The Argument - In this history the example of patience is set before our eyes. This holy man Job was not only extremely afflicted in outward things and in his body, but also in his mind and conscience, by the sharp temptation of his wife and friends: who by their vehement words and subtle disputations brought him almost to despair. They set forth God as a sincere judge, and mortal enemy to him who had cast him off, therefore in vain he should seek him for help. These friends came to him under pretence of consolation, and yet they tormented him more than all his afflictions did. Even so, he constantly resisted them, and eventually succeeded. In this story we must note that Job maintains a good cause, but handles it badly. His adversaries have an evil matter, but they defend it craftily. Job held that God did not always punish men according to their sins, but that he had secret judgments, of which man knew not the cause, and therefore man could not reason against God in it, but he should be convicted. Moreover, he was assured that God had not rejected him, yet through his great torments and afflictions he speaks many inconveniences and shows himself as a desperate man in many things, and as one that would resist God, and this is his good cause which he handles well. Again the adversaries maintain with many good arguments that God punishes continually according to the trespass, grounding on God's providence, his justice and man's sins, yet their intention is evil; for they labour to bring Job into despair, and so they maintain an evil cause. Ezekiel commends Job as a just man, (Ezekiel 14:14) and James sets out his patience for an example, (James 5:11).
(a) That is, of the country of Idumea, (Lamentations 4:21), or bordering on it: for the land was called by the name of Uz, the son of Dishan, the son of Seir (Genesis 36:28).
(b) Since he was a Gentile and not a Jew and yet is pronounced upright and without hypocrisy, it declares that among the heathen God revealed himself.
(c) By this it is declared what is meant by an upright and just man.
(d) His children and riches are declared, to commend his virtue in his prosperity and his patience and constancy when God took them from him.
(e) Meaning, the Arabians, Chaldeans, Idumeans etc.
(f) That is, commanded them to be sanctified: meaning, that they should consider the faults that they had committed, and reconcile themselves for the same.
(g) That is, he offered for each of his children an offering of reconciliation, which declared his religion toward God, and the care that he had for his children.
(h) In Hebrew it is, "blessed God", which is sometimes taken for blaspheming and cursing, as it is here and in (1 Kings 21:10), (1 Kings 21:13).
(i) While the feast lasted.
(k) Meaning the angels, who are called the sons of God because they are willing to execute his will.
(l) Because our infirmity cannot comprehend God in his majesty, he is set forth to us as a King, that our capacity may be able to understand that which is spoken of him.
(m) This declares that although Satan is an adversary to God, yet he is compelled to obey him, and do him all homage, without whose permission and appointment he can do nothing.
(n) This question is asked for our infirmity: for God knew where he had come from.
(o) In this is described the nature of Satan, which is always seeking his prey, (1 Peter 5:8).
(p) He fears you not for your own sake, but for the blessing that he received from you.
(q) Meaning, the grace of God, which served Job as a rampart against all temptations.
(r) This signifies that Satan is not able to touch us, but it is God that must do it.
(s) Satan notes the vice to which men are commonly subjected, that is, to hide their rebellion and to be content with God in the time of prosperity which view is disclosed in the time of their adversity.
(t) God does not give Satan power over man to gratify him, but to declare that he has no power over man, but that which God gives him.
(u) That is, went to execute that which God had permitted him to do for else he can never go out of God's presence.
(x) That is, the Arabians.
(y) Which was also done by the craft of Satan, to tempt Job even more grievously, so he might see that not only men were his enemies, but that God made war against him.
(z) This last plague declares that when one plague is past which seems hard to bear, God can send us another far more grievous, to try his and teach them obedience.
(a) Which came not from impatience, but declares that the children of God are not insensible like blocks, but that in their patience they feel affliction and grief of mind: yet they do not rebel against God as the wicked do.
(b) That is, into the belly of the earth, which is the mother of all.
(c) By this he confesses that God is just and good, although his hand is sore on him.
(d) But declared that God did all things according to justice and equity.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Job 1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://pro.studylight.org/
the First Week of Advent