were entombed. (Josephus, Antiq. l.20. c.2.
)The monuments of Helena were extant, not only in the time of Josephus, but in Eusebius also. (Josephus, Wars, l.5. bell. kef. n. & is in Greek, or l.6. cap. 6 & 7. in Latin,; *Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, l.2. c.12. p. 61; Jerome, Epistle 27.)
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- Paul and Barnabas stayed at Antioch with the disciples for a long time. (Acts 14:28) After that, Paul, as it appears, preached the gospel even to Illyricum to those who never heard it before. (Romans 15:19,20) He suffered those things there which he mentioned in his second epistle to the Corinthians. (2 Corinthians 11:24-26) He mentioned that he had been whipped with rods at Philippi and twice elsewhere by the Gentiles. Five times he received 39 stripes from the Jews. He had been shipwrecked three times and was all night in the deep. We find that five years elapsed between the return of Paul and Barnabas to Antioch and their going to the council at Jerusalem. We cannot place these things better anywhere else than in so large a vacuum and silence in the history of the church.
- When Valerius Asiaticus was again consul, the island of Therasia rose from the Aegean Sea (Seneca, Natural Quest., l.2. c.26. & l.6. c.21.] on a night when the moon was eclipsed. (Aurelius Victor, in Claudius) This eclipse was seen the last night of December [which ended the year when Valerius Asiaticus was consul for the second time] and the first of January which began the consulships of Claudius [fourth time] and Lucius Vitellius [third time.] This little island appeared for the first time near Thera. (*Dio, l.60. 8:5)
- James and Simon the sons of Judas of Galilee were crucified because in Qurinius' time, they incited the Jews to revolt. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.3.
- Herod, the king of Chalcis, removed Joseph the son of Camydus, and made Ananias the son of Nebedaeus the high priest in his place. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.3.
- Gotarzes prepared to kill Artabanus, the king of the Parthians, with his wife and son. (Tacitus, Annals, l.11. c.8.) However, Artabanus died and left his kingdom to his son, Bardanes. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.2.) Tacitus stated that Gotarzes and Bardanes were brothers and Josephus thought them to be Artabanus' sons.
- Bardanes was invited by the Parthians [who feared the cruelty of Gotarzes] to be their king. He was always an adventurous man and in two days had covered 350 miles and invaded Gotarzes. He was terrified by his sudden coming. Without delay Bardanes seized the next provinces also. Only the city of Seleucia refused to submit. Since they had also revolted against his father, he was very angry with them. He unwisely wasted time and besieged their very strong city which was fortified on the one side by a river and on the other with a very strong guard. In the interim, Gotarzes with the help of the Dahae and Hyrcanians, recruited his forces and renewed the war. Thereupon Bardanes was forced to abandon the siege of Seleucia and withdraw to Bactria. (Tacitus, Annals, l.11. c.8.)
- The news of the Parthian discord and that they were fighting to appoint a new king reached Rome. Mithridates, the king of Armenia the Greater, was advised by Claudius Caesar to march into Armenia. He trusted in the power and wealth of his brother Pharasmanes, the king of the Iberians. Indeed, the affairs of the east were in such a turmoil, that Mithridates took over Armenia. The Roman soldiers subdued the citadels and strong forts while the Iberian army held the field. The Armenians did not resist for Demonactes, their general was killed in a battle. Immediately, Cotys, the king of Armenia the Less advanced there but Caesar changed his mind through letters he sent him. All the countries rallied to Mithridates, who behaved more harshly than was fitting for a new king. (Tacitus, Annals, l.11. c.8,9.)
- Gotarzes and Bardanes were about to fight. Gotarzes showed his brother the treachery of the people and they shook hands and swore at an altar to revenge themselves on each others' enemies. They made peace between themselves. Bardanes appeared better to hold the kingdom so Gotarzes, to avoid all strife, retired into Hyrcania. (Tacitus, Annals, l.11. c.9.)
