(1) Seeing that by Christ alone we have access to the Father, there are no true shepherds other than those who come to Christ themselves and bring others there also, neither is any to be thought to be in the true sheepfold but those who are gathered to Christ.
(a) In those days they used to have a servant always sitting at the door, and therefore he speaks after the manner of those days.
(b) This word "parable", which the evangelist uses here, signifies a hidden type of speech, when words are not used with their natural meaning, but are used to signify another thing to us.
(2) It does not matter how many false teachers there have been, neither how old they have been.
(c) These terms must be applied to the matter he speaks of. And therefore when he calls himself the door, he calls all those thieves and robbers who take upon themselves this name of "door", which none of the prophets can do, for they showed the sheep that Christ was the door.
(3) Only Christ is the true Pastor, and those only are the true Church who acknowledge him to properly be their only Pastor: opposite to him are thieves who do not feed the sheep, but kill them: and hirelings also, who forsake the flock in time of danger, because they feed it only for their own profit and gains.
(d) That is, will live safely, as the Jews used to speak (see (Deuteronomy 26:6-10)), and yet there is a special reference to the shepherd's office.
(e) Loves me, allows me.
(4) The calling of the Gentiles.
(f) The distinguishing mark of the Christian Church throughout all the world, is that it has only one head, that is Christ, the only keeper, and only shepherd of it.
(5) Christ is by the decree of the Father the only true shepherd of the true Church, for he willingly gave his life for his sheep, and by his own power rose again to life.
(g) He uses the present tense because Christ's whole life was as it were a perpetual death.
(6) The gospel uncovers hypocrisy, and therefore the world must necessarily rage when the gospel comes forth.
(h) The feast of the dedication was instituted by Judas Maccabeus and his brethren after the restoring of God's true religion, by the casting out of Antiochus' garrison.
(7) The unbelievers and proud men accuse the gospel of darkness, and this very darkness is indeed within themselves.
(8) The doctrine of the gospel is proved from heaven by two witnesses: both by the purity of the doctrine and by miracles.
(9) It is no marvel that only a few believe, seeing that all men are by nature untamed beasts: yet nonetheless God has his own, which he turns into sheep, and commits them unto his Son, and preserves them against the cruelty of all wild beasts.
(i) He gives a reason why they do not believe, that is, because they are not his sheep.
(10) Christ proves his dignity by divine works.
(k) Through my Father's authority and power.
(l) Void and of no effect.
(11) Christ flees danger, not because of mistrust, nor for fear of death, nor that he would be lazy, but to gather a Church in another place.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on John 10". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://pro.studylight.org/
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34