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Offerings

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(See OFFERING).

I. Waving before Jehovah ( הֵנַי לַפְנֵי יְהוֹה or תְּנוּפָה ) occurs as a special ceremony by the priests in the Jewish ritual not only in connection with meat-offerings (Exodus 29:24 [Leviticus 8:27]; Numbers 5:25), in the case of the first-fruits and the first-born (Leviticus 23:11 sq.), but also of bloody offerings, whether (especially in thank- offerings) of single pieces only, as the breast or right shoulder or fore-leg (Exodus 29:26 sq.; Leviticus 7:30; Leviticus 7:34; Leviticus 9:21; Leviticus 10:14; Numbers 6:20), or of the whole animal (a lamb, Leviticus 19:12; Leviticus 19:24; Leviticus 23:23), which was waved before Jehovah in token of presentation; and this principle extended even to the persons of the Levites as an initiatory rite to their office (Numbers 8:11; Numbers 8:15). The waving in case of meat-offerings or pieces of animals was performed upon (with) the hands (Exodus 29:24; Leviticus 8:27; according to the rabbins, it was held upon the hands of the offerers, beneath which were placed those of the priest [Tosi4phta, Menach. 7:17], so as to fiulfil the requirement of Exodus 29:24; Numbers 6:19-20; while whole animals were waved by the hands of the priest alone [Mishna, Menach. 5:6]); each having previously been laid upon the altar; in the case of whole animals this was done before slaughtering them (Leviticus 14:12; Leviticus cf., 24 sq.). It consisted, according to the rabbins (Mishna, Meienach. 5:6), like the porricere of the Romans (Macrob. Sat. 3:2), also the obmovere or commovere (Cato, Res Rust. 134) in certain respects (Zorn, Biblioth. Antiq. 1:74), of a forward and backward motion upward of the articles; while living objects were simply moved to and fro. Whether the motion was ever to the right and left is uncertain, although the import of the word הֵנַי (see Isaiah 30:28; Deuteronomy 20:25) would justify such an opinion, which, moreover, would be highly significant. The act, at all events, indicates a festive surrender to Jehovah as a personal service like the peace-offering; beyond this all is speculation (Bahr, Symbol. 2:376 sq.; see Reland, Antiq. Sacr. page 276). See WAVE- OFFERING.

II. Heaving ( הֵרַים or תְּרוּמָה ) is associated with the tossing (Exodus 29:27), as the heave-shoulder (הִתְּרוּמָה שׁוֹק ) occurs almor, with the wave-breast (Exodus 29:27; Leviticus 7:30; Leviticus 7:32; Leviticus 7:34), and what is called (Exodus 38:24) wave-gold is also called heave-gold (Numbers 31:52). Indeed, the Jews scarcely distinguish between the two ( תְּרוּמֶה and תְּנוּפָה ) as ritualistic acts, but explain each as an upward and downward motion (Mishna, Menach. 5:6), a sort of elevatio. Both would thus stand as generally expressive of supreme consecration to God as the universal Owner and Giver (see Gesenius, Thesaur. page 866; Bahr, Symbolik, 2:355 sq.; 377). Some moderns incorrectly regard the two acts as identical (Jahn, Archaol. 3:38), or take "heaving" (הֵרַים ) in the vague sense of offerre or auferre (like Gesenius, Thesaur. page 1277), and connect הוּרִם, Exodus 29:27, with מֵאֵיל הִמַּלּאַים, contrary to the accents and the parallelism; but see Kurtz, Mos. Opfer, page 146 sq. (See HEAVE-OFFERING).

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Offerings'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/o/offerings.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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