- When Bardanes returned, Seleucia surrendered in the seventh year after its defection. After this he invaded the strongest provinces and planned to recover Armenia. Vibius Marsus [or, according to Josephus, Cassius Longinus] who was the governor of Syria, threatened him with war through his ambassador. (Tacitus, Annals, l.11. c.9.)
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- Ventidius Cumanus replaced Tiberius Alexander in the government of the Jews and Herod, the king of Chalcis brother of that great Agrippa died in the eighth year of Claudius' reign. He was survived by three sons of whom Aristobulus was by his former wife Mariamme and Berniciansus, and Hyrcanus were sons of Bernice his brother's daughter. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.3.
- As the feast of the passover was approaching, many people came from all parts to the feasts. Cumanus followed the example of the previous governors and set one cohort for a guard on the porch of the temple to preclude any riots. On the fourth day of the feast, one of the soldiers showed his obscene parts to the crowd who cried out and were enraged by that action. [History's first flasher!] They said that the one whom they honoured in that feast was affronted by it and some of the boldest of them railed against Cumanus saying this impudent soldier was sent by him. When Cumanus heard this he was quite troubled and wanted the people to raise no commotions in the time of the feast. When they still railed at him, he commanded the whole army to Antonia, a citadel that adjoined the temple. When the common people saw the soldiers coming, they were afraid. They began to flee in panic and stampeded into a narrow passage and thought that the soldiers had pursued them. They oppressed and trampled one another so that 20,000 of them were found dead. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.4.
)Josephus stated elsewhere that only 10,000 died. (Josephus, Wars, l.2. c.11. ; *Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, l.2. c.19. 1:72)Rufinus noted more than 30,000 perished. Eusebius and Orosius also confirmed Rufinus' number. (Eusebius, Chronicles; Orosius, l.7. c.6.)
- Some who fled and escaped this tumult, robbed Caesar's servant, Steven on the road near Bethhoron about 12 miles from Jerusalem. They took all his bags of treasure. When Cumanus heard this he sent soldiers there with orders to destroy the surrounding villages. In this havock one of the soldiers brought out the books of the Mosaic law which he found in one of those villages. He tore it up in the sight of them all and railed exceedingly against the law and the Jews. When the Jews heard this, they gathered a large company and went to Caesarea where Cumanus lived. They entreated him that he would revenge this act not just for their sakes but for the contempt and wrong of their God. Then the governor was afraid of a revolt among people. Through the advice of his friends, he executed the soldier that had done this and so appeased the people. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.4.
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- Apollonius, the Tyanean, on his journey to the Indians, entered the city of Babylon in the second month of the third year of Bardanes and conferred with the king. (Philostratus, Life of Apollonius, l.1. c.19,20.; Eusebius, in Hierocl.)
- Gotarzes, regretted that he had surrendered his kingdom and was recalled by his nobility who were the more enslaved by the peace. He gathered a large force and fought with Bardanes at the Erindes River in a fierce battle. Bardanes won and with good success he proceeded and subdued the mid countries to the Tedzhen River which divided the Dahae and the Arii. Their his success ended for although the Parthians were conquerors they hated fighting a long way from home. Therefore he erected monuments there glorifying his power and the subjection to peoples that were never before subject to the Parthians. Bardanes returned home with great glory and became much sterner and more intolerable to his subjects. (Tacitus, l.11. c.10.)
- Bardanes went to Izates, the king of Adialene, and tried to persuade him to join with him in a war against the Romans. Izates tried to change his mind by telling him of the Roman acts and their power. Bardanes was offended at this and immediately planed to war against Izates. His death prevented this war. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.2. <1:527>) When the Parthians knew that he planned to make war with the Romans, they surprised and killed him while he was hunting. He died in his prime and was one of the most famous for such a young king. If he had obtained the love of his subjects as he had the fear of his enemies, he might have been numbered among the old ones. (Josephus, Antiq., l.20. c.2. <1:527>; Tacitus, Annals, l.11. c.10.)
- The Parthian affairs were thrown into confusion by the death of Bardanes and they did not know who would be the next king. Many favoured Gotarzes and some wanted Meherdates [the son of Phraates the 4th, the son of Zenones the 1st] who was then a hostage with the Romans. At last Gotarzes prevailed and occupied the throne. He forced the Parthians by his luxury and cruelty to send secretly to Claudius to send them Meherdates to be their king. (Tacitus, Annals, l.11. c.10.) They complained of Gotarzes' cruelty to the nobility and the common people. First Gotarzes killed his brothers then his close relatives then his more distant relatives. He even killed pregnant women and their small children. He was slothful and licentious at home and unlucky in war, he covered his foul deeds by his cruelty. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.10.)
- Didius, the Roman general had deposed Mithridates from the kingdom of Bosphorus and made his son Cotys, a rash young fellow, king there. Didius led away the power of the army and left the new king with only a few cohorts under the command of Julius Aquila, a Roman equestrian. When Mithridates had lost everything, he wandered about and incited the countries and gathered from them all the renegades. He got together an army and disposed the king of the Daridaridae and took over his kingdom. (Tacitus, l.12. c.15.)
- After Claudius heard the Parthian ambassadors, he sent Mithridates [or Meherdates] to be their king. He told him that he should not think of himself as an autocrat among slaves but as a guide of free men and that he should show mercy and justice. He ordered C. Cassius, who was governor of Syria that he escort the young man safely to the banks of the Euphrates River. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.11.)
- At this time Cassius excelled all others in his legal skill but was inexperienced in martial affairs since there were no wars going on. He renewed the ancient customs of exercising the legions with the same care as if an enemy had been invading the country. He wanted to live up to the name of the Cassian family and his ancestors who were held in high esteem in those countries. When he had pitched his tents at Zeugma, where the river was easily crossed, he convened those who had voted to make Meherdates king. When the Parthian nobles and the king of the Arabians, Acbarus [or Abgarus] had arrived, he, before them, admonished the young man Meherdates not to delay since that caused people to lose enthusiasm and instigated treachery. Therefore he advised him to press on with his plans quickly. Meherdates despised this good advice through the deceit of Acbarus. Meherdates was young and thought all fortune consisted in luxury and stayed at the town Edessa for many days. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.12.)
- Mithridates was possessed of the kingdom of the Dandaridae and he thought of invading the Bosphorus. Aquila and Cotys, did not think they could handle Mithridates with their own weak forces because Zorsines, king of the Siraci [to Caucasus] had joined with Mithridates. They sent for foreign troops and sent ambassadors to Eunones, who ruled over the country of the Aorsori, [among the Scythians] whose friendship they easily obtained by showing how Mithridates had rebelled against the Romans. Therefore they agreed that Eunones should fight the cavalry battles and the Romans would handle the besieging of their cities. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.15.)
- After they had marshalled their forces, they advanced. The Romans and Bosphorans defended each wing of Aorsus from before and behind. After they had driven the enemy back, they came to Soza, a town of the Dandaridae which was abandoned by Mithridates because the loyalty of the people was suspect. The invading forces thought it best to take it and leave a garrison there. They went on into the country of the Siracians. After they crossed the Panda River they besieged Uspe which was defended by walls and ditches. The walls were not made of stone, but wickerwork hurdles with earth between and were weak. From the high seige towers, they attacked the besieged with firebrands and spears. Had night not intervened and stopped the battle, the place would have been captured the same day. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.16.)
- The next day ambassadors, unsuccessfully asked that they might go free who were free born and offered 10,000 slaves. The conquerors despised this offer because it would be cruelty to kill those who had surrendered and dangerous to keep such a large company of prisoners. They decided to let the matter be settled in a battle. They ordered the soldiers, who scaled the walls, to kill everyone in the city. The rest of the country was terrified by the destruction of Uspe. They saw that eminent and fortified places were of no value but the enemy broke through rivers and all. Zorsines thought hard about the future of his alliance with Mithridates and if he should rather attend to his own distressed country. At last he abandoned Mithridates and gave hostages to the Romans. He fell down at the image of Caesar, in respect to the great glory of the Roman army, who were victorious. The Romans were unscathed and triumphant and were only a three day's journey from the Tanais River. Their return journey was not so successful. Some of their returning ships ran aground on the coasts of the Tuarians. The barbarians surrounded them and killed the captain of their cohort and many more. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.17.)
- In the interim Mithridates had no relief and tried to decide whose mercy he had best seek. His brother Cotys, who was formerly his traitor, he now feared would be his enemy. There was none of the Romans of sufficient authority for his promises to carry much weight. He fled to Eunones, entered his palace, fell at his feet and said: "Mithridates hunted for by sea and land for so many years, behold, is now present of his own accord. Use as you please the son of great Achamenes, for my enemies have taken all other help from me."
- Eunones was moved with the honour of the person, the change of his fortune and his generous petition. He wrote to Caesar and sent ambassadors to entreat Claudius not to restore Mithridates' kingdom, not to have him in a triumph nor put him to death. Claudius was undecided whether to punish or pardon him. At last he decided to grant a more merciful sentence. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.18-20.)
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- Carrenes sent for Mehardates to take over the kingdom and told him it would be very easy if he came without delay. Mehardates was given bad advice and did not go straight to Mesopotamia but took a more round about way through Armenia at the start of the winter season which was a difficult time to travel. They were exhausted by the journey through the mountains when they finally arrived in the plain country. They joined forces with Carrenes and crossed the Tigris River. They marched across Adiabene, whose King Izites was publicly friendly with Mehardates but privately loyal to Gotarzes. In spite of their journey, they captured the ancient Assyrian capital city of Ninos. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.12,13.)
- Mithridates of Bosphorus was brought to Rome by Junius Cilo, the procurator of Pontus. He is said to have addressed Caesar somewhat more highly than his condition warranted and that he said these words: "I am not sent back to you, but I have come back. If you do not believe me, let me go again-- and then try to catch me."
- His countenance continued undaunted, when at the rostrum he was exposed to public view and hemmed in on all sides with guards. Consular ensigns were given to Cilo and the praetorian ones to Aquila. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.21.)
- The Bithynians accused Junius Cilo their prefect of taking many large bribes. They spoke before Claudius in a riotous fashion and Claudius did not understand what they meant. He asked those who stood by what they said. They lied and replied that they thanked him for Junius Cilo. Claudius believed it and said: "Let him therefore be their procurator for two more years." (*Dio, l.60. 8:25)
- At this time the Bithynians accused Cadius Rufus, their governor, of extortion and he was condemned. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.22.; Tacitus, Histories, l.1. c.77.)
- When the King Sohaemus of Ituraea and King Agrippa of Judea were dead, their countries are added to the province of Syria. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12. c.23.) Indeed the years of Agrippa the younger's reign were calculated from Josephus. He stated that the beginning of the Jewish war [which started in May 66 AD] was in the 17th year of King Agrippa. (Josephus, Wars, l.2. c.13. fin. kef ke init.] It is also calculated from the Greek money which stated that when Judea was taken [about September 70 AD], it was the 21st year of Agrippa. Claudius did not give his father's kingdom of Judea to Agrippa the younger, but to his uncle Herod of Chalcis. Herod also received authority over the temple and holy treasury and to choose the high priests, which was granted before to his uncle Herod. [??] His father's kingdom was added to Syria so that it should have a procurator there. However by Caesar's choice Ventidius Cumanus [as formerly] retained at this time the administration of Judea and Galilee and Felix was sent as procurator for Samaria which was between them. Felix was a freedman of Claudius and his mother. Antonius, had the surname Antonius from her and Claudius from him. He was the brother of another freedman, Pallantes, whom Tacitus notes to have been most affectionately beloved by his patron Claudius. (Tacitus, Annals, l.12.? c.53.?)
Wednesday, January 27th, 2021
the Third Week after Epiphany
the Third Week after Epiphany